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Environmental Engineering-I

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Environmental Engineering-I
Unit-I
BTCI05006

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Environmental Engineering-I

  1. 1. Environmental Engineering Unit - I BTCI05006 / MBCI05006
  2. 2. Syllabus • Introduction: • Quality and Quantity ofWater • Quality of water: Physical, chemical, microbiological characteristic, standard limits for water portability, laboratory analysis, significance of results w.r.t. waterborne diseases, other quality parameters – DO, BOD, COD; stream pollution, Streeter-Phelp’s equation.
  3. 3. Environment • Environment is Define as “The Complex of Physical, Chemical & Biotic factors affecting an organism and ultimately determining its form and survival” is known as Environment.
  4. 4. Environmental Engineering • Environmental Engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation (house or home) and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. • It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.
  5. 5. Quality and Quantity of Water Water Sources • Water is vital natural resource which forms the basis of all life. It is the key resource in all economic activity, ranging from agriculture to industries. With increase in population there has been a severe stress on water resource. Water as a resource has many uses like, generation of electricity, navigation, as a solvent for many chemicals, and the most important use is for drinking. • Thus sustainment of a civilization depends upon continuous supply and good quality of water. Thus water as a natural resource should be conserved and effectively use in order to prevent shortage of water resources
  6. 6. Water Resources Sources ofWater Surface Sources • Rivers • Lakes • Ponds • Streams • Oceans Subsurface Sources • Wells • Tube wells • Infiltration galleries • InfiltrationWells
  7. 7. Water Resources Surface Source • The Source of water is to be finalized based upon the Quality and Quantity of Water available • Seawater: Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5%. This means that every kilogram, or every liter, of seawater has approximately 35 grams. Thus Sea water cannot be used as potable source of water.
  8. 8. Seawater
  9. 9. Water Resources • River: A River is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.
  10. 10. River
  11. 11. Water Resources • Pond: A natural large sized depression formed on the surface of the earth, when gets filled up with water is known as a pond or a lake. If the size of depression is small, it is termed as a pond and when the size is large it may be termed as lake. • Stream: Stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge.
  12. 12. Pond
  13. 13. Lake
  14. 14. Stream
  15. 15. Water Resources • Aquifer: An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
  16. 16. Aquifer
  17. 17. Sub Surface Sources • Open Wells: Smaller amount of water has been utilized from ancient times by open wells generally the quantity of water from open well is about 1-5 liters per second and the diameter of open well is about 2-9 m and the depth is up to 20 m . The yield of an open well is limited as the well can be excavated up to a very limited depth . It can be used as a source of water for a small community like a village.
  18. 18. Open Wells
  19. 19. Sub Surface Sources • Quality; the quality of ground water is generally good except the presence of some unwanted mineral and salts at some places. To obtain large discharges tube wells which is a long pipe or a tube, is bored or drilled deep into the ground, intercepting one or more water bearing stratum the quantity of water available from tube well is of order of 200 to 220 l/sec. the depth of tube well ranges from 70 m to 300 m. the diameter of tube well is 0.5 to 0.6 m.
  20. 20. Tube Well
  21. 21. Water Resources • Springs: The natural outflow of ground water at the earths surface is said to be spring. A pervious layer sandwiched between two impervious layer, give rise to natural spring The springs are generally capable of supplying small amount of water, and are therefore not considered as a source of supply.
  22. 22. Springs
  23. 23. Water Resources • Infiltration Galleries: Infiltration galleries are horizontal and nearly horizontal tunnel constructed at shallow depth along the bank of river through the water bearing strata. Infiltration wells are shallow wells constructed along the banks of the river in order to collect the river water seeping through their bottom. • These wells are constructed of brick masonry with open joints. They are generally covered at the top and kept open at the bottom
  24. 24. Infiltration Galleries
  25. 25. Water Pollution
  26. 26. Water Pollution • Water Pollution: Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use. • Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water.
