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Ecological Footprint (1).pptx

  1. 1. Ecological Footprint Ecological footprint: Do we fit on our planet?
  2. 2. Ecological Footprint Ecological footprint: Do we fit on our planet?
  3. 3. Introduction • For more than 40 years, humanity’s demand on nature has exceeded what our planet can replenish. • We would need the regenerative capacity of 1.7 Earths to provide the natural resources and ecological services we currently use.
  4. 4. 1.7 planets needed to support humanity’s demand on earth’s ecosystem
  5. 5. Introduction • Only for a brief period can we cut trees faster than they mature, harvest more fish than the oceans can replenish, or emit more carbon into the atmosphere than the forests and oceans can absorb. • The consequences of “overshoot” are already clear: habitat and species loss, and accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere.
  6. 6. Earth Overshoot Day
  7. 7. Introduction • The Ecological Footprint adds up all the ecological services people demand that compete for space. • It includes the biologically productive area (or bio- capacity) needed for crops, grazing land, built-up areas, fishing grounds and forest products. • It also includes the area of forest needed to absorb carbon dioxide emissions that cannot be absorbed by the ocean. • Carbon from burning fossil fuels has been the dominant component of humanity’s Ecological Footprint for more than half a century and its share continues to grow.
  8. 8. The Ecological Footprint adds up all the ecological services people demand that compete for space.
  9. 9. Ecological Footprint • The ecological footprint is a method promoted by the Global Footprint Network to measure human demand on natural capital, i.e. the quantity of nature it takes to support people or an economy.
  10. 10. Ecological Footprint • The accounts contrast the biologically productive area people use for their consumption to the biologically productive area available within a region or the world.
  11. 11. Bio-Capacity and Ecological Footprint
  12. 12. Ecological Footprint Definition Ecological Footprint • Ecological footprint is a method of gauging humans’ dependence on natural resources by calculating how much of the environment is needed to sustain a particular lifestyle. • In other words, it measures the demand versus the supply of nature. • The Ecological Footprint is the only metric that measures how much nature we have and how much nature we use.
  13. 13. Ecological Footprint Definition • More specifically, the ecological footprint measures the amount of “biologically productive” land or water that enables the population to sustain itself. • This measurement takes into account the resources a population needs to (1) produce goods and (2) “assimilate,” or clean up, its waste. • Biologically productive land and water can include arable land, pastures, and parts of the sea that contain marine life. • The units for ecological footprint are global hectares (gha), which measure the amount of biologically productive land with a productivity equal to the world average.
  14. 14. The Ecological Footprint Measures The Amount Of “Biologically Productive” Land Or Water That Enables The Population To Sustain Itself
  15. 15. Ecological Footprint Definition • The simplest way to define an ecological footprint is the amount of environmental resources necessary to produce the goods and services that support an individual's particular lifestyle.
  16. 16. Ecological Footprint
  17. 17. Ecological Footprint • The first academic publication about ecological footprints was written by William Rees in 1992. • The ecological footprint concept and calculation method was developed as the PhD dissertation of Mathis Wackernagel, under Rees' supervision at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, from 1990 to 1994.
  18. 18. Professor William E. Rees & Dr. Mathis Wackernagel
  19. 19. Ecological Footprint • For some perspective, some ecological footprints of several countries are listed below. These values were listed for the year 2017 in the Global Footprint Network's Open Data Platform: • United States: 8.0 gha/person • Russia: 5.5 gha/person • Switzerland: 4.5 gha/person • Japan: 4.7 gha/person • France: 4.6 gha/person • China: 3.7 gha/person • Indonesia: 1.7 gha/person • Peru: 2.1 gha/person
  20. 20. Ecological Footprint • Note that ecological footprints can be counterbalanced by biocapacity, which refers to the ability of a biologically productive area to continuously generate renewable resources and clean up its wastes. • An area is considered unsustainable if a land’s ecological footprint is greater than its biocapacity.
  21. 21. Ecological Footprint • Conceived in 1990 by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees at the University of British Columbia, the Ecological Footprint launched the broader Footprint movement, including the carbon Footprint, and is now widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, individuals, and institutions working to monitor ecological resource use and advance sustainable development. • The most prominent calculations are those produced for countries. We call those the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts.
