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Copper kills viruses and bacteria so why aren't our surfaces covered in it?

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  1. 1. Antimicrobial Copper Copper kills viruses and bacteria so why aren't our surfaces covered in it?
  2. 2. Copper • Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. • It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. • Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals)
  3. 3. Copper
  4. 4. Copper • Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. • Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
  5. 5. Copper
  6. 6. Introduction • Copper a material with the power to kill bacteria and viruses in their tracks — has long been exploited for its health benefits. • In ancient times, Egyptian and Babylonian soldiers would use it to sterilise their wounds; the Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used it to treat headaches and ear infections; and in India, copper vessels have been used for millennia in the transportation of water.
  7. 7. Egyptian and Babylonian soldiers would use it to sterilise their wounds
  8. 8. Surgical Instruments used by Susruta
  9. 9. Copper a material with the power to kill bacteria and viruses
  10. 10. Introduction • Today, we understand why copper is strong against viruses: because it is antimicrobial. • It kills bacteria. when influenzas, bacteria like E. coli, superbugs like MRSA, they can die within minutes and are undetectable within hours. • That’s a massive difference compared to the four to five days they can last on other surfaces. • what’s more, copper and its alloys like brasses, bronzes, cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc can self- sterilize its surface without the need for electricity or bleach.
  11. 11. Introduction • During the repeated cholera epidemics in the mid-nineteenth century, physician victor burq discovered that using the material could help prevent widespread disease. • He recommended using it for preventive and corrective ingestion of copper, after observing that smelter workers were unaffected by the disease.
  12. 12. Physician Victor Burq Discovered That Using The Material Could Help Prevent Widespread Disease
  13. 13. Introduction • The studies continue — as fast company reports, using copper has been shown to reduce bacteria in health care settings by 90 percent. • A study from 1983 found that hospital door knobs made of brass barely had any E. coli growth on them, compared to stainless steel knobs which were ‘heavily colonized.’
  14. 14. A Study From 1983 Found That Hospital Door Knobs Made Of Brass Barely Had Any E. Coli Growth On Them
  15. 15. Introduction • A more contemporary study, conducted by researchers working on a department of defence in 2015, compared infection rates at three hospitals, and found that when copper alloys were used in three hospitals, it reduced infection rates by 58%. • A similar study was done in 2016 inside a paediatric intensive care unit, which charted a similarly impressive reduction in infection rate
  16. 16. when copper alloys were used in three hospitals, it reduced infection rates by 58%.
  17. 17. Introduction • As a result of research like this, the united states environmental protection agency (EPA) has even approved the registrations of copper alloys as ‘antimicrobial materials with public health benefits’ allowing manufacturers to make legal claims to the public health benefits of products made of registered alloys.
  18. 18. environmental protection agency (EPA) has even approved the registrations of copper alloys as ‘antimicrobial materials with public health benefits’
  19. 19. Introduction • So why don’t we make the most of this material today? • while copper boomed during the industrial revolution as a material for objects, fixtures, and buildings it was later pushed out by new materials like plastic, tempered glass, aluminium and steel. • In addition to that, there’s not enough data on copper and other technologies to make recommendations on what hospitals should do.
  20. 20. So why don’t we make the most of copper today?
  21. 21. Introduction • The research that has been conducted is significant because of how much of a problem healthcare-acquired infections are, not to mention the current climate. • In the US alone, there are about 1.7 million infections and 99,000 deaths linked to HAIs per year, a total cost between $35.7 and $45 billion annually, from the extra treatments people need when they get infected.
  22. 22. Health Care Associated Infection
  23. 23. Introduction • Virus that causes COVID-19 was shown to hang around on plastic packaging and plastic medical equipment for up to three days after contamination, according to a pre-print paper from researchers at the national institute of health. the team behind the paper looked at how long the virus that causes the new corona virus (SARA-COV-2) can survive on different substances from cardboard to copper, comparing its lifespan to the virus that causes SARS (SARS- COV-1).
