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AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
“Alleviate poverty and malnutrition in the developing world through increased
productio...
Five Necessary Policy Changes to Help Achieve Improved Nutrition and
Sustainable Agriculture through Smallholder Vegetable...
“Nutrition has fallen to a
low level of priority.”
Malnutrition is often invisible;
poor community awareness
of its threat...
Rec. 1. National policies for food and nutrition security and health that move
beyond staple crops because the growing epi...
2008
5
Shift the Focus from hunger to encouraging people to
take up healthier, better balanced diets
 “Globesity” (WHO): ...
Slide 6 / 50 www.avrdc.org
Improving food supply by reducing postharvest loss
• Reducing postharvest
losses for fresh prod...
HOW CAN WE GET
PEOPLE TO EAT MORE
FRUIT & VEGETABLES
daily fruit & veg consumption = 400 g
200 g of each, daily =
 more n...
Vegetables go to School
Healthier, better balanced diets
Bangladeshi women trained in home gardening and nutrition had a
significantly higher supp...
Slide 10 / 50 www.avrdc.org
Cambodia: Dramatic impact of increasing food
prices
Rising prices in 2008 and beyond
Rice: $0....
Slide 11 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org
PROSPERITY FOR THE POOR, HEALTH FOR ALL
Vegetables – a pathway out of poverty
 Smallhold...
Slide 12 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org
PROSPERITY FOR THE POOR, HEALTH FOR ALL
Training of Youths on Peri-Urban Horticulture:
Re...
Regular collection of quality statistics on horticultural production
Vegetable production is important for
smallholders: For example in India
Farm category
Marginal
(<1ha)
Small
(1-2 ha)
Medi...
Home gardens – household nutrition in the hands of women
Are these home garden outputs
represented in national statistics?
Slide 16 / 50 www.avrdc.org
In comparison:
The 11 low-income countries in the Asian region (excluding
India) account for o...
Slide 17 / 50 www.avrdc.org
Rate of return to research in the AVRDC/NRI/South Indian NARS “Malle Roga” project (2004-
2006...
Slide 18 / 50 www.avrdc.org
Investment in human resources for horticultural
research:Training for the Taiwan of tomorrow
A...
Slide 19 / 50 www.avrdc.org
AVRDC-Kasetsart University Annual Horticultural training course for 3 months
Rec. 3 Strengthen market opportunities for smallholder
farmers: Vegetables – a pathway out of poverty
Fruit and
Vegetables...
21
Transportation issues
Getting vegetables
• Where they are needed
• When they are needed,
and
• In good condition
Thursd...
22
Wastage and losses
In Oceania
• Within 48 hours 27% of
harvested eggplant is
unsalable due to
dehydration
• After 4 day...
23
Create incentives for smallholder
farmers to adopt protected cultivation
Mauritius – protected
tomato production
Brunei...
24
Make agricultural entrepreneurship an attractive job
choice for women and for young people
Influencing populations
Link...
Vegetables WIN (women, income,
nutrition)
1. empowerment of women to manage small rural
and urban plots
2. high value for ...
26
Supporting Women’s Action Groups such
as here in the Solomons
Rec: 4 Renew existing policy frameworks
to ensure judicious pesticide use
Crop Protection Stewardship
Increase awareness o...
Inappropriate pesticide use
unacceptable practices common
28
Loss of producer profit
Loss of trade and value chains
Loss o...
Solutions to inappropriate
pesticide use
Precise pest and disease diagnostics
and IPM
• Agronomic practices
• Judicious pe...
Agronomic practices
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum
(soil-borne, vascular bacterial disease)
Contro...
Tomato leaf curl virus caused by begomoviruses
(insect-transmitted viral disease)
Control principle Specific measures Effi...
Grafting
Quang Vinh, IVTC
trainee
2007 Lam Dong Province
4000 ha cultivated with
grafted seedlings
2012:
Full adoption in ...