  22. 22. Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees at the University of British Columbia
  23. 23. Our Ecological Footprint (1996)
  24. 24. Ecological Footprint • Both the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity are expressed in global hectares, globally comparable, standardized hectares with world average productivity. • Each city, state or nation’s Ecological Footprint can be compared to its biocapacity, or that of the world.
  25. 25. Ecological Footprint • If a population’s Ecological Footprint exceeds the region’s biocapacity, that region runs a biocapacity deficit. • Its demand for the goods and services that its land and seas can provide, fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, wood, cotton for clothing, and carbon dioxide absorption, exceeds what the region’s ecosystems can regenerate.
  26. 26. Bio-capacity deficit
  27. 27. Ecological Footprint • In more popular communications, we also call this “an ecological deficit.” • A region in ecological deficit meets demand by importing, liquidating its own ecological assets (such as overfishing), and/or emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. • If a region’s biocapacity exceeds its Ecological Footprint, it has a biocapacity reserve.
  28. 28. Ecological Footprint • Ecological footprint (EF), measure of the demands made by a person or group of people on global natural resources.
  29. 29. Ecological Footprint • It has become one of the most widely used measures of humanity’s effect upon the environment and has been used to highlight both the apparent unsustainability of current practices and the inequalities in resource consumption between and within countries.
  30. 30. Ecological Footprint
  31. 31. Ecological Footprint • One can estimate the EF, measured in “global hectares” (gha), at various scales for individuals, regions, countries, and humanity as a whole. • (One hectare equals 2.47 acres.)
  32. 32. Ecological Footprint • EF calculations have questioned the sustainability and equity of current consumption and production practices.
  33. 33. Ecological Footprint • The Global Footprint Network (GFN), a nonprofit organization that partnered with hundreds of cities, businesses, and other entities to advance the EF as a metric of sustainability, calculates the per capita global footprint. • In 2014 the per capita global footprint was 2.8 gha. • Since global bio-capacity that year was 1.7 gha per person, the EF of humanity overshot Earth’s bio-capacity by 1.1 gha.
  34. 34. Ecological Footprint
  35. 35. Ecological Footprint • In other words, 1.7 “Earths” would be needed to sustain current resource demands • or, alternatively, it takes Earth more than one year and eight months to regenerate what is used in one year. • The implication of such “ecological overshoot,” which began in the mid-1970s, is that life- supporting biological resources, such as fisheries, forest resources, rangeland, and agricultural land, are being depleted.
  36. 36. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • EF analysis can show whether a country is living within the bio-capacity of its own territory or whether it is an “ecological debtor,” drawing on the ecological “capital” of other parts of the world.
  37. 37. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • Per capita EFs show a wide divergence in the demands on nature from people in different societies, ranging from Qatar at the high end (15.5 gha/person) to Haiti at the low end (0.7), with the United States (8.4), Germany (5.1), China (3.7), and others in between (2014 data). • These figures are the basis of claims such that if all of humanity consumed like the average American, about five Earths would be needed. EFs also vary greatly within countries according to level of affluence.
  38. 38. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • Researchers have combined footprint analysis with measures of human development to assess whether countries are on track toward sustainable development defined as a per capita EF lower than the available per capita biocapacity with a high rating (above 0.8) on the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). • (The HDI is a metric that combines a country’s average life expectancy, educational attainment, and income into a measure of economic and social progress.)
  39. 39. Human Development Index (HDI).
  40. 40. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • Environmental educators and activists have used the EF to raise awareness of unsustainable consumption patterns, often with the goal of encouraging a change in lifestyles and, less frequently, to promote awareness of wider structural forces driving such patterns.
  41. 41. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • Many online footprint calculators have appeared on nongovernmental organization Web sites with such goals in mind. • Those calculators allow people to calculate their personal EF and to make comparisons with estimates of available biocapacity or to average footprints of other people locally and globally.
  42. 42. Applicability of Ecological Footprint • Meanwhile, social scientists have used the EF as a comprehensive indicator of the ecological impacts of humans on the planet in order to test empirically different social theories of the forces driving those impacts.
  43. 43. What is the Ecological Footprint? • Humans need food, shelter and heating (in some locations) to survive. • Our planet’s ecological resources help fulfill these needs. • But how many resources do we consume? • This question can be answered using the Ecological Footprint.