  24. 24. Introduction • the results show that the COVID-19 virus appears to survive longest on polypropylene and stainless steel, where it can survive for two to three days after the initial contamination. • On cardboard, it survived for nearly an entire day in some cases—up to 24 hours—post- contamination. not surprisingly, it lasted the least amount of time on copper, where it survived only up to four hours.
  25. 25. How long can corona virus live on surfaces
  26. 26. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • Copper is humankind’s oldest metal being used for water transportation, coins and jewelry, weapons and more. • Long before the germ theory of disease was developed, civilizations used copper to kill diseases- causing organisms • Egypt (2000 BC) – Purify drinking water and treat wounds • Hippocrates (400 BC) – Treat leg ulcers related to varicose veins • Aztecs- Copper Oxide and malachite for Skin Conditions
  27. 27. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • The Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used copper-based preparations to treat burns, sore throats and skin rashes, as well as for day-to-day hygiene. • Greek soldiers are reported to have scraped the bronze from their swords into open wounds to reduce the likelihood of infection during battles.
  28. 28. The Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used copper-based preparations to treat burns, sore throats and skin rashes, as well as for day-to-day hygiene
  29. 29. Greek soldiers are reported to have scraped the bronze from their swords into open wounds to reduce the likelihood of infection
  30. 30. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • In the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out on the antimicrobial properties of copper and its alloys against a range of microorganisms including those responsible for HCAIs.
  31. 31. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • Copper and its alloys (brasses, bronzes, cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc, and others) are natural antimicrobial materials. • Ancient civilizations exploited the antimicrobial properties of copper long before the concept of microbes became understood in the nineteenth century.
  32. 32. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  33. 33. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • In addition to several copper medicinal preparations, it was also observed centuries ago that water contained in copper vessels or transported in copper conveyance systems was of better quality (i.e., no or little visible slime or bio fouling formation) than water contained or transported in other materials.
  34. 34. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  35. 35. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • The antimicrobial properties of copper are still under active investigation. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the antibacterial action of copper have been a subject of intensive research. • Scientists are also actively demonstrating the intrinsic efficacy of copper alloy "touch surfaces" to destroy a wide range of microorganisms that threaten public health.
  36. 36. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  37. 37. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • In 1852 Victor Burq discovered those working with copper had far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else, and did extensive research confirming this. • In 1867 he presented his findings to the French Academies of Science and Medicine, informing them that putting copper on the skin was effective at preventing someone from getting cholera
  38. 38. Victor Burq discovered those working with copper had far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else Victor Burq
  39. 39. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • The oligodynamic effect was discovered in 1893 as a toxic effect of metal ions on living cells, algae, molds, spores, fungi, viruses, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic microorganisms, even in relatively low concentrations
  40. 40. Oligodynamic Effect
  41. 41. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • In 1973, researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories conducted a comprehensive literature, technology and patent search that traced the history of understanding the "bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces", which demonstrated that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of molds, fungi, algae and harmful microbes
  42. 42. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • Currently, researchers believe that the most important antimicrobial mechanisms for copper are as follows: • Elevated copper levels inside a cell causes oxidative stress and the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions, copper participates in the so-called Fenton-type reaction — a chemical reaction causing oxidative damage to cells. • Excess copper causes a decline in the membrane integrity of microbes, leading to leakage of specific essential cell nutrients, such as potassium and glutamate. This leads to desiccation and subsequent cell death.
  43. 43. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action
  44. 44. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • While copper is needed for many protein functions, in an excess situation (as on a copper alloy surface), copper binds to proteins that do not require copper for their function. • This "inappropriate" binding leads to loss-of- function of the protein, and/or breakdown of the protein into non-functional portions. • These potential mechanisms, as well as others, are the subject of continuing study by academic research laboratories around the world.
