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Reproductive system

  2. Reproductive System (Genital System) -a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction, which is the capacity of human beings to originate new individuals.
  3. Human reproduction -takes place as internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the erect penis of the male is inserted into the female's vagina until the male ejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the female's vagina. The sperm then travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum. Upon successful fertilization and implantation, gestation of the fetus then occurs within the female's uterus for approximately nine months, this process is known as pregnancy in humans.
  4. During puberty, usually occurring between the ages of nine and fourteen, the reproductive systems of both sexes mature. The ovaries of a female release eggs (female sex cells) and a male's testes produce sperm (male sex cells). Reproduction occurs when a sperm unites with an egg, a process called fertilization.
  5. The Male Reproductive System
  6. HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contribute towards the reproductive process. primary direct function of the male reproductive system: provide the male gamete or spermatozoa for fertilization of the ovum. OTHER FUNCTIONS: •To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) •To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex •To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
  8. Bladder - removes toxin from the body
  9. Testicles (testes) — oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.
  10. Urethra —the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  11. Penis —the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: (1)the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; (2)the body, or shaft; and (3)the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like erectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  13. Seminal vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ motility (ability to move). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  14. Prostate gland — The prostate gland is a walnut- sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  15. Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  16. Epididymis — The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It functions in the transport and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
  17. The female reproductive system consists of 4 major parts: the uterus, vagina, Fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  18. Uterus -a hollow, peared-shaped organ with thick muscular wall; it lies in the middle of the pelvis, between the bladder and the rectum. It is subdivided into two parts: the corpus (body), and the cervix (neck).
  19. Vagina -muscular, narrow canal that extends from the vaginal opening called introitus to the cervix. It is also known as the birth canal due of the fact that the fetus passes through it to be born during natural childbirth. The inner wall of vagina is surfaced with numerous folds of soft elastic mucous membrane called vaginal rugae. They allow the vagina to expand considerably during sexual intercourse or childbirth. During menstruation, the vagina provides a channel for the menstrual fluid to flow out of the body.
  20. Fallopian tubes - sometimes simply called tubes or oviduct, are the two channels that connect the ovaries to the uterus. They are the main structure that facilitate fertilization. Each tube is further divided into 5 main portions: >Fimbriae: The fringe-like structure located at the end of the tube that captures egg released from the ovary and draws it into the tube. >Infundibulum: The funnel-like structure of the tube which is margined with fimbriae. >Ampulla: The longest portion of the tube with thin wall (almost muscle- free) and wide lumen. It is usually the portion where fertilization takes place. >Isthmus: The almost straight portion of the tube with relatively thick muscular wall and the narrowest lumen. >Interstitium: The portion of the tube that is closest to the uterus. It is sometimes known as the uterine portion of the tube for the fact that it lies within the uterus.
  21. Anatomy of Fallopian Tube
  22. Ovaries -small, oval-shaped paired glands that are attached to each side of the uterus via a thin, fibrous ovarian ligament. The pair are responsible for storing and nurturing immature egg cells into mature eggs; every month, one of them releases a mature egg into its neighboring Fallopian tube. In addition to producing eggs, the ovaries produces two main female sex hormones: the oestrogen and progesterone, which are vital in regulating the menstrual cycles.
  23. Other Parts of the Female Reproductive System  Labium Majora - enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair.  Labium Minora - literally translated as "small lips“, the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).  Clitoris - The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the
  24.  Urethra - The opening to the urethra is just below the clitoris. Although it is not related to sex or reproduction, it is included in the vulva. The urethra is actually used for the passage of urine. The urethra is connected to the bladder. In females the urethra is 1.5 inches long, compared to males whose urethra is 8 inches long. Because the urethra is so close to the anus, women should always wipe themselves from front to back to avoid infecting the vagina and urethra with bacteria. This location issue is the reason for bladder infections being more common among females.  Cervix - lower end of the uterus. It is located at the top of the vagina and is about one inch long. The cervical canal passes through the cervix, allowing blood from a menstrual period and a baby (fetus) to pass from the womb (uterus) into the vagina.  Rectum - The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus. The word rectum comes from the Latin rectus meaning straight (which the human rectum is not).  Ureter - tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  25. Diseases of the human reproductive system 1) genetic or congenital abnormalities 2) cancers 3) infections which are often sexually transmitted diseases, and 4) functional problems cause by environmental factors, physical damage, psychological issues, autoimmune disorders, or other causes. The best known type of functional problems include sexual dysfunction and infertility which are both broad terms relating to many disorders with many causes.
  26. Examples of congenital abnormalities: Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing decreased functioning of the sex hormone- producing glands caused by a deficiency or both testes from the scrotum. Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen. Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits which are not clearly male or female.
  27. Examples of cancers: Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate gland. Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammary gland. Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary. Penile cancer - Cancer of penis. Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus. Testicular cancer - Cancer of the testis/testes Cervical Cancer - Cancer of the cervix.
  28. Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases:  Hepatitis B - irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B infection can be spread through having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids of someone who already has a hepatitis B infection.  Human Immunodefeciency Syndrome - HIV infection is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be spread by the following: Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex Through blood -- through blood transfusions, accidental needlesticks, or needle sharing From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to
  29. •Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis. Although some people develop genital warts from HPV infection, others have no symptoms. Your health care provider can treat or remove the warts. In women, Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that might lead to cancer. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. A vaccine can protect against several types of
  30. Examples of functional problems: Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or maintain an erection. Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production. Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level of sexual desire and interest. Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition of decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity Premature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation.
  31. Ways to maintain proper functioning of your Reproductive System
  32. Quit smoking. Smoking damages your ovaries, interferes with the production of • Receive treatment estrogen and makes your eggs prone to recommendations from your genetic abnormalities. doctor for conditions such as endometriosis or fibroids. • Maintain a healthy body weight. If you weigh too little, you won't produce • Avoid vaginal enough estrogen and your reproductive infections, which can result in system will shut down. If you weigh too damage to your uterus if left much, you'll have too much estrogen in untreated. Precautions your system, which acts like birth control include changing tampons medication, and in your later years, is a regularly, cleaning yourself risk factor for cancer. properly after using the toilet, taking care of genital • Practice safe sex. Some sexually piercings and staying out of transmitted diseases can render you contaminated water. infertile. Many of these diseases have no symptoms at first, so you can severely • Take steps to be healthier. A damage your fertility before you know healthy diet, regular exercise you have them. and stress management all help to keep your reproductive system, along • Get a regular gynecological examination. with all your body's
  33.  Avoid tight underwear and clothing. This keeps your genitials comfortable and won't allow pain to happen. Choose an underwear and clothing size that is right for you.  Wear protective gear when playing contact sports. This is the single most important thing to protect your testicals. The gear prevents you from getting testicular trama, testicular torsion, and possibly testicular rupture. ~*~