Rec. 5 Reassess public sector policies for
improved germplasm and food quality & safety
Start or maintain long term vegeta...
The Association of Southeast
Asian Nations
“UNIDO Regional Trade Standards Compliance Report,
2013”
ASEAN potential to gai...
HACCP for food safety
HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
• Scientific, systematic, identification of hazards and p...
Slide 36 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org
1. Move beyond staples
2.>Hort. Research Investment
3.Strenghthen market opportunities
4....
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Five necessary policy changes to help achieve improved nutrition and sustainable agriculture through smallholder vegetable horticulture

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Presentation by Dyno Keatinge (AVRDC) at the APAARI High Level Policy Dialogue, 8 dec 2015

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Five necessary policy changes to help achieve improved nutrition and sustainable agriculture through smallholder vegetable horticulture

  1. 1. AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center “Alleviate poverty and malnutrition in the developing world through increased production and consumption of safe vegetables” Prosperity for the Poor and Health for All
  2. 2. Five Necessary Policy Changes to Help Achieve Improved Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture through Smallholder Vegetable Horticulture in the APAARI region J.D.H. Keatinge, P. Schreinemachers, F. Beed, J.d’A. Hughes AVRDC  The World Vegetable Center P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan, 74199 Taiwan
  3. 3. “Nutrition has fallen to a low level of priority.” Malnutrition is often invisible; poor community awareness of its threat to health and well-being Governments have failed to recognize the pivotal role that malnutrition has on economic performance Multi-organizational stakeholders in nutrition: nutrition falls between the cracks of government (partial responsibility of many, but main responsibility is none) 2005 Slide
  4. 4. Rec. 1. National policies for food and nutrition security and health that move beyond staple crops because the growing epidemic of malnutrition and non- communicable diseases worldwide is bringing overwhelming health costs Wheat, maize and rice supply more than 60% of humanity’s calories Feeding the World without Nourishing it at the same time is not sensible There is a much higher rate of return to research in development opportunity crops and small stock! Therefore, why not invest more in vegetables, fruits, fish, livestock and other agricultural products which can help to abolish malnutrition. … while other highly nutritious crops are underutilised
  5. 5. 2008 5 Shift the Focus from hunger to encouraging people to take up healthier, better balanced diets  “Globesity” (WHO): Global epidemic of excess weight and obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health problem  Southeast Asia and western Pacific region at the forefront of this crisis India and PR China: Rapid growth rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes amongst children
  6. 6. Slide 6 / 50 www.avrdc.org Improving food supply by reducing postharvest loss • Reducing postharvest losses for fresh produce is an integral part of sustainable agricultural development 95% 5% Percentage of funding provided for horticultural development efforts over the past 30 years Increasing production Reducing postharvest loss Source: Kader and Rolle 2004
  7. 7. HOW CAN WE GET PEOPLE TO EAT MORE FRUIT & VEGETABLES daily fruit & veg consumption = 400 g 200 g of each, daily =  more nutritious diets  healthier children and adults  more resilient individuals and households standard weight of football = 396 g RAW COOKED HOW MUCH IS 400 GRAMS? Nutrients in vegetables • Improve children’s ability to grow and learn • Improve adults’ capacity to work and earn AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center promotes vegetable consumption through • Home and school gardens • Recipes • Food processing training
  8. 8. Vegetables go to School
  9. 9. Healthier, better balanced diets Bangladeshi women trained in home gardening and nutrition had a significantly higher supply of vegetables and of key vitamins and nutrients. Source: Schreinemachers at al. 2015. Note: Difference established through a comparison of women who received the training with a statistically similar group who did not receive it. All variables significant at p<0.01.