  44. 44. What is the Ecological Footprint?
  45. 45. What is the Ecological Footprint? • Just as a bank statement tracks income against expenditures, Ecological Footprint accounting measures a population’s demand for natural ecosystems’ supply of resources and services.
  46. 46. What is the Ecological Footprint? • On the demand side, the Ecological Footprint measures an individual or a population’s demand for plant-based food and fiber products, livestock and fish products, timber and other forest products, space for urban infrastructure, and forest to absorb its carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels.
  47. 47. What is the Ecological Footprint?
  48. 48. What is the Ecological Footprint? • On the supply side, a city, state, or nation’s biocapacity represents its biologically productive land and sea area, including forest lands, grazing lands, cropland, fishing grounds, and built-up land. • The Ecological Footprint can be calculated for a single individual, city, region, country and the entire planet.
  49. 49. What is the Ecological Footprint?
  50. 50. What is the Ecological Footprint? • The gap between Ecological Footprint and biocapacity is determined by several factors. Our personal Footprint is the product of how much we use and how efficiently this is being produced. • The biocapacity per person is determined by how many hectares of productive area there is, how productive each hectare is, and how many people (in a city, country, or the world) share this biocapacity.
  51. 51. What is the Ecological Footprint?
  52. 52. What is the Ecological Footprint? • Many countries are “in the red,” which means they use more natural resources (Ecological Footprint) than their ecosystems can regenerate (biocapacity). • They are running an “ecological deficit.” When a country’s biocapacity is greater than its population’s Ecological Footprint, on the other hand, the country boasts an “ecological reserve.”
  53. 53. What is the Ecological Footprint? • The Ecological Footprint is a resource accounting tool used by governments, businesses, educational institutions and NGOs to answer to a specific resource question: • How much of the biological capacity of the planet is required by a given human activity or population?
  54. 54. What is the Ecological Footprint?
  55. 55. What does the Ecological Footprint measure? • The Ecological Footprint measures the amount of biologically productive land and sea area an individual, a region, all of humanity, or a human activity that compete for biologically productive space. • This includes producing renewable resources, accommodating urban infrastructure and roads, and breaking down or absorbing waste products, particularly carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel. The Footprint then can be compared to how much land and sea area is available.
  56. 56. What does the Ecological Footprint measure?
  57. 57. What is the Ecological Footprint? • Biologically productive land and sea includes cropland, forest and fishing grounds, and do not include deserts, glaciers and the open ocean. • Current Ecological Footprint Accounts use global hectares as a measurement unit, which makes data and results globally comparable.
  58. 58. Biologically productive land and sea includes cropland, forest and fishing grounds
  59. 59. What is the Ecological Footprint? • Nations (also cities and states) can run ecological deficits by liquidating their own resources, such as by overfishing; importing resources from other areas; and/or emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than their own ecosystems can absorb.
  60. 60. Nations (also cities and states) can run ecological deficits by liquidating their own resources
  61. 61. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • Ecological Footprints can be calculated for individual people, groups of people (such as a nation), and activities (such as manufacturing a product). • The Ecological Footprint of a person is calculated by adding up all of people’s demands that compete for biologically productive space, such as cropland to grow potatoes or cotton, or forest to produce timber or to sequester carbon dioxide emissions. • All of these materials and wastes are then individually translated into an equivalent number of global hectares.
  62. 62. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
  63. 63. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • To accomplish this, an amount of material consumed by that person (tonnes per year) is divided by the yield of the specific land or sea area (annual tonnes per hectare) from which it was harvested, or where its waste material was absorbed. • The number of hectares that result from this calculation are then converted to global hectares using yield and equivalence factors. • The sum of the global hectares needed to support a person is that person’s total Ecological Footprint.
  64. 64. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • The Ecological Footprint of a group of people, such as a city or nation, is simply the sum of the Ecological Footprint of all the residents of that city or nation. • Typically, the Footprint is reported as “the Footprint of consumption.” • It is the productive area needed to provide for that person’s or population’s consumption. Ecological Footprint accounts can also calculate the Footprint of production which is the direct demand on nature by that population’s economy. • What the economy produces plus all that is imported minus what the economy exports is the amount that population consumes.