  45. 45. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action
  46. 46. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces • Copper alloy surfaces have intrinsic properties to destroy a wide range of microorganisms. • E. coli • E. coli O157:H7 is a potent, highly infectious, ACDP (Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens, UK) Hazard Group 3 food borne and waterborne pathogen. The bacterium produces potent toxins that cause diarrhoea, severe aches and nausea in infected persons
  47. 47. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  48. 48. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  49. 49. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces • Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7. • Over 99.9% of E. coli microbes are killed after just 1–2 hours on copper. On stainless steel surfaces, the microbes can survive for weeks. • Results of E. coli O157:H7 destruction on an alloy containing 99.9% copper (C11000) demonstrate that this pathogen is rapidly and almost completely killed (over 99.9% kill rate) within ninety minutes at room temperature (20 °C)
  50. 50. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  51. 51. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  52. 52. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  53. 53. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  54. 54. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  55. 55. MRSA • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous bacteria strain because it is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics • In 2008, after evaluating a wide body of research mandated specifically by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), registration approvals were granted by EPA in 2008 granting that copper alloys kill more than 99.9% of MRSA within two hours
  56. 56. MRSA
  57. 57. Influenza A • Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease from a viral pathogen different from the one that produces the common cold. • Symptoms of influenza, which are much more severe than the common cold, include fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. • Influenza can cause pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly.
  58. 58. Influenza A
  59. 59. Influenza A • After incubation for one hour on copper, active influenza A virus particles were reduced by 75%. • After six hours, the particles were reduced on copper by 99.999%. Influenza A virus was found to survive in large numbers on stainless steel.
  60. 60. Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Copper
  61. 61. Fungi • An increased die-off of fungal spores was found on copper surfaces compared with aluminium
  62. 62. Antimicrobial Properties Of Copper And Its Alloys
  63. 63. Laboratory Research • Laboratory tests have been developed to simulate contamination events under typical indoor temperature and humidity to measure the survival of bacteria on samples of copper and copper alloys such as brass and bronze.
  64. 64. Laboratory Research
  65. 65. Laboratory Research
  66. 66. Laboratory Research
  67. 67. Antimicrobial Effectiveness: Copper vs. Stainless Steel
  68. 68. Laboratory Research • The procedure is outlined below and simulates a splash or a sneeze landing on a surface: • The control is stainless steel, a material commonly used in hospitals but with no antimicrobial properties.
  69. 69. Laboratory Research • This graph is the kill curve for MRSA on copper, brass (80% Cu, 20% Zn) and nickel silver (55% copper, 27% zinc and 18% nickel) at 20o C and typical indoor humidity. • There is complete kill in less than 90 minutes on copper. • The two copper alloys also showed good kill rates but the kill times were longer and dependent on copper content. • Note that even after six hours, there is no reduction on the stainless steel coupon.
  70. 70. Laboratory Research
  71. 71. Laboratory Research • A similar protocol was used for extensive pass/fail laboratory testing as part of a United States regulatory registration process, where a >99.9% reduction of bacteria within two hours was required. • Copper alloys with copper contents greater than 60% passed this test, as well as two even- more demanding recontamination and wear tests, so this has become the minimum copper content for antimicrobial copper alloys.
  72. 72. Laboratory Research • The graph below shows how the kill time falls as the number of MRSA bacteria deposited on the copper surface reduces to more typical levels. • A hospital door handle could have 1000 colony forming units (cfus) on its surface and these would be totally eliminated in less than 15 minutes. • Because of the very high numbers of bacteria being investigated, these kill curves are shown with a logarithmic (log) scale, expressed as shown: 104 is equivalent to 10,000.
  73. 73. Laboratory Research
  74. 74. Clinical Trials • Having established the inherent ability of copper and copper alloys to eliminate bacteria and viruses in the laboratory, the next logical step was to discover how this would translate into real world environments and have practical application.
  75. 75. Clinical Trials
  76. 76. Clinical Trials • The first clinical trial was undertaken at Selly Oak Hospital in Birmingham, UK. The researchers replaced frequently-touched surfaces on a general medical ward – including over-bed tables, taps and door handles – with antimicrobial copper equivalents, measuring the contamination on these and comparing it with that on non-copper surfaces. • The copper surfaces were found to have 90–100% fewer micro-organisms on them than the same items made from standard materials.
