2. Civil Engineering
• Definition:- “Civil Engineering is the art of directing
the great sources of power in nature for the use and
convenience of man”.- Royal Charter of Institute of
Civil Engineers London.
• “ Civil Engineering is that field of engineering
concerned with planning, design and construction for
environmental Control, development of natural
resources, buildings, transportation facilities and other
structures required for health, welfare, safety,
employment and pleasure of mankind”. Fredrick .S.
Merit Hand book for Civil Engineers.
4. Civil Engineering
• The main scope of civil engineering or the task of civil
engineering is planning, designing, estimating, supervising
construction, managing construction, execution, and
maintenance of structures like building, roads, bridges,
• One who designs and maintains works of public utility is
known as civil engineer. Civil engineer should have
qualities like scientific attitude, imaginative and intuitive
approach, He should have good analysis and decision
power. He should be able to solve engineering problems, by
using mathematical modeling, scientific principles and
laboratory techniques using computer and information
technology. He should be able to use operation research
techniques for solution of management problems.
6. Branches of Civil Engineering
• Civil Engineering is a wide field and includes
many types of structures such as residential
buildings, public buildings, industrial buildings,
roads, bridges, tunnels, railways, dams, canal
and canal structures, airports, harbours, and
ports, water treatment plants, waste water
treatment plant, water supply networks, and
• According to the type of structures and activities
carried out, main branches of civil engineering are
classified as follows:
8. Branches of Civil Engineering
• Surveying & leveling
• Building, Planning and construction
• Advanced Construction
• Structural Engineering
• Geotechnical Engineering
• Water Resources Engineering
• Transportation Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
• Town Planning
9. Surveying & leveling
• Surveying includes measurements of distances and angles in
horizontal and vertical planes, while leveling is the measurement of
heights in vertical plane.
• Chain, compass, level and theodolite are the instruments used for
surveying. Surveying fixes the relative positions of different points
on the basis of surface of earth.
• It also includes measurements of areas and volumes. Basic aim of
surveying is to prepare a map of the area to some scale.
• Surveying is carried out to fix the alignment of road, railway canal.
It is also useful in selecting the site for the construction of
structures. Modern surveying instruments like Electronic total
station and Geographical Positioning System(GPS) are the modern
electronic digital instruments for survey works. Remote sensing and
Geographical Information system(GIS) are adopted for surveying and
planning of many civil engineering projects.
11. Building Planning & Construction
• Civil engineers are concerned with many
types of structures of which buildings
are of prime importance.
• Buildings are planned according to the
fundamental principles of planning &
bylaws of local municipal bodies.
• Building planning requires basic
knowledge of principles of architecture.
Buildings may be residential or public
building like school, colleges,
government office, hospitals, etc. they are
designed according to need of specific
occupants and purposes.
13. Advanced Construction
• Construction of dams, bridges, tunnels, ports,
requires several advanced techniques of
construction. Under water construction requires
specific type of equipment. Pile foundations or well
foundations are generally provided for foundation of
bridges across rivers in alluvial soil.
• Large scale earthworks in excavation requires
equipment's like power shovel, dragline, bulldozers,
etc. For massive concrete work in dam concrete
mixing plant is required to be erected at the dam
site. Construction of power station, off shore oil rigs,
ports, tunnels etc., come under category of advanced
15. Structural Engineering
• This Branch of civil engineering deals with structural
analysis and design of structures. Structural analysis is
done to calculate stresses in structural components, on
the basis of loads, acting on structures.
• Sections of structural elements like beams, columns,
slabs, etc. are designed. Structural analysis requires
much calculation, hence advanced computing software's
are used to carry out structural analysis and design.
• It includes design of reinforced cement concrete ( RCC)
and steel structures. Design of Multistoried buildings,
towers, retaining walls, water tanks, bridges requires
skills and knowledge of structural engineering.
17. Geotechnical Engineering
• Geotechnical engineering is that field of civil engineering
which deals with soil investigation and design of proper
foundations of structures.
• Soil investigation includes collection and testing of soil
• Geotechnical engineering includes measurement of soil
parameters and safe bearing capacity. It also includes
construction and design of simple foundations, pile
foundations, well foundations, caissons, coffer dams,
construction of foundation of dams, construction of tunnels,
sub base of road, earthen dams, earth related constructions.
Sound knowledge of geology and geotechnical engineering
is necessary for construction of earth related structures.
19. Water Resource Engineering
• Water resource engineering means measurements,
utilization and development of water resources for
agriculture, municipal and power generation purpose.
• It mainly includes irrigation engineering, design of
hydraulic structures like dams, canals, etc. Water resource
engineering deals with planning designing and developing
water resources by constructing several hydraulic structures
like dams, barrages, hydropower stations, canal and pipe
• It also includes watershed planning, water harvesting
techniques, soil conservation and soil reclamation.
Hydrology is also a part of water resource engineering.