  65. 65. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
  66. 66. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • The focus of ecological footprint accounting is renewable resources. • The total amount of such resources which the planet produces according to this model has been dubbed biocapacity.
  67. 67. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
  68. 68. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • Since 2003, Global Footprint Network has calculated the ecological footprint from UN data sources for the world as a whole and for over 200 nations (known as the National Footprint Accounts).
  69. 69. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • For 2017 Global Footprint Network estimated humanity's ecological footprint as 1.73 planet Earths. • According to their calculations this means that humanity's demands were 1.73 times more than what the planet's ecosystems renewed.
  70. 70. For 2017 Global Footprint Network estimated humanity's ecological footprint as 1.73 planet Earths.
  71. 71. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • In 2007, the average biologically productive area per person worldwide was approximately 1.8 global hectares (gha) per capita. • The U.S. footprint per capita was 9.0 gha, and that of Switzerland was 5.6 gha, while China's was 1.8 gha. The WWF claims that the human footprint has exceeded the biocapacity (the available supply of natural resources) of the planet by 20%
  72. 72. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • Humanity's ecological footprint was 7.0 billion gha in 1961 and increased to 20.6 billion gha in 2014. • The world-average ecological footprint in 2014 was 2.8 global hectares per person.
  73. 73. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • The Earth's biocapacity has not increased at the same rate as the ecological footprint. The increase of biocapacity averaged at only 0.5% per year (SD = 0.7). • Because of agricultural intensification, biocapacity was at 9.6 billion gha in 1961 and grew to 12.2 billion gha in 2016
  74. 74. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
  75. 75. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • According to Wackernagel and his organization, the Earth has been in "overshoot", where humanity is using more resources and generating waste at a pace that the ecosystem cannot renew, since the 1970s. • In 2018, Earth Overshoot Day, the date where humanity has used more from nature than the planet can renew in the entire year, was estimated to be August 1. • In 2020, because of reduction in resource demand due to COVID-19 lockdowns, Earth Overshoot Day was delayed to August 22. • Now more than 85% of humanity lives in countries that run an ecological deficit
  76. 76. Earth Overshoot Day
  77. 77. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated? • According to Rees, "the average world citizen has an eco-footprint of about 2.7 global average hectares while there are only 2.1 global hectare of bioproductive land and water per capita on earth. • This means that humanity has already overshot global biocapacity by 30% and now lives unsustainably by depleting stocks of 'natural capital'.
  78. 78. Earth Overshoot Day
  79. 79. Understanding Ecological Footprint • Human activities utilize resources and produces waste. As the human population increases, the global consumption and utilization of resources increases. • This calls for the measure of the nature’s capacity to meet the increasing demand by people. Ecological Footprint is one of the leading measures of the unending human demand on nature. • The Ecological footprint therefore tries to take into account whether the planet has the capacity to keep up with the increasing demands of humanity.
  80. 80. Understanding Ecological Footprint
  81. 81. Understanding the Ecological Footprint • Environment sustainability covers anything that is needed to save the status of future human beings. It is highly agreed that during the recent times environmental sustainability is facing challenges from several parameters. • Among these challenges include food production challenges and the transportation required to reach the final consumer. Food production is singled out because it depends on water, preservatives, refrigeration, and energy, and results in emission of carbon extracts. • It is understood by many that carbon emissions are the leading causes of environmental challenges followed by solid wastes and water during the food production process.
  82. 82. Understanding the Ecological Footprint • In many countries, wood and timber are used for commercial purposes. In fact, wood is among the most important raw materials in today’s construction industry. The increased demand for wood has led to massive destruction of forests and the ecosystem. • Trees are made to use or absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. Tress help in trying to strike a balance as far as the carbon emissions and oxygen provision is concerned. • Therefore the more trees are destroyed the more carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere leading to problems with the ecosystem. It is because of this reason that people and countries are called upon to plant and preserve the forest cover.
  83. 83. Understanding the Ecological Footprint • The factories also use a lot of water to cool the machines and clean some of their products. The dirty water that is usually combined with chemicals is then released back into the rivers and oceans. • This not only poses a risk to the marine life but to the people who depend on the water obtained from these water bodies. It is no wonder that water levels in these water bodies is reducing at an alarming rate and people are exposed to different water related diseases because of water contamination.