  77. 77. Clinical Trials
  78. 78. Clinical Trials • Trials in the US, Chile, Germany and Finland have supported the Selly Oak findings and verified that the effect is a continuous reduction in contamination – occurring 24/7 and in between regular cleaning.
  79. 79. Clinical Trials • The largest trial to date was a multi-centre clinical trial, funded by the US Department of Defence. The group identified the most heavily contaminated touch surfaces and upgraded them to copper in 8 single ICU rooms. • They then sampled these and standard components in 8 control rooms regularly over two years and recorded the total bacteria recovered. They then reviewed the infections acquired by patients in the copper and control rooms.
  80. 80. US Department of Defence. The group identified the most heavily contaminated touch surfaces and upgraded them to copper in 8 single ICU rooms
  81. 81. Clinical Trials • The surfaces identified as most contaminated were those closest to the patient: • Bed rail • Over bed table • IV pole • Computer input devices (mouse/monitor bezel) • Visitor chair arms • Nurse call button
  82. 82. Copper Touch surface in ICU
  83. 83. Clinical Trials
  84. 84. Copper in Hospitals
  85. 85. Clinical Trials • This graph shows the number of bacteria found on these components in the copper and control rooms. The copper items had 83% fewer bacteria than the control items. • There were 58% fewer infections in the copper rooms than the control rooms. This result challenges current thinking that the environment only accounts for 20% of infections.
  86. 86. Clinical Trials
  87. 87. How does Copper Kill Bacteria? • Copper is an essential nutrient for bacteria as well as humans but, in high doses, copper ions can cause a series of negative events in bacterial cells. • The exact mechanism by which copper kills bacteria is still unclear, however several processes exist and are being studied. One proposed sequence of events is given below: • A. Copper ions dissolved from the copper surface cause cell damage. B. The cell membrane ruptures, leading to loss of the cell content. C. Copper ions lead to the generation of toxic radicals that cause further damage. D. DNA becomes degraded and leaves the cell.
  88. 88. How does Copper Kill Bacteria?
  89. 89. Won’t Microorganisms Develop Resistance to Copper? • As bacteria evolve resistance mechanisms to antibiotics, might resistance to copper develop? This is highly unlikely for three reasons: • Copper is naturally present in the Earth’s crust and, to date, no resistant organisms have been demonstrated. Copper-tolerant organisms do exist but even these die on contact with copper surfaces. In comparison, resistance to penicillin by certain bacterial species began to appear within 30 years of its introduction. • Copper kills microorganisms by multiple pathways rather than by acting in a specific way on one receptor like most antibiotics. • Microorganisms are killed before they can replicate, thus they cannot pass on genetic material that could ultimately lead to the development of resistance.
  90. 90. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Infection control professionals review scientific literature to keep abreast of developments and some believe there is now sufficient evidence to use copper to fight HCAIs in their hospitals. Others await further trials or official recommendations in infection control guidelines (these are starting to emerge in other countries e.g. Finland). • This is a relatively new field of research – not just on copper, but on the whole concept of the role of the environment in the transfer of infection.
  91. 91. Healthcare Associated Infections
  92. 92. Healthcare Associated Infections
  93. 93. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  94. 94. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Those installing copper have started to replace items such as door handles, bed rails, light switches, over-bed tables and taps – with copper and copper alloy (brass, bronze) items to help limit pathogens and prevent their transfer around the hospital and to susceptible patients. • These are some of the high-risk surfaces identified where contamination occurs and staff, patients and visitors touch.
  95. 95. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  96. 96. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized copper as the world’s leading anti- bacterial metal. This has led to a number of uses and opportunities for copper in medical applications. Here we explain the benefits of using copper in comparison to other materials on the market. • When you think of a typical hospital environment, you’ll probably think of a sterile setting that is likely adorned in white. However, many hospitals are beginning to punctuate the clinical white with another colour; the reddish glow of copper.
  97. 97. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized copper as the world’s leading anti-bacterial metal
  98. 98. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  99. 99. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • For example, a hospital in Chile recently started applying copper or copper alloys to medical applications that require repeated touching and handling. • This includes pens for inputting data on computers screens, bed levers and chairs for hospital visitors — all of which were traditionally made of plastic. • This is just one example. More and more healthcare equipment designers are swapping out plastics for time-tested copper.