  10. 10. Slide 10 / 50 www.avrdc.org Cambodia: Dramatic impact of increasing food prices Rising prices in 2008 and beyond Rice: $0.25 to 0.62 per kg Meat: $1.5 to $3.5 per kg Fuel: $0.75 to $1.4 per liter Changing dietary behavior:  Only 2 meals a day (instead of previously three)  Less consumption of meat  Consumption of vegetables grown in home gardens only Source: HelpAge International 2008
  11. 11. Slide 11 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org PROSPERITY FOR THE POOR, HEALTH FOR ALL Vegetables – a pathway out of poverty  Smallholders often have a comparative advantage in producing vegetables, since there are limited economies of scale  Vegetable production leads to higher farm income and generates more jobs than other crops  Vegetable value chains contribute to commercialization of the rural economy
  12. 12. Slide 12 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org PROSPERITY FOR THE POOR, HEALTH FOR ALL Training of Youths on Peri-Urban Horticulture: Reduce outmigration from rural areas for employment
  13. 13. Regular collection of quality statistics on horticultural production
  14. 14. Vegetable production is important for smallholders: For example in India Farm category Marginal (<1ha) Small (1-2 ha) Medium (2-4ha) Large (>4ha) % households growing vegetables 16 17 15 10 % share in total vegetable area 35 27 21 18 Source: Birthal, P. S., and P. C. Joshi. (2007) "Institutional innovation for improving smallholder participation in high-value agriculture: a case of fruit and vegetable growers' associations in India". Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 46 (1): 49-67.
  15. 15. Home gardens – household nutrition in the hands of women Are these home garden outputs represented in national statistics?
  16. 16. Slide 16 / 50 www.avrdc.org In comparison: The 11 low-income countries in the Asian region (excluding India) account for only 5% of the region’s public agricultural R&D expenditures Rec. 2. Ensure longterm funding for horticultural research and development PR China and India Expenditures for agricultural R&D have tripled in PR China and India from 1981 - 2003 Shift: from traditional areas of agricultural research to biotechnology
  17. 17. Slide 17 / 50 www.avrdc.org Rate of return to research in the AVRDC/NRI/South Indian NARS “Malle Roga” project (2004- 2006 exceeded 764:1 and the genes inserted for TYLCV protection were then further introduced into another 13 countries and subsequently into most new hybrids in the Asia/Pacific region AVRDC key partner: The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore
  18. 18. Slide 18 / 50 www.avrdc.org Investment in human resources for horticultural research:Training for the Taiwan of tomorrow AVRDC provides post-doctoral fellowships for Taiwan researchers, and has a visiting scientist program. In the past five years, AVRDC has trained 86 undergraduate students from Taiwan in horticulture, biotechnology, and nutrition. These interns carry the skills and knowledge they have gained into the workplace and into institutes of higher education. The Cambodian Horticultural Research Institute outside of Phnom Penh is seriously deficient in human resources in all horticultural disciplines
  19. 19. Slide 19 / 50 www.avrdc.org AVRDC-Kasetsart University Annual Horticultural training course for 3 months
  20. 20. Rec. 3 Strengthen market opportunities for smallholder farmers: Vegetables – a pathway out of poverty Fruit and Vegetables: Commercialization of the rural economy
  21. 21. 21 Transportation issues Getting vegetables • Where they are needed • When they are needed, and • In good condition Thursday morning Sunday morning Typical route for produce from the Sigatoka valley to Suva, Fiji
  22. 22. 22 Wastage and losses In Oceania • Within 48 hours 27% of harvested eggplant is unsalable due to dehydration • After 4 days 38% of the tomatoes that reach market are lost due to rots. In the Greater Mekong • Poor packaging/transport • Adverse storage condition • Poor quality • Cannot sell all produce
  23. 23. 23 Create incentives for smallholder farmers to adopt protected cultivation Mauritius – protected tomato production Brunei – protected seedling production Vietnam – protected vegetable cultivation in Da Lat Oman – protected field production
  24. 24. 24 Make agricultural entrepreneurship an attractive job choice for women and for young people Influencing populations Linking education, health, agriculture A new generation of agricultural scientists A new generation of farmers to feed a growing population
  25. 25. Vegetables WIN (women, income, nutrition) 1. empowerment of women to manage small rural and urban plots 2. high value for fresh and processed products 3. short cultivation cycle and huge diversity 4. increased nutrition provided to family and consumers
  26. 26. 26 Supporting Women’s Action Groups such as here in the Solomons
  27. 27. Rec: 4 Renew existing policy frameworks to ensure judicious pesticide use Crop Protection Stewardship Increase awareness of family and consumer health and economic rationality: Appropriate use of approved products at correct dose for specific crops Appropriate timings of applications (respecting Pre-Harvest Interval) Use of correct safety and application equipment Store and dispose responsibly Enforce GAP
  28. 28. Inappropriate pesticide use unacceptable practices common 28 Loss of producer profit Loss of trade and value chains Loss of country and retailer credibility Loss of biodiversity Loss of yield Increased pest resistance Health hazard to growers Health hazard to consumers Precise data not available!