Hydrology includes study of sources of water,
measurement of rainfall, study of rainfall, runoff, flood
21. Transportation Engineering
• Transportation means movement of passengers and
goods by means of vehicles on land, ship on water
and aircrafts in air.
• Transportation Engineering is that branch of Civil
engineering which deals with planning, designing
and construction of roads, bridges, railways,
tunnels, harbours, ports, docks, runways, and
• As for development of any nation good transportation
network is of prime importance. Study of various
construction materials used in construction of roads,
traffic engineering are also considered under
23. Environmental Engineering
• Environmental Engineering deals with pollution control and
public health engineering. Different types of pollutions are
water, air, noise and other pollution.
• Due to large scale industrialization, population growth, rapid
urbanization and several other human activities like construction,
mining, transportation, environment gets polluted.
• Environmental engineering deals with technologies &
facilities which are engaged in reducing pollution.
Environmental engineering includes design, construction and
maintenance of water treatment plant, waste water treatment
plant, water distribution network and sewerage system, it
also deals with solid waste management in towns and cities.
Public health engineering includes water treatment, water
distribution network, & solid waste management.
26. Town planning
• Town planning means planned & controlled growth of
town by dividing town in to different land use zones and
regulating building construction to provide better
environment for the people of the town.
• In the town planning areas of town are divided into
residential, commercial, recreational and industrial
zones, which is called zoning.
• Floor space index, and other byelaws are fixed to guide
and regulate the building construction.
• For towns and cities master plan for town planning
schemes are prepared to accommodate future growth of
town in better way. Planning of very large area covering
several towns and villages is known as regional planning.
30. Before Construction
• In the beginning technical feasibility, environmental
impact assessment and economical viability of the
project are studied. Surveying includes preparing site
plan, contour map and measurement of field dimensions
• Soil investigation includes collecting data regarding soil
and bearing capacity of soil. Soil investigations is done
for the purpose of foundation design.
• On the basis of the data collected planning, designing, are
carried out and drawings are prepared. Estimates are
prepared to know the probable cost of completion of work
and detailed planning and scheduling are prepared to carry
out different activities in time without any delay.
32. During Construction
• Owner, engineer and contractor are the three
constituents of a construction team in engineering
profession, hence continuous liaison among
themselves is a very essential for the speedy progress
of the work.
• Execution of work is actual construction carried out
on the site with materials and equipment's, by the
skilled and unskilled work force, under the technical
guidance and supervision of engineer in charge.
During the construction engineer has to supervise the
work carried out as per the specifications for quality
control. Costing is the accounts procedure of arriving at
the actual cost of construction.
33. After Construction
• Maintenance and repairs
• After the construction regular maintenance of
structures is to be carried out. Valuation is
carried out for the purpose of sale, purchase
and many others purposes.
34. Role of Civil Engineers
Civil engineer is the one who designs and maintains the work of public
utilities. Following are the main roles or duties of civil engineers.
• Civil engineers main role is in surveying, planning, designing,
estimation and execution of structures like buildings, roads,
bridges, railways, ports, airports, dams, canals, water and waste
water treatment plants, water distribution network and sewerage
• To use scientific and engineering principles for solutions of
different engineering problems
• To solve different engineering problems with the help of field
experience, laboratory techniques, mathematical models, using
computer and information technology.
• To implement management techniques for better management of
man, material, machines and money.
36. Role of Civil Engineers
• To carry out planning of building as per its functional needs, as
suggested by clients or user, the building may be residential
building, public building, or industrial building. He has to plan
the building as per the byelaws.
• To carry out soil investigations for the design of foundation of
• To carry out design of structures as per the principles of structural
analysis and design. He should also ensure that the design is safe,
durable, and economical.
• To prepare the estimates to know the probable cost of completion
• To invite tenders & to select contractors for the works.
• To carry out valuation of land or building for the purpose of
finding its sale or purchase price or taxation.
• Civil engineers has to work for the general welfare of people.
38. Impact of Infrastructure Development on the
Economic Development of a country
• The infrastructural facilities mainly transportation, power,
communication, water resources, banking, science and technology create
environment in which Industries and business can grow. Due to the basic
facilities which any industry needs are provided by infrastructural sector,
country has progressed well. Per capita income and Gross domestic
product are the economic measures for assessment of development.
• Per Capita Income:
• Per Capita income is the average income of normal resident of a country
in a particular year. It is obtained by dividing national income of a
country by its population
• Gross domestic Product:
• Gross domestic product at market price is the value of all fixed goods
and services at prices prevailing in the market produced in the domestic
territory of a country during a given year.
• Due to the acceleration of progress of infrastructural projects overall
development and upliftment of common man can be done. Thus the
infracture development is key to economic development of any country.
40. Importance of Planning, Scheduling, and
• Management is a social and scientific process of defining
the objectives, planning, organizing, coordinating,
motivating, controlling and harnessing the resources of an
organization at the optimum level to achieve
• Management is concerned with When? Who? Why? Where ?