  84. 84. Understanding the Ecological Footprint • The need for raw materials to manufacture products has led to an increased encroachment on the natural resources which are scarce in nature. The manufacturing process in itself is a problem to the nature. • These factories that are mushrooming every day use a lot of fuel for their processes. The machines emit carbon into the air creating problems in the ozone layer leading to global warming.
  85. 85. Understanding Ecological Footprint • In a layman’s language, ecological footprint is the effect of human activities measured in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water needed to produce the goods consumed and get rid of the waste generated. • It is the amount of the environment required to produce the goods and services necessary to support a particular lifestyle. • Calculation of footprint takes into account just about everything we do: from the way we eat, the way we travel, the house we live and other lifestyle habits that we practice each day.
  86. 86. Understanding Ecological Footprint
  87. 87. Understanding Ecological Footprint • As per Living Planet Report of 2000 done by World Wildlife Fund, total global consumption of natural resources has steadily risen by 50 percent since 1970. • This does not correspond with the natural resources as the earth’s natural resources have decreased by over 30 percent. • Due to population increase in urban areas, it is essential to consider the environmental impacts of these urban areas.
  88. 88. Due to population increase in urban areas, it is essential to consider the environmental impacts of these urban areas.
  89. 89. Understanding Ecological Footprint • Currently, according to Global Footprint Network, if everyone lived the lifestyle of the average American US citizen i.e. similar eating, transportation, living, and consumption habits, we would need 5 planets to support ourselves.
  90. 90. If everyone lived the lifestyle of the average American US citizen we would need 5 planets to support ourselves
  91. 91. How does the Ecological Footprint Work? • The Ecological Footprint essentially measures the supply and demand on nature. • This means that on the supply side, biocapacity represents the natural productive land areas. • These include forests, fisheries, pastures and cropland. When left uninterrupted or unexploited these areas have the capacity to absorb almost all the waste produced by humans particularly carbon emissions.
  92. 92. The Ecological Footprint essentially measures the supply and demand on nature
  93. 93. How does the Ecological Footprint Work? • The ecological footprint represents the productive areas needed to provide renewable resources people are using and to also absorb the waste produced. • Additionally, the productive area that is currently occupied by the human infrastructure including, building, roads, air strips and airports, is included in the footprint calculation. • This is because the built-up land is no longer available for regeneration of resources.
  94. 94. How does the Ecological Footprint Work? • Ecological footprint helps in analyzing the pressure on our planet and ecological footprint analysis can be a useful tool to educate people to manage our ecological assets more wisely and take collective action to make sure that a nation’s demand for products and services remain within its borders.
  95. 95. Advantages of Ecological Footprint • The qualitative research is conducted to highlight worst affected geographical areas and workable solutions to manage and prevent further problems to these areas. The ecological footprint gives accurate figures that prevent overdoing or under- doing improvements. • It is essential to point out that correct and effective improvement plans that will lead to efficient utilization of the remaining resources hence reduce the ecological footprint. • The analysis obtained from the ecological footprint can be used to gain standardized indicators and create solutions for them.
  96. 96. Advantages of Ecological Footprint
  97. 97. Ecological Footprint Effects • According to the website "Redefining Progress," humans are currently exceeding the Earth's limits by 39 percent. • The earth has a limited quantity of resources it can provide, and humanity's global footprint is surpassing it. • The effects of our global footprint on the earth are already notable, and the situation will only worsen in the years to come as our global footprint increases and the effects become more obvious.
  98. 98. According to the website "Redefining Progress," humans are currently exceeding the Earth's limits by 39 percent
  99. 99. Ecological Footprint Effects Depletion of Natural Resources • Natural resources refer to substances found on the Earth that we use to benefit our daily lives, such as oil. Most of our natural resources are vanishing at an alarming rate. Oil consumption rates rise every year. • Currently, humanity consumes around 85 million barrels of oil everyday. • According to a study completed by the International Energy Agency, by 2030 that amount will rise to 113 barrels a day. • The problem is, the Earth only has so much of any natural resource, which means each one will eventually be depleted.
