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Nature in philosophy commonlicense

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four lessons about philosophy. Students focused on Nature concept during the centuries, from ancient Greeks till the contemporary ethical approaches.
Last lesson is a brief reflection about Nature during Covid-19 time

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Nature in philosophy commonlicense

  1. 1. etwinning project CCA Climate change awareness 2019-2020 four philosophical lessons NATURE IN PHILOSOPHY
  2. 2. . NATURE IN PHILOSOPHY 1
  3. 3. Nature in Philosophy p. 3 Nature in the Renaissance p. 18 Nature in modern science p. 26 New ethics for Nature p. 35 Nature during covid -19 pandemic p. 43 bibliography index
  4. 4. What is nature? It is not a question that is easy to answer ... in Philosophy it is the set of all existing things considered in its overall form, in the Totality of the Phenomena and forces that manifest themselves in it.
  5. 5. But for what reason does it exist? is it made to please our eyes with its beauty ? Or does it exist for our use and consume ? or, as Covid-19 is showing us, are humans being just “grains of sand” compared to it?
  6. 6. Park Narodowy Bory Tucholskie, Poland
  7. 7. Sintra Cascais Regional Park, Portugal
  8. 8. Plitvice National Park, Croatia
  9. 9. Parco dei monti Sibillini, Italy
  10. 10. Sintra Cascais National Park, PortugalIchkeul National Park, Tunisia
  11. 11. “The Physics” (from the Greek “ta physikà” = "the natural things") is Aristotle's main masterpiece about Nature. In Physics, Aristotle defines Nature as "a source or cause of being moved and of being at rest, in that to which it belongs primarily". In other words, Nature is the principle (“Arché”) within a natural raw material that is the source of all the tendencies to change or rest in a particular way unless stopped. (Aristotle) Natural things stand in contrast to artifacts, which are formed by human artifice, not because of an innate tendency. NATURE is ALIVE
  12. 12. The image of man’s dominion over nature is deeply rooted in Western thought. It first appears, in different forms, in the Book of Genesis. It also reappears as one of the leading images of the emerging ‘new science’ in the 16th century. Francis Bacon puts particular emphasis on this image
  13. 13. In the Novum Organon, Bacon writes: "Let the human race recover that right over nature which belongs to it by divine request."
  14. 14. According to the Genesis the order of creation begins with man, followed by plants, animals, and finally by woman. Adam is put in the Garden of Eden, in order to look after the garden, to cultivate it and to make it prosper (Gen. 2:15). In this story, man appears more as a caretaker, a keeper of nature, or a gardener. Nature is portrayed as a domestic open space: a garden effortlessly ordered and there to be enjoyed. Man appears in a rather unique position vis a vis the rest: he dominates (in different senses of the word ‘dominion’, that will be qualified as we proceed).
  15. 15. Therefore, the idea of a natural dominion appears to be both a kind of reiteration of man's superiority over other creatures, and a form of acknowledgment of the purpose of creation. FRANCIS BACON
  16. 16. Bacon explicitly placed his conception of knowledge and of a new science within the Christian tradition. He conceived his project as an "advancement of learning", aimed at reproducing the original dominion of man over nature as symbolically represented in Genesis, when God asks Adam to give names to the animals. ANTHROPOCENTRISM
  17. 17. 2 NATURE IN THE RENAISSANCE .
  18. 18. The investigation on the meaning of Nature begins to appear as an indispensable tool for the realization of human ends in the world. Magic has had a very important role in the philosophy of Nature. Renaissance magic was characterized by two assumptions: 1. The universal animation of nature, which is moved by forces intrinsically similar to those acting in mankind, are coordinated and harmonized by universal sympathy 2. The possibility offered to mankind is to be able to dominate forces with flattery and spells Renaissance magic
  19. 19. According to Telesio, Nature is an indipendent reality, based on principles a priori, in which God guarantees the order and autonomy. This includes mankind, who are able to reveal themselves only through sensibility. By Raffaello Sanzio Morghen (1758–1833) - http://www.telesio.eu/im ages/biografia/telesio.jp g, Public Domain, https://commons.wikim edia.org/w/index.php?c urid=9070525
  20. 20. The main part of Giordano Bruno’s thought is the infinity of nature as opposed to Aristotelian and scholastic finiteness.
