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 PHOSPHOLIPIDS are polar, ionic compounds
composed of an alcohol that is attached by a
phosphodiester bridge to either di...
 There are two classes of phospholipids: those that
have glycerol (from glucose) as a backbone and
those that have sphing...
Figure:18.1
1. Phospholipids From
Phosphatidic Acid
And An Alcohol: The
phosphate group on
PA can be esterified
to another compound
co...
2. Cardiolipin: Two molecules of PA esterified
through their phosphate groups to an additional
molecule of glycerol is cal...
B. Sphingomyelin- The backbone of
sphingomyelin is the amino alcohol sphingosine,
rather than glycerol. [Note: The fatty a...
 Phosphoglycerides synthesis involves either
the donation of (PA) phosphatic acid from
cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-diacylg...
A. Phosphatidic acid: PA is the precursor of many
other phosphoglycerides. [Note: Essentially all
cells except mature eryt...
1. Synthesis of PE and PC from preexisting
choline and ethanolamine
a. Significance of choline reutilization
b. Role of ph...
2. De novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from
phosphatidylserine in the membrane
C. Phosphatidylserine- PS synthesis in...
1. Role of PI in signal transmission across
membranes: The phosphorylation of membrane
bound phosphatidylinositol occurs i...
E. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG):
Phosphatidylglycerol occurs in relatively
large amounts in mitochondrial membranes
and is a ...
G. Plasmalogens:
 Plasmalogens: There are major classes of
plasmalogens: phosphatidalcoholines,
phosphatidalethanolamines...
H. Sphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin is one of
the principal structural lipids of membranes
of nerve tissue. This class of phos...
 The degradation of phosphoglycerides is
performed by phospholipases found in all
tissues and pancreatic juice (for a dis...
A. Degradation of phosphoglycerides:
Phospholipases hydrolyze the
phosphodiester bonds of phosphoglycerides,
with each enz...
B. Degradation of sphingomyelin:
Sphingomyelin is degraded by sphingomyelinase, a
lysosomal enzyme that hydrolytically rem...
 Glycolipids are molecules that contain both
carbohydrate and lipid components. Like the
phospholipid sphingomyelin, glyc...
 The glycosphingolipids differ from sphingomyelin in that
they do not contain phosphate, and the polar head function
is p...
B. Acidic glycosphingolipids: Acidic
glycosphingolipids are negatively charged at
physiologic pH. The negative charge is p...
 Synthesis of glycosphingolipids occurs
primarily in the Golgi by sequential addition
of glycosyl monomers transferred fr...
B. Addition of sulfate groups: A sulfate is
added to a galactocerebrocide by transfer
from the sulfate carrier, 3’-
phosph...
 Glycosphingolipids are internalized by endocytosis
as described for the glycosaminoglycans. All of
the enzymes required ...
 In a normal individual, synthesis and
degradation of glycosphingolipids are
balanced, so that the amount of these
compou...
A. Common properties of the sphingolipidoses:
A specific lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme is deficient in each
disorder. Theref...
Figure:19.4
PHOSPHOLIPID METABOLISM & GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM
PHOSPHOLIPID METABOLISM & GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM
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PHOSPHOLIPID METABOLISM & GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM

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PHOSPHOLIPID METABOLISM & GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM

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PHOSPHOLIPID METABOLISM & GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM

  1. 1.  PHOSPHOLIPIDS are polar, ionic compounds composed of an alcohol that is attached by a phosphodiester bridge to either diacyglycerol or to sphingosine.  PHOSPHOLIPIDS are amphipathic in nature that is, each has a hydrophilic head.  The hydrophobic portion of the molecules are associated with other non polar constituents of membranes, including glycolipids, protein, and cholesterol.
  2. 2.  There are two classes of phospholipids: those that have glycerol (from glucose) as a backbone and those that have sphingosine (from serine and palmitate). A. Phosphoglycerides- Phospholipids that contain glycerol are called phosphoglycerides (or glycerophospholipids). Phosphoglycerides constitute the major class of phospholipids and are the predominant lipids in membranes. All contain (or are derivatives of) phosphatidic acid (PA), which is diacylglycerol (DAG) with a phosphate group on carbon 3. PA is the simplest phosphoglyceride and is the precursor of the other members of this group.
  3. 3. Figure:18.1
  4. 4. 1. Phospholipids From Phosphatidic Acid And An Alcohol: The phosphate group on PA can be esterified to another compound containing an alcohol group.
  5. 5. 2. Cardiolipin: Two molecules of PA esterified through their phosphate groups to an additional molecule of glycerol is called cardiolipin. Note that cardiolipin is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial membrane. 3. Plasmalogens: When the fatty acid at carbon 1 of a glycerophospholipid is replaced by an unsaturated alkyl group attached by an ether (rather than by an ester) linkage to the core glycerol molecule, an ether phosphoglyceride known as a plasmalogen is produced.