  100. 100. Depletion of Natural Resources
  101. 101. Ecological Footprint Effects Increase in Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Greenhouse gases are gases released into the atmosphere either naturally or through human intervention that traps heat. The fragile balance of natural greenhouses gases plays a factor in the overall climate on earth. Too many human-caused greenhouse gases may lead to global warming. • According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), many greenhouse gas levels are expected to rise in the future.
  102. 102. Increase in Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  103. 103. Ecological Footprint Effects Depletion of Water Sources • Despite the Earth being practically covered by water, very little of it is actually usable. • Our global footprint threatens the water resources humanity can use. Pollution of streams and rivers can go as far as ruining the entire water source. • Major oil spills and industrial runoff can render a water source unsuitable for human consumption. An increase in population also leads to water decrease. • As humanity expands, more water sources are needed to hydrate the population and to provide watering for livestock and agricultural lands to feed the increased population.
  104. 104. Depletion of Water Sources
  105. 105. Ecological Footprint Effects Poor Air Quality • Pollution and a decrease of trees and plant life have a negative impact on the Earth's air quality. • Industrial plants, boating equipment, and personal vehicles all release gases into the air that are harmful for both the environment and humans. Air quality also suffers because of human expansion. • As more agricultural lands are needed to meet the demands of humanity, forests and plant life are cut down to make room for the needed growth. • Since trees and plants work to provide clean air for the environment, reducing their numbers leads to poorer air quality.
  106. 106. Poor Air Quality
  107. 107. Measures to Reduce Your Ecological Footprint • Ecological Footprint: The impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources • It’s estimated it would take 5 Earths to sustain the world population if everyone lived like we do in the US. • When considering factors like food, water-use, waste and transportation, it’s clear there’s an urgent need for more sustainable daily actions. Luckily, you can start creating these habits today!
  108. 108. Measures to Reduce Your Ecological Footprint • There are many simple things you can do to reduce your ecological footprint.
  109. 109. Measures to Reduce Your Ecological Footprint
  110. 110. Use Cleaner Transportation Don’t drive when there is an alternative. • Walk, bike, or take public transport whenever possible. • If you don’t own and drive a car on average you can reduce your total ecological footprint by as much as 20 per cent. Using it less will reduce your footprint, helps to avoid traffic jam and keeps your cities air cleaner. • A 2011 study carried out by the European Cycling Federation compared carbon emissions from a bicycle (including manufacturing) to motorized vehicles and found that for every passenger kilometer travelled by bike, 21 grams of carbon were released as opposed to 271 grams for someone riding or driving in a car and 101 grams for people taking the bus.
  111. 111. Use Cleaner Transportation
  112. 112. Use Cleaner Transportation If you need a car make it a small as possible one and reduce the mileage. • Smaller, and mainly smaller-engined, cars are usually much more energy efficient than larger ones. Check your car regularly. • Have your vehicle serviced regularly to keep the emission control systems operating at peak efficiency. Check your car’s air filter monthly, and keep the tires adequately inflated to maximize gas mileage. • If you sit idle for more than 30 seconds, turn off the engine (except in traffic).
  113. 113. Use Cleaner Transportation
  114. 114. Use Cleaner Transportation Avoid short airplane trips – take a bus or train instead. • Flights cause a large and growing part of our collective footprint – it has two to four times the impact of CO2 emissions on climate change because it releases water vapor and nitrous oxide at high altitude. • If you can’t avoid flying, make clearing donations to projects on climate protection. • Or utilize the emission calculator on atmos fair to figure out how much greenhouse gas emissions are caused by your flights. With your donation to atmosfair you enable them to run projects where these emissions will be saved.
  115. 115. Avoid short airplane trips – take a bus or train instead.
  116. 116. Add Energy-Saving Features to Your Home Install energy-saving lamps in your home – but be sure to dispose of old bulbs safely. • Make sure your walls and ceilings are insulated, and consider double-pane windows. Explore green design features for your building, like passive solar heating, a rainwater catchment or greywater recycling system, and recycled materials. • Choose energy efficient appliances, including low flow shower heads, faucets, and toilets. • Choose furnishings that are second-hand, recycled, or sustainably produced. • Use biodegradable, non-toxic cleaning products – for your health and environment.