  29. 29. Solutions to inappropriate pesticide use Precise pest and disease diagnostics and IPM • Agronomic practices • Judicious pesticide use • Biological control 29
  30. 30. Agronomic practices Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (soil-borne, vascular bacterial disease) Control principle Specific measures Efficacy Pathogen exclusion Use a plot without disease history Use clean seedlings No contact with contaminated water *** Pathogen reduction Practice rotation Remove diseased plants Apply chemical or organic amendments ** Host resistance Use locally effective resistant cultivars *** Direct protection Use sterilized pruning tools *
  31. 31. Tomato leaf curl virus caused by begomoviruses (insect-transmitted viral disease) Control principle Specific measures Efficacy Pathogen exclusion Raise healthy seedlings by protection with 60-mesh net *** Pathogen reduction Control whitefly, with pesticide, trap crops, pheromone traps Remove and destroy infected plants * Host resistance Use locally effective resistant cultivars *** Direct protection Apply summer oil on leaves * Agronomic practices
  32. 32. Grafting Quang Vinh, IVTC trainee 2007 Lam Dong Province 4000 ha cultivated with grafted seedlings 2012: Full adoption in Lam Dong and increasing in Red River Delta Yield increased by 18 t ha-1 Increased profit in Lam Dong of US$7.7 million
  33. 33. Rec. 5 Reassess public sector policies for improved germplasm and food quality & safety Start or maintain long term vegetable breeding programs Encourage private seed sector to contribute positively GAP Eliminate chemical poisons (pesticides, mycotoxins) through targeted diagnostics and IPM; agronomic practices / biological control / judicious pesticide use Ensure the hygiene of perishables vegetables across value chain PROVIDE NUTRITIOUS, AFFORDABLE AND SAFE VEGETABLES FOR ALL 33 Our heartland activities
  34. 34. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations “UNIDO Regional Trade Standards Compliance Report, 2013” ASEAN potential to gain from macro trends of increasing population and purchasing powers not met in all countries by increased vegetable production • Significant constraints due to food safety and quality issues with most common reasons for import rejections being: • MRLs exceeded of pesticides (approved and prohibited) and mycotoxins • presence of quarantine plant pathogens and pests • inadequate hygiene standards
  35. 35. HACCP for food safety HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT • Scientific, systematic, identification of hazards and preventative methods • Applied throughout food chain from primary production to final consumption • Combines expertise in environmental, veterinary and public health • Involves, microbiology, chemistry, food technologies and engineering • Avoids relying on end-product testing • Adapts to technological advances (e.g. detection and post harvest methods)
  36. 36. Slide 36 (06/2008) www.avrdc.org 1. Move beyond staples 2.>Hort. Research Investment 3.Strenghthen market opportunities 4. Policies for safe pesticide use 5. Provide improved germplasm and ensure food safety http://www.avrdc.org Take away Messages!

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