  27. 27. Impurities In water • Following are the commonly found impurities in water. • Undesirable chemical constituents- Organic (e.g., Benzene, Carbon Tetrachloride, Cis-1,2-Dichlorethylene, Styrene etc..) and Inorganic (e.g., chloride, sulphate, iron, manganese, sodium, Total hardness and total dissolved solids • Toxic constituents (typical, not complete list) - nitrate, arsenic, chromium, lead, cyanide, copper, phenols, dissolved mercury. • Undesirable physical characteristics - taste, color and odour. • Pesticides and herbicides - chlorinated hydrocarbons and others • Radioactive materials - various forms of radioactivity • Biological - bacteria, viruses, parasites and so on • Acid (low pH) or caustic (high pH).
  28. 28. Quality of Water • Parameters of water which are required to be tested for determining the quality of water can be divided into • Physical • Chemical • Microbiological
  29. 29. Quality of Water • Physical Parameters: It includes turbidity, taste, colour, odour, temperature. • Turbidity: It is the large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt, some other finely divided organic matter present in the water, it will appear to be muddy or cloudy or turbid in appearance. • Turbidity is measured by turbid meter and is expressed in mg/l
  30. 30. Turbidity • It is the large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt, some other finely divided organic matter present in the water, it will appear to be muddy or cloudy or turbid in appearance. • Turbidity is measured by turbid meter and is expressed in mg/l
  31. 31. Quality of Water • Colour: Dissolved organic matter from decaying vegetation or some inorganic materials such as colored soils, may impart color to water. The excessive growth of algae also may impart color to the water. The presence of color in water is not objectionable from health point of view, but may spoil the color of clothes being washed in it color of water is measured by Hazens unit It should not exceed 5 and should be less than 25.
  32. 32. Color • Dissolved organic matter from decaying vegetation or some inorganic materials such as colored soils, may impart color to water. The excessive growth of algae also may impart color to the water. The presence of color in water is not objectionable from health point of view, but may spoil the color of clothes being washed in it • Color of water is measured by Hazens unit It should not exceed 5 and should be less than 25
  33. 33. Quality of Water • Taste And Odour : The dissolved organic matter, inorganic salts, or dissolved gases may impart tastes and odours to the water, which generally occurs together. Taste and odour may be due to presence of dissolved gases such as H2S, CH4, CO2, O2, etc.. Some mineral substances like Iron, sulphates, may impart taste to water. For drinking purpose water should not contain any undesirable taste and odour. Taste of water should be agreeable to the consumers And odour of water is measured in terms of threshold odour number. For public supplies threshold odour no should be 1 and should not exceed 3.
  34. 34. Quality of Water • Temperature: Temperature of water has no practical significance however temperature of water should be above 10 0 c while temperature above 25 0 C are considered as objectionable.
  35. 35. Quality of Water • Chemical Parameters: • It includes, • Solids ( Suspended, Dissolved, Volatile) • Hardness • Chlorides • pH • Dissolved gases like Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide. • Nitrogen compound like Nitrates, Nitrites. • Metals and other in organic substance like fluoride, iron, and manganese, lead, Arsenic, Iodide, Cadmium.
  36. 36. Total Solids and Suspended Solids • Total solids and suspended solids: The total amount of solids can be determined by evaporating a measured sample of water and weighing the dry residue left. The suspended solids can be determined by filtering the water sample and weighing the residue left on the filter paper. The difference between the total solids and the suspended solids will be the dissolved solids.
  37. 37. Total Dissolved Solids
  38. 38. pH of Water • pH is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration present in water. The higher values of pH mean lower hydrogen ion concentrations and thus represent alkaline water and vice versa. The neutral water has same number of H+ and OH– ions. The concentration of both ions in neutral water is 10–7 moles per liter. The neutral water will therefore possess a pH equal to • log10 (1/H+) = log10 (1/10–7) = log10 107 = 7
  39. 39. pH of Water
  40. 40. Hardness of water • Hardness in water prevents the formation of sufficient foam when used with soap. It is caused by certain dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium which form scum with soap and reduce the formation of foam which helps in removing the dirt from clothes. These salts keep on depositing on the surface of boilers and thus form a layer known as scale which reduces the efficiency of the boilers.