  117. 117. Add Energy-Saving Features to Your Home
  118. 118. Cultivate Energy-Saving Habits • Keep the thermostat relatively low in winter and ease up on the air conditioning in summer. • Keep your A/C filters clean to keep the A/C operating at peak efficiency. Take a look at our tips for keeping cool without A/C. • Unplug your electronics when not in use. To make it easier, use a power strip. Even when turned off, items like your television, computer, and cell phone charger still sip power. • Dry your clothes naturally whenever possible rather than using power-guzzling tumble dryers. • Defrost your refrigerator and freezer regularly.
  119. 119. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint Shop at your local farmer’s market. • Look for local, in-season foods that haven’t travelled long distances to reach you. • Organic and other forms of low-input farming that use minimal or no pesticides and fertilizers which are energy intensive in their manufacture consume up to 40 per cent less energy, and support higher levels of wildlife on farms.
  120. 120. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
  121. 121. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint Choose foods with less packaging to reduce waste. Plant a garden. Growing our own fruit and vegetables reduces all the energy and waste which normally goes into getting food from the field to our plates such as transport, refrigeration and packaging. In your garden you can compost food waste as well. Garbage that is not contaminated with degradable (biological) waste can be more easily recycled and sorted.
  122. 122. Choose foods with less packaging to reduce waste.
  123. 123. Plant a garden
  124. 124. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint Going meatless for just one meal a week can make a difference more often is even better. The livestock industry contributes more greenhouse gas emissions globally than the transport sector and the ecological footprint of vegetarians is estimated to be around half that of meat eaters
  125. 125. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
  126. 126. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint Buy less Try to get your things repaired, this supports local business and avoids waste. Replace items only when you really need to and try to buy quality products that will have a longer life-span. Recycle all your paper, glass, aluminum, and plastic. Don’t forget electronics! Do an online search to find the recycling options in your area.
  127. 127. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
  128. 128. Try Out Easy Ways to Save Water • Take shorter, less frequent showers – this saves water and the energy necessary to heat it. • Run the dishwasher and the washing machine only when full. • Wash your car less often. Take it to a carwash; usually commercial carwashes use less water per wash than you would need at home. • Avoid hosing down or power-washing your deck, walkways, or driveway. Regularly look for and fix leaks. • Plant drought-tolerant plants in your garden and yard.
  129. 129. Try Out Easy Ways to Save Water
  130. 130. Purchase carbon offsets • Individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. • For example, an individual might purchase carbon offsets to compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by personal air travel.
  131. 131. Purchase carbon offsets
  132. 132. Conclusion • The ecological footprint acts as a wakeup call to the people and countries in the world to observe and regulate their activities that put the environment at risk. • If everyone observed his or her ecological footprint, there will be less environmental problems today. • Problems like carbon emissions, lack of fresh air, increased desertification, global warming and increased environmental pollution would be reduced.
  133. 133. Conclusion
  134. 134. Ecological Footprint Calculator • https://www.footprintcalculator.org/home/en
  135. 135. Terminology Bio-Capacity • The biocapacity or biological capacity of an ecosystem is an estimate of its production of certain biological materials such as natural resources, and its absorption and filtering of other materials such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. • Biocapacity is expressed in terms of global hectares per person, thus is dependent on human population.
  136. 136. Bio-capacity
  137. 137. Terminology Human Footprint • The Human Footprint is an ecological footprint map of human influence on the terrestrial systems of the Earth. • The map is made to a resolution of 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) and is an aggregate of eight factors: major roadways, navigable waterways, railways, crop lands, pasture lands, the built environment, light pollution, and human population density
  138. 138. Human Footprint
  139. 139. Terminology Carrying capacity • The carrying capacity of an environment is the maximum population size of a biological species that can be sustained by that specific environment, given the food, habitat, water, and other resources available.
  140. 140. Carrying capacity
  141. 141. Terminology Earth Overshoot Day • Earth Overshoot Day (EOD) is the calculated illustrative calendar date on which humanity's resource consumption for the year exceeds Earth’s capacity to regenerate those resources that year. The term "overshoot" represents the level by which human population's demand overshoots the sustainable amount of biological resources regenerated on Earth.
  142. 142. Earth Overshoot Day
  143. 143. Terminology Tragedy of the Commons • Tragedy of the Commons is an environmental science problem where individuals have access to a shared resource and act in their own interest, at the expense of other individuals. • This can result in overconsumption, and depletion of resources.