  100. 100. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  101. 101. Antimicrobial Copper Ballpoint Pen
  102. 102. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), copper can kill 99.9 percent of bacteria that lands on its surface within two hours. • In comparison, additional chemicals and contaminants can leach onto plastics and make them harmful to both humans and wildlife.
  103. 103. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), copper can kill 99.9 percent of bacteria that lands on its surface within two hours.
  104. 104. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • With these antimicrobial features in mind, it’s no surprise that copper has become increasingly popular as an alternative to plastic in medical applications, such as sterile table tops and medical cart handles. • By replacing the current surfaces in hospitals with antimicrobial copper surfaces, it’s reported that the number of healthcare- associated infections could be reduced by 58 percent, according to the Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.
  105. 105. By replacing the current surfaces in hospitals with antimicrobial copper surfaces, it’s reported that the number of healthcare-associated infections could be reduced by 58 percent
  106. 106. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Turning to traditional materials, like copper, offers designers some surprising benefits compared to the materials that are currently used in medical applications. • By helping healthcare professionals to significantly reduce the risk of spreading infections across a hospital, copper can help medical staff improve the overall quality of care for their patients.
  107. 107. copper can help medical staff improve the overall quality of care for their patients.
  108. 108. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours • While you may think that antiseptic wipes or sprays are necessary to kill germs, there's actually a metal that kills germs on contact — no cleaning supplies necessary.
  109. 109. Copper can kill viruses and bacteria • Studies have shown that copper can kill many types of germs on contact. • According to a 2015 study published in Health Environments Research and Design Journal, some of the common germs copper has been proven to kill are:
  110. 110. Copper can kill viruses and bacteria • MRSA • E. coli • Influenza A • Nor virus • Brand new research published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that copper can be effective against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the corona virus pandemic. • The study showed that after four hours, the virus was no longer infectious on copper's surface. • In comparison, corona virus was still infectious on plastic surfaces after 72 hours.
  111. 111. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours
  112. 112. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours
  113. 113. The applications of antimicrobial copper • One of the main applications of copper is in hospitals, although the use is not widespread. • In the same study as above, researchers determined the germiest surfaces in a hospital room – bed rails, call buttons, chair arms, tray table, data input, and IV pole – and replaced them with copper components.
  114. 114. Touch Surfaces replaced with Copper • For Clinical Studies in UK, USA & Chile • Push plates • Thumb turns • Cubicle locks • Grab rails • Hot & cold taps • Toilet seats • Switches & sockets • Bed table tops • Drip pole stand • Sanitizer buttons
  115. 115. Touch Surfaces replaced with Copper • Light pulls • Cistern flush levers • Dressings trolleys • Soap dispensers • Apron dispensers • Towel dispensers • Commodes • Sink traps & wastes • Call buttons • Door handles
  116. 116. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  117. 117. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  118. 118. The Applications Of Antimicrobial Copper • The results were very promising. Compared to the rooms made with traditional materials, there was an 83% reduction in bacterial load on the surfaces in the rooms with copper components. • Additionally, infection rates of patients were reduced by 58%.
  119. 119. The Applications of Antimicrobial Copper
  120. 120. The applications of antimicrobial copper • Technically, you can use copper at home. However, according to Johnson, the majority of copper products for the home have a treatment on it to prevent the oxidation that causes the beautiful original color of the copper to turn to a greenish- blue over time. • This treatment prevents you from getting the beneficial antimicrobial properties of copper. That being said, copper still has the ability to be toxic to bacteria when it's at this oxidized greenish state, however, according to Johnson, scientists still don't know exactly how this mechanism works.
  121. 121. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  122. 122. The Applications Of Antimicrobial Copper • According to current research, the downside of using copper is that it isn't as effective at destroying viruses as it is at killing bacteria – particularly if it's an airborne virus. • Much of this has to do with the fact that viruses are technically not living organisms — they are infection agents, which are not "alive" like cells are, and as such they are more durable.