  41. 41. Hardness of water • The hardness is known as temporary hardness if it is due to the bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium as this can be easily removed by boiling water or adding lime to it. • By boiling the carbon dioxide gas escapes and the insoluble carbonates are deposited (which cause scaling). If sulphates, chlorides and nitrates are present they cannot be easily removed by boiling and so such water requires water softening methods and this type of hardness is known as permanent hardness.
  42. 42. Hardness of Water
  43. 43. Chlorides • Chlorides are generally present in water in the form of sodium chloride and their concentration above 250 mg/l produces a salty taste in drinking water. The chlorides can be measured in water by titrating the water with standard silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as indicator.
  44. 44. Chlorides
  45. 45. Nitrogen Content • The nitrogen in water may occur in one or more forms of • the following: (a) Free ammonia (b) Albuminoid nitrogen (c) Nitrites (d) Nitrates • The free ammonia indicates very fast stage of decomposition of organic matter • (thus indicating fresh pollution); albuminoid nitrogen represents the quantity of nitrogen present in water before the decomposition of organic matter has started
  46. 46. Nitrogen Content • The nitrites indicate the partly decomposed organic matter (the con-tinuation of decomposition) and the nitrates indicate the presence of fully oxidized organic matter (means the prior pollution condition). In potable water the free ammonia (undecomposed organic matter should not be more than 0.15 ppm, and the albuminoidal nitrogen should not be more than 0.3 ppm.
  47. 47. Nitrogen Content • The nitrogen may remain in the form of nitrates but that too should not be more than 45 ppm as a higher concentration causes blue baby disease in the infants. Actually the nitrates act with the hemoglobin in the blood (which imparts red colour) and reduce it thus converting the colour of skin to blue (impure blood) and thus making them ill and in extreme cases they can die. Nitrate is measured either by reduction to ammonia or by matching the colours produced with phenoldisulphonic acid.
  48. 48. Methemoglobinemia
  49. 49. Quality of Water Microbiological Parameters • It Includes various microorganisms i.e. bacteria, virus, protozoa, worms, present in water it may be pathogenic or non pathogenic
  50. 50. MPN Test
  51. 51. Esherichia coli (E-coli)
  52. 52. Water Quality Standards • The definition of water quality depends on the intended use of the water which may be either human consumption or it may be for industries, irrigation, recreation etc.. • Depending upon the proposed use of water, certain water quality criteria are established and based on these criteria quality standards are specified by health and other regulation agencies. • Different types of uses require different level of water purity. • Drinking water requires highest standard of purity
  53. 53. Water Pollution • Pure Water:- Pure water is that water which contains only two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen. • Pure water is a water from a source that has removed all impurities. • Distilled water is the most common form of pure water. • Pure water can be used for cooking, drinking, scientific studies and laboratories.
  54. 54. Distilled Water • Distilled pure water is the water that is produced by distillation, this water is boiled and the stream is then condensed into a container to get distilled water.
  55. 55. De-Ionized Water • De-ionized water is the cheaper imitation of distilled water. This type of pure water is obtained by removing all the mineral, ions such as calcium, copper and iron. • The deionization process is a physical process that uses ion-exchange resins that removes the mineral salts from water.
  56. 56. Wholesome Water • Water which is fit to use for drinking, cooking, food preparation or washing without any potential danger to human health. • In other words, wholesome water is that water which is not chemically pure, but does not contain any thing which can be harmful to human health.
  57. 57. Palatable Water • The water which is tasteful for drinking and aesthetically pure, is known as “ Palatable water”.
  58. 58. Potable Water • The water which is suitable for public water supply is known as potable water. • The water which has both the characteristics i.e. of ‘wholesome water’ and ‘palatable water’ is known as potable water.
  59. 59. Polluted Water • The water which consists of undesirable substances which make it unfit for drinking and domestic use, is known as ‘ Polluted Water’.