• Five M of management Man, Money, Material, Machine, and
• The functions of management are planning, organizing,
staffing, directing, coordinating, controlling and
41. Importance of Construction
• It gives guidelines regarding the execution of construction
work to be carried out.
• It helps in preparing construction schedule. Schedule is a
systematic path of different activities carried out one after
another. It helps in defining goals and planning procedure.
• It helps in proper management of material, labour and
• It helps in arranging for finance and due to proper
construction management there is financial and overall
control on the work.
• Due to proper construction management project can be
completed in estimated completion cost and completion time.
43. Functions of the construction
• Project is divided into different phases.
• Planning and preparing construction schedule.
• Estimating requirements of material & labour.
• Procurement of material plant, machinery and
• Arranging for finance and payment of material and
salaries of labours.
• To establish communication between various sections.
• To have overall control which includes financial control
of the project and to maintain quality and
44. Importance of Planning
• Planning is the management process which transforms goals or
policies into a method of reaching the objectives. Planning is setting
up of order to complete the project.
• The following aspects are to be considered in planning of a
• Selection of proper site, topography, soil and cost of land.
• Surveying, designing, drafting and estimation are basic planning
exercise for civil works.
• To estimate cost of completion and time of completion of work.
• Planning source of finance for the project.
• Planning of resources includes calculating man power needs,
requirements of skilled and unskilled labours. To plan the purchase of
materials by finding out when and what quality of material are to be
purchased. To arrange for the equipment's either to be purchased or
• Establish stores for material and workshop for machinery.
• For the planning of future course of action of the project,
entire project is divided into different activities of work. Say
for example, in building work excavation, laying base
concrete in foundation, masonry work in substructures etc.
are different activities.
• Now each activity has some time required for its completion
that is known as its duration. For civil engineering
planning, most common period for duration considered is in
the days or weeks.
• Scheduling is carried out to arrange the proper sequence of
different activities to be carried out for the project considering
dependence and duration of different activities.
• Scheduling gives direction regarding order in which different
activities can be started, it also gives details of completion time
required for the project. Scheduling gives us detail regarding
the most optimum time of start and completion of project.
48. Importance of scheduling
• Scheduling is very important looking to its following
• Well defined order of the execution of different activities
can be known. Thus empowering decision making process
and gives clear guide line for progress of work.
• Labour requirement at different time period is known, hence
phased purchase of material can be made, which reduces the
problem of storing the material on the site and hence reduces
problem of material handling on site.
• Material requirement at different time period is known,
hence phased purchase of material can be made.
• Proper time of hiring or purchasing of the equipment and
machinery can be known.
49. Importance of scheduling
• Proper control over finance can be made. Well before the
need, arrangement for the funds can be made.
• It also helps in controlling the expenditure.
50. Scheduling Techniques
• The common techniques for scheduling any project
are mentioned as below:
• Bar Chart
• Critical Path Method (CPM)
• Project Evaluation & Review Technique.(PERT)
51. Bar Chart
• Bar char is a graphical representation of different
activities. Each activity is represented by a thick
line known as bar. Time is mentioned on X-axis
and activities on Y-axis.
• Bar spreads horizontally across the duration.
Beginning and end of activity is clearly represented
by beginning and end of a bar. The part of activity
which is completed is shown by a dark shade on the
53. Advantages of Bar Chart
• It is very simple method and easy to understand
• Change in the bar char is easy to understand
• Progress can be known at any stage.
• Modification in the chart is easy.
54. Limitation of Bar Chart
• It is useful for small and simple jobs
• Interdependency of activities is not well defined.
• It does not suggest priorities of work.
• Uncertainties are not considered.
55. Network Techniques
• In this method entire project planning is done with
the help of network drawing
• Critical Path Method ( CPM)
• Project Evaluation and review Technique ( PERT)
56. Critical Path Method ( CPM)
• Critical path method is widely used method for
planning big projects involving many
interdependent activities and having
complicated interrelationship. It ha become
very useful tool for engineers working in
• In Critical path method work is divided into
activities. The beginning and end of the activity
is known as event.
• In critical path method, network diagram is drawn
showing an arrow for activity and circle for event.
58. Advantages of Critical Path Method
• It is useful for big projects having more
• As critical activities are known, it provides
guidance regarding where more attention is
• It improves overall control and monitoring.
• It helps in proper labour and material
• As delay is reduced, it results in saving the cost.
59. Limitations of Critical Path
• It does not consider uncertainties in planning.
• CPM is not useful for research and development
type of project.
61. Project Evaluation and review Technique
• PERT Technique considers the uncertainties of the
• Optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic
time are the three time estimates used in the PERT.
Optimistic time ( to) is the time when all situations are
favorable. Most likely time (tm) is the time normally
taken for the completion of the activity.
• The pessimistic time (tp) is the time when maximum
time is taken for the activity to complete due to most
unfavorable situation. The expected time is the
weighted average of all the above mentioned three