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Communication Skills

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Communication Skills

  1. 1. Communication Skills Basics of Communication
  2. 2. Syllabus Communication Skills • Definition • Process of communication • The level of communication • The flow of communication • Communication network • The importance of technical Communication
  3. 3. Definition • “Communication is the activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving people information and instructions”
  4. 4. Definition • The progression of transmission and interchange of ideas, facts, feelings or actions is known as “Process of Communication”. • It includes the giving; getting and sharing of information with others may be oral or written.
  5. 5. Process of Communication
  6. 6. Process of Communication • The word communication has its root in the Latin word “communicare”, which means “to share”. • In brief communication can be defined as the exchange of information, ideas, and knowledge between sender and receiver through an accepted code of symbols.
  7. 7. communicare
  8. 8. Process of Communication • The communication process consist of 5 steps • Ideation • Encoding • Transmission • Decoding • Response
  9. 9. Ideation • The process of communication begins with Ideation, which refers to formation of the idea or selection of a message to be communicated. It consist of what is to be communicated and is concerned with the content of message to be presented Message are generally of two kind Logical and emotional Logical message contains factual information, while emotional message consist of feelings and emotions
  10. 10. Ideation
  11. 11. Encoding • Encoding is the next step in communication under this, message are composed of symbols having translation of an already conceived idea by the sender into the message appropriate for the transmission • Wording of the message may be different for different methods of communication to be used.
  12. 12. Encoding
  13. 13. Transmission • Transmission refers to the flow of the message over the chosen channel • Transmission confirms the medium selected during the process of encoding and keep the communication channel free from interferences or noise, so that the message reaches the receiver without any disturbances or distraction
  14. 14. Transmission
  15. 15. Decoding • Decoding is the reverse of encoding it is the process of converting a message into thoughts by translating the received message into an interpreted meaning. It is important to note that it is the message that is transferred and not the meaning • Effective decoding is very important for effective communication as any mis-interpretation of a message leads to communication distortion
  16. 16. Decoding
  17. 17. Response • Response is the last stage of communication process. It is the last stage of communication process. It is the action or reaction of the receiver to the message. It helps the sender to know that the message was received and understood. • •Response is thus the key to communication as the effective communication depends on how congruent the receivers response is with the meaning intended by the sender.
  18. 18. Response
  19. 19. Language as A Tool of Communication • Effective communication is made possible with the help of language. • It requires reasonably good command over language. Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way. • By changing the word order in a sentence, you can change its meaning, and even make it meaningless.
  20. 20. Language as A Tool of Communication
  21. 21. Characteristics of Language • According to the ideas put forward by eminent linguists: • Language is Artificial • Language is created by people. • It does not exist in isolation or outside the minds of people. • It is created by human as they need it. Every symbol is attached to a particular thought or thing, called a referent which is created by humans. That’s why language is Artificial.
  22. 22. Language is Artificial
  23. 23. Characteristics of Language • Language is Restricted • When we translate our thoughts into language, some meaning is lost in the process. • No symbol or word can transmit the exact reality. That is one reason you sometimes find yourself saying that you cannot find words to express your feelings. • This is because language is restricted. In other words, it has limitations.
  24. 24. Language is Restricted
  25. 25. Characteristics of Language • Language is Abstract • Language is abstract as it represents generalized ideas of things or thoughts. The idea which the word represents is different every time. A ‘table’ can be of different shapes and sizes, and still be called a table. This happens because meanings get associated with symbols and users keep expanding the range of meanings.
  26. 26. Language is Abstract
  27. 27. Characteristics of Language • Language is Arbitrary • There is no direct relationship between a word and the idea or object it represents because language keeps on changing to include new concepts and words can attach a number of specific and arbitrary meanings.
  28. 28. Language is Arbitrary
  29. 29. Characteristics of Language • Language is Creative • Language is very creative and it can create wonder. Every year number of words can be added; taken from different languages through the following processes: • 1. Borrowing - taking over words from other languages like ‘alcohol’ form ‘Arabic’ • 2. Constructing Portmanteau Words – words made by combining the sound and meaning of two different words (netiquette = net + etiquette) • 3. Back Formation – where a word of one type, usually a noun is reduced to a word of another type, usually a verb like ‘opt’ from ‘option’
  30. 30. Language is Creative
  31. 31. Characteristics of Language • Language is Repetitive • Any language has characteristic of repetition and redundancy. • This may make or mar the communication. • Moreover excessive and unnecessary repetition may lead to verbosity or wordiness without contributing to the meaning.
