-a system of organs within
an organism which work together
for the purpose of reproduction,
which is the capacity of human
beings to originate new individuals.
-takes place as internal fertilization by
During this process, the erect penis of the male
is inserted into the female's vagina until the male
ejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the female's
vagina. The sperm then travels through the vagina and
cervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization of
the ovum. Upon successful fertilization and
implantation, gestation of the fetus then occurs within the
female's uterus for approximately nine months, this
process is known as pregnancy in humans.
During puberty, usually occurring
between the ages of nine and
fourteen, the reproductive systems of
both sexes mature. The ovaries of a
female release eggs (female sex cells)
and a male's testes produce sperm
(male sex cells).
Reproduction occurs when a sperm
unites with an egg, a process called
HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- series of organs located outside of the
body and around the pelvic region of a male that
contribute towards the reproductive process.
primary direct function of the male reproductive
provide the male gamete or spermatozoa for
fertilization of the ovum.
•To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male
reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
•To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract
•To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible
for maintaining the male reproductive system
— oval organs about the size of large
olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either
end by a structure called the spermatic cord.
Most men have two testes. The testes are
responsible for making testosterone, the
primary male sex hormone, and for
generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled
masses of tubes called seminiferous
tubules. These tubules are responsible for
producing the sperm cells through a process
—the tube that carries urine
from the bladder to outside of the
body. In males, it has the additional
function of expelling (ejaculating)
semen when the man reaches
orgasm. When the penis is erect
during sex, the flow of urine is
blocked from the urethra, allowing
only semen to be ejaculated at
—the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: (1)the
root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; (2)the body, or shaft; and
(3)the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis.
The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered
with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed in
a procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube that
transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also
contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.
The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three
internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like
erectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with
blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it
becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual
intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate
changes in penis size during an erection.
Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the
end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the
penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only
semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
— The seminal vesicles are sac-like
pouches that attach to the vas deferens
near the base of the bladder. The
seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich
fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with
a source of energy and helps with the
sperms’ motility (ability to move). The
fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up
most of the volume of a man’s
ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
— The prostate gland is a walnut-
sized structure that is located below the
urinary bladder in front of the rectum.
The prostate gland contributes
additional fluid to the ejaculate.
Prostate fluids also help to nourish the
sperm. The urethra, which carries the
ejaculate to be expelled during
orgasm, runs through the center of the
— The vas deferens is a long,
muscular tube that travels from the
epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to
just behind the bladder. The vas
deferens transports mature sperm
to the urethra in preparation for
— The epididymis is a long, coiled tube
that rests on the backside of each testicle. It
functions in the transport and storage of
the sperm cells that are produced in the
testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to
bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm
that emerge from the testes are immature
and incapable of fertilization. During sexual
arousal, contractions force the sperm into
the vas deferens.
-a hollow, peared-shaped organ
with thick muscular wall; it lies in
the middle of the pelvis, between
the bladder and the rectum. It is
subdivided into two parts:
the corpus (body), and
the cervix (neck).
-muscular, narrow canal that extends from
the vaginal opening called introitus to the
cervix. It is also known as the birth canal due of
the fact that the fetus passes through it to be
born during natural childbirth. The inner wall of
vagina is surfaced with numerous folds of soft
elastic mucous membrane called vaginal
rugae. They allow the vagina to expand
considerably during sexual intercourse or
childbirth. During menstruation, the vagina
provides a channel for the menstrual fluid to flow
out of the body.
- sometimes simply called tubes or oviduct, are the two channels
that connect the ovaries to the uterus. They are the main structure that
Each tube is further divided into 5 main portions:
>Fimbriae: The fringe-like structure located at the end of the tube that
captures egg released from the ovary and draws it into the tube.
>Infundibulum: The funnel-like structure of the tube which is margined
>Ampulla: The longest portion of the tube with thin wall (almost muscle-
free) and wide lumen. It is usually the portion where fertilization takes
>Isthmus: The almost straight portion of the tube with relatively thick
muscular wall and the narrowest lumen.
>Interstitium: The portion of the tube that is closest to the uterus. It is
sometimes known as the uterine portion of the tube for the fact that it lies
within the uterus.
-small, oval-shaped paired glands that
are attached to each side of the uterus via a
thin, fibrous ovarian ligament. The pair are
responsible for storing and nurturing
immature egg cells into mature eggs; every
month, one of them releases a mature egg
into its neighboring Fallopian tube.