  60. 60. Contaminated Water • The Water containing Pathogenic organisms is called as “ Contaminated Water”. • The contaminated water is also polluted but the polluted water may not be contaminated.
  61. 61. Effluent • Effluent is an outflow of water from a natural body of water or from human made structure. • Effluent as defined by USEPA “ Waste water treated or untreated- that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer or industrial outfall generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.
  62. 62. Water Quality • Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of any human need or purpose.
  63. 63. Water Pollution • Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use. • Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water.
  64. 64. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  65. 65. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  66. 66. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  67. 67. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  68. 68. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  69. 69. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
  70. 70. Effluent
  71. 71. Effluent Discharge Standards
  72. 72. Water Borne Diseases and Their Control. • Water Borne Diseases: Water borne diseases are those diseases which spread primarily through contaminated water; and the water borne diseases are as follows; • 1) Diseases caused by bacterial infections: • Typhoid fever and Paratyphoid fever ( caused by salmonella typhi bacteria) • Cholera (caused by vibrio-cholerae bacteria) • Bacilllary dysentery * (caused by shiga bacillus or flexner-bacillus, or sonne bacilus)
  73. 73. Salmonella Typhi Bacteria
  74. 74. Vibrio-Cholerae Bacteria
  75. 75. Water Borne Diseases and Their Control. 2) Diseases caused by viral infections: Infectious hepatitis or infectious jaundice (caused by hepatitis virus). Poliomyelitis (caused by polio virus) 3) Diseases caused by Protozoal infections: Amoebic dysentry(caused by entamoeba hystolytic germ)
  76. 76. Hepatitis Virus
  77. 77. Poliomyelitis
  78. 78. Entamoeba Hystolytic Germ
  79. 79. PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS AND DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM
  80. 80. PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS AND DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM
  81. 81. PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS AND DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM
  82. 82. PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS AND DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM
  83. 83. PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS AND DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM
  84. 84. Water Borne Diseases
  85. 85. Preventive Measures to Control Water Borne Diseases • All these water borne diseases are infectious diseases in the sense that although they may also spread through direct contact, or through flies or filth, etc.; yet since water is the main and prime media responsible for the start and spread of these diseases they are termed as water borne diseases. • Since all these water borne diseases are infectious, the person attending the patient suffering from any of these diseases is liable to be infected and get the disease.
  86. 86. Preventive Measures to Control Water Borne Diseases In order to prevent the spread of water borne diseases the following preventive and precautionary measures are recommended; (1) The water supplies of the town or city must be thoroughly checked and disinfected before supplying to the public. The supplies of the existing hand pumps or wells in the city also be checked and remedial measures taken, where necessary, so as to make them safe and wholesome. (2) The water pipe lines should be frequently tested, checked and inspected, so as to detect any leakage and possible source of contamination from nearby surroundings. (3) While laying or designing sewer line the water distribution system, attempts should be made as to keep the sewer and water line as far as possible.
  87. 87. Preventive Measures to Control Water Borne Diseases (4) The general habit of cleanliness must be inculcated among the people. People should not be allowed to urinate and defecate as and where desired. (5) In times of rains or floods peoples must be instructed to use boiled water. In such circumstances extra dose of chlorine must be added to the supplies. (6) As soon as some cases of water borne diseases are reported, the people must on large scale be quickly inoculated and immunized against that disease.
  88. 88. Important Questions • State the physical and chemical characteristics of water and describe in detail any two physical and chemical characteristics. • Explain the term hardness of water, and classify the same. Why hardness is determined for source water? • Enumerate different types of microbes and draw the microbial growth curve stating its all components. • What are the sources of water? Describe the different impurities present in water with particle size distribution.
  89. 89. Important Questions • Enlist different physical and chemical characteristics of water and wastewater and discuss their environmental significance. • Describe role of microbes in the environment. • State various types of microbes and describe growth of microbes.
  90. 90. References Water Supply Engineering : By Prof S.K. Garg Khanna Publishers Internet Websites
  91. 91. THANKS...

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