  32. 32. Characteristics of Language
  33. 33. Characteristics of Language • Language is Recursive • Recursiveness is the characteristic of language which enables you to generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates. • It also allows you to express any idea, thought or feeling using the same finite vocabulary.
  34. 34. Language is Recursive
  35. 35. The level of Communication • Human communication takes place at a various levels  Extra-personal  Intrapersonal  Interpersonal  Organizational  Mass Communication
  36. 36. Extra personal • The communication between Human beings and non human entity is extra-personal communication • Ex:-When your pet dog comes to you wagging its tail soon as you return home from the work, it is an example of extra-personal communication • This form of communication requires coordination and understanding between the sender and the receiver.
  37. 37. Extra personal
  38. 38. Extra personal
  39. 39. Intrapersonal Communication • This type of communication takes place within the individual. • We know that the brain is linked to all the parts of the body by electrochemical system • For ex, when you begin to feel hot this information is sent to brain and you may decide to turn on the cooler, responding to instruction sent from the brain to the hand. In this case the relevant organ is the sender, electrochemical impulse is the message and the brain is the receiver next the brain assumes the role of the sender and sends feedback that you should switch on the cooler. • Thus the process is complete This kind of communication which pertains to thinking is known as Intrapersonal Communication.
  40. 40. Intrapersonal Communication
  41. 41. Interpersonal Communication • Interpersonal communication differs from the other forms of communication in that there are few participants involved, the interact ants are in close physical proximity to each other, there are many sensory channels and the feedback is immediate
  42. 42. Interpersonal Communication
  43. 43. Organizational Communication • Communication in an organization takes place at different hierarchical levels. • It is extremely necessary for the sustenance of any organization Since a large peoples are involved in a organization the need of communication becomes greater in an organization. • This kind of communication can be further divided into:
  44. 44. Organizational Communication
  45. 45. Internal operational • All communication that occurs within an organization is classified as internal- operational
  46. 46. External Operational • The Work related communication that an organization does with the people outside the organization is called external-operational.
  47. 47. Personal • All communication in an organization that occurs without purpose as far as business is concerned is called personal communication
  48. 48. Mass Communication • For this kind of communication we require a mediator to transmit information. • There are several mass media such as, television, newspaper, books which mediates such communication. • Oral communication through mass media requires some equipments, such as microphones, amplifiers etc. and the written form needs print media or visual media.
  49. 49. Mass Communication
  50. 50. Characteristics of mass communication • Large reach: Mass media communication reach audience scattered over wide geographical area • Impersonality: This kind of Communication is largely impersonal as the participants are unknown to each other • Presence of gate: Mass communication needs additional person, Institution or organization to convey message from the sender to receiver
  51. 51. Characteristics of mass communication
  52. 52. Flow of Communication • Information flows in an organization both formally and informally The term formal communication refers to communication that follows the official hierarchy. • Formal communication can flow in various directions-Downward, upward, lateral, Diagonal
  53. 53. Flow of Communication
  54. 54. Downward Communication • Downward Communication flows from a manager, down the chain of command. When manager inform, instruct, advice or request their subordinates, the communication flow in a down pattern. • Downward communication can take any form- memos, notices, face to face interactions, or telephonic conversations however this should be adequately balanced by an upward flow of communication.
  55. 55. Downward Communication
  56. 56. Upward Communication • When subordinate sent report to inform their superiors or to present the findings and recommendations the communication flows upward. • This type of communication keeps the manager aware of how employee feel about their job, colleagues and the organization in general.
  57. 57. Upward Communication
  58. 58. Horizontal Communication • This form of communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employee. • Such communication is often necessary to facilitate coordination, save time and bridge communication gap among various departments. Generally this form of communication is in formal and can by pass the formal hierarchical channel and expediteaction
  59. 59. Horizontal Communication
  60. 60. Diagonal Communication • Diagonal or cross-wise communication flows in all direction and cuts across functions and levels in an organization. • For ex, when a sales manager communicates directly with the vice precedent, who is not only in a different division, but also at a higher level in the organization, they are engaged in diagonal communication. Though this type of communication deviates from the normal chain of command ,there is no doubt that it is quick and efficient
  61. 61. Diagonal Communication
  62. 62. Communication Networks • A variety of pattern emerge when communication combines through vertical and horizontal channels. • These patterns are termed as Communication networks
  63. 63. Formal Network Models • Chain Network:- The chain network represents a vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow upward or downward. We can find this type of network in direct line of authority communications with no deviations
  64. 64. Y-Network • Y-Network:-The y- Network is in effect a multi –level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical level of flow If we turn the Y upside down, we see two subordinates reporting to one senior
  65. 65. Wheel Network • Wheel network : refers to several subordinates reporting to a superior. This is a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication, but here the subordinates are of equal ranks all of them report to one senior and without any interaction between themselves.