  21. 21. Bruno arrives to this conclusion both for the Copernican theories, both for his own original intuitions. He declares that to God, which is the infinite cause, must correspond an infinite effect (the endless worlds). Bruno thinks that the universe is infinite because nothing can contain it, nothing can limit it, neither God himself can. God isn’t outside our world, in fact he is in all the things that surround us, and that is why he is its creator.
  22. 22. But how was this kind of nature interpreted by Bruno? The Nature that Bruno talks about, is nothing else than God himself, in his grandiosity and creativity. Deus sive natura
  23. 23. The knowledge of Nature for Bruno is not configured as a scientific process but is supported and animated by the use of magic. Bruno’s universe, deriving from an infinite God, is open, populated by infinite worlds and infinite creatures, without a center and equal in all its parts. Nature is sacred
  24. 24. According to Campanella, Nature is an organic totality whose absence is constituted by the three primality of being (power, knowledge, love). God is its ultimate foundation as a perfect entity. Nature is everything
  25. 25. NATURE IN MODERN SCIENCE 3
  26. 26. The Greek philosopher, as Aristotle,and the Renaissance philosophers (such as Bruno, Campanella, Telesio) talk about Nature as an alive organisme, a Deus, a “God” full of potentiality and power and “soul” (“anima mundi” in Latin). Old tradition ...
  27. 27. Modern Science turned Nature into an inanimate mechanism humankind can even “torture” (Francis Bacon) to use their secrets and dominate the all world. Modern tradition ...
  28. 28. "Conquering nature" Stand for Francis Bacon, conquering nature means understanding scientific processes in the world around us and using them to humanities advantage.
  29. 29. Francis Bacon was advocating for a scientific approach to understanding how nature works. He talked about how humans should better understand nature and learn all of it's secrets. His way of thinking was mostly influenced by the times he lived in. He lived in the late Renaissance, which was an age of reason and return to ancient Roman and Greek values. In the dark ages nature was mostly explained by superstition, religion or magic. So in opposition to that, Renaissance focused mainly on scientific evidence to prove or disprove something. Of course Bacon himself was born many years after the end of the medieval times.
  30. 30. But he lived in an age that was focused on ending the primitive way of thinking of the Middle ages. That certainly influenced him and led to him valuing science and reason above all. Also the torturing metaphor mostly comes from the fact that even in those days torture was the most effective way of getting criminals to confess their crimes or to extract the truth out of them.
  31. 31. According to Francis Bacon’s philosophy many scientists were inspired to fight poverty and misery and pain by conquering Nature. However, using strong metaphors such as “torture nature”, he let us also understand how much this idea of “conquering” caused climate change. Conquering means dominate and dominion means to treat Nature as an object without any value except serving humankind. This ideology, on the one hand, gave us lots of comforts but it is a very short-sighted focus on what we should be doing: that is respect Nature, since by respecting Nature we respect life of the present and the future generations.
  32. 32. choose for each meaning of Nature the right adjectiv 1. Natura sive Deus 2. atomistic structure 3. living organism 4. animate organism 5. causal system 6. materialistic structure 7. subject 8. object 9. Pantheism 10. mathematical order Double meaning of concept of Nature Nature as a Mechanism 1. atomistic structure 2. causal system 3. materialistic structure 4. object 5. mathematical order Nature as an Organism 1. “Natura sive Deus” 2. living organism 3. animate organism 4. subject 5. Pantheism Old Tradition Modern Science
  33. 33. Nature as a Mechanism 1. Let us to exploit Nature, which is just a Cave from which take resource 2. at the least, we can think to Conserve Nature because it means preserve the Mankind life Nature as an Organism Invite us to Respect Nature because it has a value in itself. It’s God itself and it’s alive. It’s the “home of the Beings” A Double environmental Ethic approach ecological or biological ethic
  34. 34. NEW ETHICS FOR NATURE 4
  35. 35. Should we preserve Nature because it has RIGHTS as we do ? Or, should we just conserve Nature, because it is basic for humankind life?
  36. 36. In his book Man's Responsibility for Nature (1974) Passmore argued that there is urgent need to change our attitude to the environment, and that humans cannot continue unconstrained exploitation of the biosphere. However, he rejected the view that we need to abandon the Western tradition of scientific rationalism, and was unsympathetic towards attempts to articulate environmental concern through radical revisions of our ethical framework, as advocated by deep ecologist which he conceived as misguided mysticism or irrationalism. Passmore was very skeptical about attempts to attribute intrinsic value to nature, and his preferred position was of valuing nature in terms of what it contributes to the flourishing of sentient creatures (including humans) J. PASSMORE credit: Wikipedia