  6. 6. B. Sphingomyelin- The backbone of sphingomyelin is the amino alcohol sphingosine, rather than glycerol. [Note: The fatty acids found most frequently in sphingomyelin are palmitic, stearic, lignoceric and nervonic acid. The alcohol group at carbon 1 of sphingosine is esterified to phosphorylcholine, producing sphingomyelin, an important constituentof this myelin of nerve fibers. [Note: The myelin sheath is a layered, membranous structure that insulates and protects neuronal fibers of the central nervous system.]
  7. 7.  Phosphoglycerides synthesis involves either the donation of (PA) phosphatic acid from cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-diacylglycerol to an alcohol or the donation of the phosphomonoester of the alcohol from CDP- alcohol to 1,2-diacylglycerol  Most phospholipids are synthesized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER). From there, they are transported to the Golgi apparatus and then to membranes of organelles or the plasma membrane or are secreted from the cell by exocytosis.
  8. 8. A. Phosphatidic acid: PA is the precursor of many other phosphoglycerides. [Note: Essentially all cells except mature erythrocytes can synthesize phospholipids, whereas triacyl- glycerol synthesis occurs essentially only in liver, adipose tissue, lactating mammary glands, and intestinal mucosal cells.] B. Synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC): PC and PE are the most abundant phospholipids in most eukaryotic cells. The primary route of their synthesis uses choline and ethanolamine obtained either from the diet or from the turnover of the body’s phospholipids.
  9. 9. 1. Synthesis of PE and PC from preexisting choline and ethanolamine a. Significance of choline reutilization b. Role of phosphatidylcholine in lung surfactant: This phospholipid is a major lipid component of lung surfactant, which is the extracellular fluid layer lining the alveoli. Surfactant serves to decrease the surface tension of this fluid layer, thereby preventing alveolar collapse. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants is associated with insufficient surfactant production and/or secretion and is a significant cause of all neonatal deaths in Western countries.
  10. 10. 2. De novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylserine in the membrane C. Phosphatidylserine- PS synthesis in mammalian tissues is provided by the base exchange reaction, in which the ethanolamine of PE is exchanged for free serine. This reaction, although reversible, is used primarily to produce the PS required for membrane synthesis. D. Phosphatidylinositol- PI is synthesized from free inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol as shown. PI is an unusual phospholipid in that it most frequently contains stearic acid on carbon 1 and arachidonic acid on carbon 2 of the glycerol. PI, therefore, serves as a reservoir of arachidonic acid in membranes and, thus, provides the substrate for prostaglandin synthesis when required.
  11. 11. 1. Role of PI in signal transmission across membranes: The phosphorylation of membrane bound phosphatidylinositol occurs in response to the binding of a variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, and growth factors to receptors on cell membrane. 2. Role of PI in membrane protein anchoring:[Note: Examples such protiens include alkaline phosphate, acetylcholine esterase and lipoprotien lipase.] The protein can be cleaved from its anchor by the action of phospholipase C, releasing diacylglycerol, a second messenger that can activate protein kinase C.
  12. 12. E. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG): Phosphatidylglycerol occurs in relatively large amounts in mitochondrial membranes and is a precursor of cardiolipin. It is synthesized by a two-step reaction from CDP- diacylglycerol and glycerol. F. Cardiolipin: Cardilipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) is composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid connected by a molecule of glycerol.
  13. 13. G. Plasmalogens:  Plasmalogens: There are major classes of plasmalogens: phosphatidalcoholines, phosphatidalethanolamines, and phophatidalserines  Myelin contains large amount of ethanolamine plasmalogen, and heart muscles contains large amounts of choline plasmalogen. One plasmalogen 1-alkaneyl-2 – acetyl-phosphatidalcholine is a very powerful chemical mediator. It has potent physiologic actions on a variety of cell types.
  14. 14. H. Sphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin is one of the principal structural lipids of membranes of nerve tissue. This class of phospholipid has sphingosine rather that glycerol as the alcohol portion of the molecule. [Note: sphingomyelin of the myelin sheath contains predominantly longer chain fatty acids such as ligonceric and nervonic acids where as gray matter of the brain has sphingomyelin that contains primarily with stearic acid.]
  15. 15.  The degradation of phosphoglycerides is performed by phospholipases found in all tissues and pancreatic juice (for a discussion of phospholipid digestion. A number of toxins and venoms have phospholipase activity, and several pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases that dissolve cell membranes and allow the spread of infection. Sphingomyelin is degraded by the lysosomal phospholipase, sphingomyelinase.
  16. 16. A. Degradation of phosphoglycerides: Phospholipases hydrolyze the phosphodiester bonds of phosphoglycerides, with each enzyme cleaving the phospholipid at a specific site. Each enzyme cleaves the phospholipid at a specific type.[Note: Phospholipases are responsible not only for degrading phospholipids, but also for “remodelling” them.]