In addition to producing eggs, the ovaries
produces two main female sex hormones:
the oestrogen and progesterone, which
are vital in regulating the menstrual cycles.
Other Parts of the Female Reproductive
Labium Majora - enclose and protect the other external
reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the
labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are
comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora
contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the
labia majora are covered with hair.
Labium Minora - literally translated as "small lips“, the
labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They
lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings
to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the
uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that
carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
Clitoris - The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a
small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in
males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the
Urethra - The opening to the urethra is just below the
clitoris. Although it is not related to sex or reproduction, it
is included in the vulva. The urethra is actually used for
the passage of urine. The urethra is connected to the
bladder. In females the urethra is 1.5 inches
long, compared to males whose urethra is 8 inches long.
Because the urethra is so close to the anus, women
should always wipe themselves from front to back to
avoid infecting the vagina and urethra with bacteria. This
location issue is the reason for bladder infections being
more common among females.
Cervix - lower end of the uterus. It is located at the top of
the vagina and is about one inch long. The cervical canal
passes through the cervix, allowing blood from a menstrual
period and a baby (fetus) to pass from the womb (uterus) into
Rectum - The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The
rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the
anus. The word rectum comes from the Latin rectus meaning
straight (which the human rectum is not).
Ureter - tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that
propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Diseases of the human reproductive
1) genetic or congenital abnormalities
3) infections which are often sexually transmitted
4) functional problems cause by environmental
factors, physical damage, psychological
issues, autoimmune disorders, or other causes.
The best known type of functional problems
include sexual dysfunction and infertility which are
both broad terms relating to many disorders with
Examples of congenital abnormalities:
Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing
decreased functioning of the sex hormone-
producing glands caused by a deficiency or both
testes from the scrotum.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic
disorder causing people who are genetically male
(i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a
female due to an inability to utilize androgen.
Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or
other sexual traits which are not clearly male or
Examples of cancers:
Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate
Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammary
Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary.
Penile cancer - Cancer of penis.
Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus.
Testicular cancer - Cancer of the
Cervical Cancer - Cancer of the cervix.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Hepatitis B - irritation and swelling (inflammation) of
the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus
(HBV). Hepatitis B infection can be spread through
having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal
fluids, and other body fluids of someone who already
has a hepatitis B infection.
Human Immunodefeciency Syndrome - HIV
infection is a condition caused by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually
destroys the immune system, which makes it harder
for the body to fight infections.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be spread by the
Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex
Through blood -- through blood transfusions, accidental
needlesticks, or needle sharing
From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to
•Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses
that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of
HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk
for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get
them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They
are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV
can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to
cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women.
In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis.
Although some people develop genital warts from HPV
infection, others have no symptoms. Your health care
provider can treat or remove the warts. In women, Pap
smears can detect changes in the cervix that might lead to
Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does
not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. A
vaccine can protect against several types of
Examples of functional problems:
Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or
maintain an erection.
Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in
regards to either hormones or gamete production.
Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum is
implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level of
sexual desire and interest.
Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition of
decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in
females during sexual activity
Premature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary control
• Quit smoking. Smoking damages your
ovaries, interferes with the production of
• Receive treatment
estrogen and makes your eggs prone to
recommendations from your
doctor for conditions such as
endometriosis or fibroids.
• Maintain a healthy body weight. If you
weigh too little, you won't produce • Avoid vaginal
enough estrogen and your reproductive infections, which can result in
system will shut down. If you weigh too damage to your uterus if left
much, you'll have too much estrogen in untreated. Precautions
your system, which acts like birth control include changing tampons
medication, and in your later years, is a regularly, cleaning yourself
risk factor for cancer. properly after using the
toilet, taking care of genital
• Practice safe sex. Some sexually piercings and staying out of
transmitted diseases can render you contaminated water.
infertile. Many of these diseases have no
symptoms at first, so you can severely • Take steps to be healthier. A
damage your fertility before you know healthy diet, regular exercise
you have them. and stress management all
help to keep your
reproductive system, along
• Get a regular gynecological examination.
with all your body's
Avoid tight underwear and clothing. This keeps your
genitials comfortable and won't allow pain to happen.
Choose an underwear and clothing size that is right
Wear protective gear when playing contact sports.
This is the single most important thing to protect your
testicals. The gear prevents you from getting
testicular trama, testicular torsion, and possibly