2. What does this criterion mean:
This criteria is all about how Tourism Development occurs as a
series of steps and an interaction of the elements
TD can be seen as a system. Draw a diagram to show this:
THE OPERATION OF THE PROCESS
• Effects on
3. A process is a related sequence of events. Draw how a
tourist centre develops filling the following information
into the series of boxes on page 18.
1. An initial attraction is discovered
2. Tourists begin to come to the area
3. Facilities are developed
4. More tourists arrive
5. More facilities and Attractions
6. Location is saturated with F,A,T
4. As the process is established it then fulfils a simple Demand
Supply model such as:
FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND & SUPPLY
SUPPLY - DEMAND
• # & type of
• # & type of
• Nature of
5. What happens if demand exceeds supply?
Not enough to go around … so the price rises. In terms of
accommodation this will mean the room occupancy will be high
What happens if supply exceeds demand?
Too much offered … so the price falls. In terms of
accommodation this will mean the room occupancy will be low
What is therefore the best relationship between the 2?
Supply should meet the demand
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
7. Tourism development is often best seen as a series of events
over time. The way it operates is shown below.
Few visitors (tell
More facilities to
cater for increase
More tourists due
to better facilities
and facilities set
saturation. Starts to lose
8. Growth of any tourist centre does not occur gradually but as a
series of distinct steps. If you were to graph visitor numbers
you would see the following pattern.
Stage 1: Pre-
Stage 2: Pioneer
Stage 3: Mature
Stage 4: Saturation
9. STAGE 1.
• No Development ( up to 1860s )
• .Pioneer Phase ( 1870 to 1920s )
STAGE 3 - Maturity
• Early Maturity ( 1930 to 1940s )
• Mass Tourism ( 1950 to 1960s )
• Specialisation – Niche Marketing( 1970s to present)
HISTORY OF TOURISM IN ROTORUA PG 20
10. UP TO 1860’S.
• Only inhabitants were the Te Arawa tribe.
• .First European settlement was in 1835 when Christian
• .Public recognition of Pink and white terraces in 1839 and
thus tourism was born in the region.
• 3- 4 day trek from Auckland made the journey less desirable
PHASE ONE: EARLY (PRE) DEVELOPMENT
13. 1870’S TO 1920’S
• Regular visitors from the UK began in 1870.
• Bathing in the basins of the Pink and White Terraces.
• Terraces recognised as 8th wonder of the world in 1870 *
• Facilities set up eg Rotomahana hotel and road to Tauranga
• Rotorua township established in 1881 with hotels e.g.
.By the 1880s the tourist numbers reached 1000
• Tarawera eruption in 1886 destroyed the P & W terraces
THE PIONEER PHASE
14. • Whakarewarewa was established and local guides took
visitors around the local area.
• Railway connection built in 1894 improves access
• Government invested in region. Bath house built in Tudor style
as flagship early 1900’s
• Rainbow trout introduced to Lake Rotorua
PIONEER PHASE CONTINUED
16. 1930’s to 1940’s
• Large increase in numbers due to the arrival of cruise ships
• Development of cars and busses led to attractions moving
away from the centre eg Paradise Valley in 1939.
• War brings phase to abrupt end
THE EARLY MATURE PHASE
18. 1950’s to 1970’s
• The Age of the Package deal as the Boeing 707 was
• NZ tourist and publicity board was established to promote NZ
• By 1962 there were 70,000 visitors to NZ.
• The Grand Hotel was opened in 1958
• The New Airport opened in 1964
• Accommodation trebled in 1960’s.
• Many tourist attractions upgraded to cope with increase in
• Maori Arts and crafts Institute opened in 1963 to promote
MASS TOURISM PHASE
20. 1970’s to Present
• By the 1970s Rotorua’s focus turned to tourism as this was
seen to be the main income earner
• There was a big marketing initiative especially towards the
package tour industry from Asia.
• Many govt owned operations were sold eg bath house
• The Agrodome was set up in 1970
• The late 70s saw the growth in the tour group as larger
aircraft were used.
• Number of Hotels and motels grew along Fenton St
SPECIALISATION AND NICHE MARKETING
22. • This was the age of specialisation to niche markets
• NZ became a ‘New’ destination and thus became desirable
• Increase in Asian market = more interpreters
• Increase in FITS = more backpackers and rental cars. Allows
move into periphery.
• Many attractions began to diversify such as the Agrodome to
cater for the domestic, adventure tourist e.g. Bungy, Zorb and
• Convention centre opened in 1995 to address the new
business focus. This was followed by the Unison events centre
• In 2010, Rotorua became an International Airport with direct
flights to Australia which also helped it grow.
24. • Continued focus of Government and Tourism Rotorua
• Attitude of locals toward tourists.
• Increased or improved accessibility to the region
• Low cost flights to NZ
• Cleanliness of the surrounding area
• Continued innovation to avoid stagnation
• Provision of a strategic plan setting out the zones designated
for tourist use
CONTINUED GROWTH DEPENDS ON…
27. WHAT KICK STARTED EACH
PHASE OF TOURISM?
Phase 1 ended when P and W terraces declared 8th wonder of
world. Phase 2 began with an increase in overseas visitors
Phase 2 ended with WW2 and Phase 3 began with an increase
28. A MODEL TO SHOW THESE CHANGES PG
32. SPECIALISATION PHASE
Te Puia Rydges
Attraction for domestic visitor
Attraction for international