  17. 17. B. Degradation of sphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin is degraded by sphingomyelinase, a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolytically removes phosphorylcholine, leaving a ceramide. The ceramide is, in turn, cleaved by ceramidase into sphingosine and a free fatty acid. Niemann-Pick disease (Types A and B) is an autosomal- recessive disease caused by the inability to degrade sphingomyelin due to a deficiency of sphingomyelinase, a type of phospholipase C. In the severe infantile form (Type A, which shows less than 1% of normal enzymic activity), the liver and spleen are the primary sites of lipid deposits and are, therefore, greatly enlarged. The lipid consists primarily of the sphingomyelin that cannot be degraded (Figure 17.13). Infants with this lysosomal storage disease experience rapid and progressive neurodegeneration as a result of deposition of sphingomyelin in the CNS, and they die in early childhood.
  18. 18.  Glycolipids are molecules that contain both carbohydrate and lipid components. Like the phospholipid sphingomyelin, glycolipids are derivatives of ceramides in which a long-chain fatty acid is attached to the amino alcohol sphingosine. They are, therefore, more precisely called glycosphingolipids. Like the phospholipids, glycosphingolipids are essential components of all membranes in the body, but they are found in greatest amounts in nerve tissue. They are located in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, where they interact with the extracellular environment. As such, they play a role in the regulation of cellular interactions (for example, adhesion and recognition), growth, and development.
  19. 19.  The glycosphingolipids differ from sphingomyelin in that they do not contain phosphate, and the polar head function is provided by a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide attached directly to the ceramide by an O-glycosidic bond. A. Neutral glycosphingolipids: The simplest neutral (uncharged) glycosphingolipids are the cerebrosides. These are ceramide monosaccharides that contain either a molecule of galactose (forming ceramide-galactose or galactocerebroside, the most common cerebroside found in myelin or glucose. [Note: Members of a group of galacto- or glucocerebrosides may also differ from each other in the type of fatty acid attached to the sphingosine.] As their name implies, cerebrosides are found predominantly in the brain and peripheral nervous tissue, with high concentrations in the myelin sheath.
  20. 20. B. Acidic glycosphingolipids: Acidic glycosphingolipids are negatively charged at physiologic pH. The negative charge is provided by N-acetylneuraminic acid ([NANA], a sialic acid in gangliosides, or by sulfate groups in sulfatides. 1. Gangliosides: These are the most complex glycosphingolipids and are found primarily in the ganglion cells of the CNS, particularly at the nerve endings. 2. Sulfatides: These sulfoglycosphingolipids are sulfated galactocerebrosides that are negatively charged at physiologic pH. Sulfatides are found predominantly in the brain and kidneys.
  21. 21.  Synthesis of glycosphingolipids occurs primarily in the Golgi by sequential addition of glycosyl monomers transferred from UDP– sugar donors to the acceptor molecule. A. 1. Enzymes involved in synthesis: The enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids are glycosyl transferases, each specific for a particular sugar nucleotide and acceptor. [Note: These enzymes may recognize both glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins as substrates.]
  22. 22. B. Addition of sulfate groups: A sulfate is added to a galactocerebrocide by transfer from the sulfate carrier, 3’- phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS), to the 3’-hydroxyl group of the galactose, by sulfotransferase. [Note: PAPS is also the sulfur donor in the glcosaminoglycan synthesis.
  23. 23.  Glycosphingolipids are internalized by endocytosis as described for the glycosaminoglycans. All of the enzymes required for the degradative process are present in lysosomes, which fuse with the endocytotic vesicles. The lysosomal enzymes hydrolytically and irreversibly cleave specific bonds in the glycosphingolipid. As seen with the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins degradation is a sequential process following the rule “last on, first off,” in which the last group added during synthesis is the first group removed in degradation.
  24. 24.  In a normal individual, synthesis and degradation of glycosphingolipids are balanced, so that the amount of these compounds present in membranes is constant. If a specific lysosomal hydrolase required for degradation is partially or totally missing, a sphingolipid accumulates. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases caused by these deficiencies are called sphingolipidoses.
  25. 25. A. Common properties of the sphingolipidoses: A specific lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme is deficient in each disorder. Therefore, usually only a single sphingolipid (the substrate for the deficient enzyme)accumulates in the involved organs in each disease.[NOTE : The rate of biosynthesis of the accumulating lipid is normal] The enzyme deficiencies cause death, usually soon after the first month of life (with the exception of the adult form of Gaucher’s diseases and of Fabry’s diseases. B. Diagnosis of a sphingolipidosis: A specific sphingolipidosis can be diagnosed from an analysis of tissue samples, cultured fibroblast , penpheral leukocytes, plasma , and / or amniotic fluid, for presence of enzyme activity and for accumulated lipid.[NOTE: The sphingolipid that that accumulates in the lysosomes in each disease is the structure that cannot be further degraded due to the specific enzyme defeciency.]
  26. 26. Figure:19.4

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