  66. 66. Circle Network • The circle network allow the employees to interact with adjacent members but no further. • There is vertical communication between superiors, and horizontal communication at lower level
  67. 67. All Channel Network • The all channel network, which is least structured, enables each employee to communicate freely with the others there is no restriction as on who can communicate with whom. All are equal as no employee formally or informally assumes a leading role. • Hence everybody’s view are equally and openly shared
  68. 68. Informal Network Model • Besides flowing through the formal network, communication in an organization can also travels along an informal network- the grapevine.
  69. 69. Single Strand • In single strand the message is passed from one person to another personal along a single strand
  70. 70. Gossip • In the gossip network one person passes information to all others
  71. 71. Probability Network • Probability type of network each person tells other at random
  72. 72. Cluster • In cluster network the flow of information is passed by selected peoples to selected few of the others.
  73. 73. Advantages of Grapevine communication • Not expensive • Rapid • Multidirectional • It can resolve conflict • Serves as an outlet for anxiety ,worries, frustration • Voluntary and unforced
  74. 74. Dis-advantages • Reveal some degree of error • Be harmful in case of base less or imaginary • Lead to mis- understanding because of incomplete information • Can caused a damage to organization because of its of excessive swiftness at times
  75. 75. Characteristics of General and Technical communication GENERAL COMMUNICATION TECHNICAL COMUNICATION CONTAINS A GENERAL MESSAGE CONTAINS A TECHNICAL MESSAGE INFORMAL IN STYLE AND APPROACH FORMAL IN STYLE NO SET PATTERN OF COMMUNICATION FOLLOWS SET PATTERN MOSTLY ORAL BOTH ORALAND WRITTEN NOT ALWAYS FOR A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE ALWAYS FOR A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE DOESN’T INVOLVE TECHNICAL VOCABULARY, OR GRAPHICS FREQUENTLY INVOLVE JARGONS, GRAPHICS, ETC
  76. 76. Importance of Technical Communication • Technical communication plays a pivotal role in an organization, whether it is a business enterprise, an industry, or an academic institution. • All managerial or administrative activities involves communication, be it is planning, organizing, recruiting, coordinating, or decision making. • The success of an organization largely depend upon the quality and quantity of information flow through its personal. The various types of communication not only helps an organization to grow, but also enables the communicator to develop certain attributes.
  77. 77. Importance of Technical Communication
  78. 78. Technical communication can be divide into 2 –parts • Oral & Written ORALCOMMUNICATION WRITTEN COMMUNICATION FACE TO FACE CONVERSATIONS MEMOS TELEPHONIC COVERSATION LETTERS MEETINGS EMAILS CONFERENCES FAXES PRESENTATIONS CIRCULARS GROUP DISCUSSIONS REPORTS INSTRUCTIONS MANUALS
  79. 79. Importance of Technical Communication • It is not necessary that all forms of communication exists in an organization • How ever a organization gets organized because of its communication • It is Impossible for an organization to survive without communication therefore its importance cannot be ignored.
  80. 80. Books Effective Communication: Skills and Strategies to Effectively Speak Your Mind Without Being Misunderstood- by Keith Coleman
  81. 81. Books Communication Skills Training: A Practical Guide to Improving Your Social Intelligence, Presentation, Persuasion and Public Speaking (Master Your Communication and Social Skills) Kindle Edition by Ian Tuhovsky
  82. 82. Books Communication Skills by Sanjay Kumar
  83. 83. Ted Talks • How to be Heard: Secrets for Powerful Speaking and Listening - Julian Treasure • https://www.ted.com/talks/julian_treasure_how_to_speak_so_that_people _want_to_listen?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm _source=tedcomshare
  84. 84. Ted Talks • The Power of Communication Nina Legath • https://www.ted.com/talks/nina_legath_the_power_of_comm unication?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral &utm_source=tedcomshare
  85. 85. Thanks..

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