  37. 37. Capra advocates that Western culture abandon conventional linear thought and the mechanistic views of F. Bacon. Critiquing the reductionistic Baconian view that everything can be studied in parts to understand the whole, he encourages a holistic approach. In The Web of Life, Capra focuses on systemic information generated by the relationships among all parts as a significant additional factor in understanding the character of the whole, emphasizing the web-like structure of all systems and the interconnectedness of all parts. Capra is one of the most important scientist who try to turn the “conquering modern paradigm” in a new “holistic approach” for understanding the relation between humankind and Nature. f. CAPRA credit: Wikipedia
  38. 38. Deep ecology is an environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs. Deep ecology argues that the natural world is a subtle balance of complex inter-relationships in which the existence of organisms is dependent on the existence of others within ecosystems. Human interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to humans but to all organisms constituting the natural order. Deep ecology's core principle is the belief that the living environment as a whole should be respected and regarded as having certain basic moral and legal rights to live and flourish, independent of its instrumental benefits for human use. credit: Wikipedia Deep Ecology
  39. 39. Published in 1975, Animal Liberation has been cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement. The central argument of the book is an expansion of the utilitarian concept that "the greatest good of the greatest number" is the only measure of good or ethical behaviour, and Singer believes that there is no reason not to apply this principle to other animals, arguing that the boundary between human and "animal" is completely arbitrary. There are far more differences between a great ape and an oyster, for example, than between a human and a great ape, and yet the former two are lumped together as "animals", whereas we are considered "human" in a way that supposedly differentiates us from all other "animals." PETER SINGER credit: Wikipedia
  40. 40. Fear and responsibility in the face of reality as a "whole" are at the center of his best-known work, “The Principle of Responsibility” (1979). This work is dedicated to the delicate ethical and social problems raised by the incessant application of technology in all aspects of life. This text, which brings the ecological emergency to the agenda of European philosophical reflection, brings together all the author’s previous research: religion, nature, technique. The author’s starting point is that "the doing of man is today able to destroy the being of the world". Hans Jonas credit: Wikipedia
  41. 41. this is the”“The Principle of Responsibility” golden rule : «Act so that the consequences of your action are compatible with the survival of human life on earth» credit: Wikipedia
  42. 42. 5 NATURE DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC
  43. 43. In Covid-19 time we are all at home.
  44. 44. A. ROTOLETTI's picture from "Striking piazzas of Sicily"
  45. 45. The world has stopped because of the virus and we have come down from that whirlwind turn. It took this sneaky poison (“virus”, from the Latin “poison”) to bring the golden eagle flying into the Milan sky. It was spotted the 5th of April during the initiative from the balconies: "Birdwatching km. 0 ".
  46. 46. eagle into the Milan sky
  47. 47. In Venice, without tourists and traffic, you could see fish in the canals, a few days earlier in Cagliari the dolphins had arrived in the port.
  48. 48. But hares, swans and squirrels were also photographed in the city. … Bees and butterflies are back that bodes well, but also the herds, wolves and wild boars in the countryside…
  49. 49. Have our cities suddenly become wilder than we thought until recently? This appears surprising to me ….
  50. 50. bibliography Textbook Abbagnano-Fornero, La filosofia wikipedia sources: deep ecology j passmore f. capra h jonas pictures : https://www.keblog.it/animali-strade-citta-quarantena-c oronavirus/
  51. 51. authors in order alice, marta, sofia, simão, lena, nina, christopher vinka lea hiba ines andrea c sofia f altea made by CCA Philosophy group

four lessons about philosophy. Students focused on Nature concept during the centuries, from ancient Greeks till the contemporary ethical approaches. Last lesson is a brief reflection about Nature during Covid-19 time

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