  144. 144. Tragedy of the Commons
  145. 145. Terminology Happy Planet Index • The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact • Each country's HPI value is a function of its average subjective life satisfaction, life expectancy at birth, and ecological footprint per capita. The index is weighted to give progressively higher scores to nations with lower ecological footprints.
  146. 146. Happy Planet Index
  147. 147. Ecological Footprint by Country 2022
  148. 148. How many Earths do we need if the world's population lived like…
  149. 149. Earth Overshoot Day Earth Overshoot Day We busted Earth's budget. • In 2021, Earth Overshoot Day fell on July 29. • Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when humanity has exhausted nature’s budget for the year. For the rest of the year, we are maintaining our ecological deficit by drawing down local resource stocks and accumulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. We are operating in overshoot.
  150. 150. Earth Overshoot Day
  151. 151. Earth Overshoot Day
  152. 152. Corona and ecological foot print • COVID-19 has Caused Humanity’s Ecological Footprint to Contract by 3 Weeks • However, true sustainability that allows all to thrive on Earth can only be achieved by design, not disaster.
  153. 153. Corona and ecological foot print • According to the Global Footprint Network, Earth Overshoot Day 2020 lands on August 22, more than three weeks later than in 2019 (July 29). The date reflects the 9.3% reduction of humanity’s ecological footprint from January 1st to Earth Overshoot Day compared to the same period last year, which is a direct consequence of the corona virus-induced lockdowns around the world. Decreases in wood harvest and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the major drivers behind the historic shift in the long-term growth of humanity’s Ecological Footprint.
  154. 154. Corona and ecological foot print • “This shift in the year-to-year date of Earth Overshoot Day represents the greatest ever single- year shift since the beginning of global overshoot in the early 1970s. In several instances the date was pushed back temporarily, such as in the aftermath of the post-2008 Great Recession, but the general trend remains that of a consistent upward trajectory.” – Earth Overshoot Calculation Report 2020
  155. 155. Corona and ecological foot print
  156. 156. Books • Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth • by Mathis Wackernagel
  157. 157. Books • Ecological Footprints: Management, Reduction and Environmental Impacts • Armano den Hartogh (Editor)
  158. 158. Books • Living within a Fair Share Ecological Footprint by Brenda Vale (Editor)
  159. 159. Websites • Ecological Footprint Calculator • https://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?364390/earth-overshoot-day-2020 • Reducing India’s global footprint • https://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/reducing_footprint/ • Earth Overshoot Day • https://www.footprintnetwork.org/our-work/earth-overshoot-day/ • Global Footprint Network: Home • https://www.footprintnetwork.org/ • Reducing India’s global footprint • https://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/reducing_footprint/
  160. 160. Documentaries • How much Nature do we have? How much do we use? (Ted Talk) • https://youtu.be/3M29BY86bP4 • Human Footprint | National Geographic • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8Iw0TH2czQ • The Ecological Footprint: Accounting for a Small Planet • https://youtu.be/EjyrAHzthTo
  161. 161. References COVID-19 has Caused Humanity’s Ecological Footprint to Contract by 3 Weeks • https://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?364390/earth-overshoot-day-2020 Earth Overshoot Day • https://www.overshootday.org/ Ecological Footprint • https://www.footprintnetwork.org/our-work/ecological-footprint/ Ecological footprint • https://www.britannica.com/science/ecological-footprint Ecological footprint • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_footprint Ecological Footprint by Country 2022 • https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/ecological-footprint-by-country Reduce Your Ecological Footprint • https://en.reset.org/reduce-your-ecological-footprint-0/ What is the Ecological Footprint? • https://www.overshootday.org/kids-and-teachers-corner/what-is-an-ecological-footprint/ WHAT IS YOUR Ecological Footprint? • https://www.footprintcalculator.org/home/en 8 Ways to Reduce Your Ecological Footprint • https://cleansd.org/2017/04/27/8-ways-to-reduce-your-ecological-footprint/
  162. 162. Ecological Footprint of World’s Superpower United States — 8.04, No of Earth Planet required — 4.8 Russia — 5.69, No of Earth Planet required — 3.3 China — 3.71, No of Earth Planet required — 2
  163. 163. Thanks…