  123. 123. According to current research, the downside of using copper is that it isn't as effective at destroying viruses as it is at killing bacteria
  124. 124. The applications of antimicrobial copper • "Viruses are different in that they are not cells but rather infect healthy cells that allows them to replicate. The virus can come in direct contact with the upper respiratory tract and eyes and enter healthy cells, so a copper strategy would be largely ineffective. • Another downside is that there are some unsubstantiated claims that may mislead people. Some companies try to market copper jewellery or copper-infused socks as antimicrobial protection for the wearer, but these are ineffective.
  125. 125. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  126. 126. The applications of antimicrobial copper • Hopefully, more research will continue to be conducted so we can better understand the antimicrobial properties of copper and the most effective ways to use it in everyday life to keep us healthy.
  127. 127. Terminology • Oligodynamic effect • The oligodynamic effect (from Greek oligos "few", and dynamis "force") is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.
  128. 128. Oligodynamic effect
  129. 129. “Contact Killing” • Bacteria, yeasts, and viruses are rapidly killed on metallic copper surfaces, and the term “contact killing” has been coined for this process. • While the phenomenon was already known in ancient times, it is currently receiving renewed attention. This is due to the potential use of copper as an antibacterial material in health care settings. • Contact killing was observed to take place at a rate of at least 7 to 8 logs per hour, and no live microorganisms were generally recovered from copper surfaces after prolonged incubation
  130. 130. “Contact Killing”
  131. 131. Antimicrobial • An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi (including moulds) – or inhibits their growth.
  132. 132. Healthcare-associated Infections • A healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is an infection that a patient develops in a hospital either as a direct result of medical or surgical treatment, or from simply being in that setting. The important criterion for defining an infection as an HCAI is that the patient did not have the infection when they were admitted to the hospital.
  133. 133. Healthcare-associated Infections • The spread of these infections affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. They increase patients’ suffering and prolong the length of stay in hospital. A growing number of bacterial HCAIs are resistant to the antibiotics used to treat them. This situation can be summed up by ‘bad bugs, no drugs’.
  134. 134. Healthcare-associated Infections
  135. 135. Healthcare-associated Infections
  136. 136. How long does the novel corona virus live on different surfaces?
  137. 137. How long does the novel corona virus live on different surfaces?
  138. 138. Ted Talks • The Secret and the Solution: Michael Schmidt • https://youtu.be/mIFjAvkomoA
  139. 139. Dr. Michael G Schmidt
  140. 140. Copper Kills Germs On Contact See The Science. • https://youtu.be/fJB16x0t3pE
  141. 141. The Schmidt Lab • Michael G. Schmidt, Ph.D. Professor of Microbiology and Immunology • https://medicine.musc.edu/departments/microb iology/research-program/schmidt-lab
  142. 142. References • Antimicrobial Copper: Everything Old is New Again • https://www.copper.org/publications/newsletters/ba-news/2010/january/article3.html • Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_copper-alloy_touch_surfaces • Antimicrobial properties of copper • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_properties_of_copper • Antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of solid copper alloys with chemical disinfectants • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086424/ • Copper, Pathogens and Disease • https://copperalliance.org.uk/knowledge-base/education/education-resources/copper- pathogens-disease/ • Copper is great at killing superbugs – so why don’t hospitals use it? • https://theconversation.com/copper-is-great-at-killing-superbugs-so-why-dont-hospitals- use-it-73103
  143. 143. References • Copper takes aim at corona virus with killer coatings • https://www.indiatoday.in/science/story/copper-coronavirus-study-1675845-2020- 05-08 • Copper’s Virus-Killing Powers Were Known Even to the Ancients • https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/copper-virus-kill-180974655/ • Does copper kill germs? Yes, it's effective against COVID-19 within 4 hours • https://www.insider.com/does-copper-kill-germs-and-viruses • The bacteria-fighting super element that’s making a comeback in hospitals: copper • https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/the-bacteria-fighting- super-element-making-a-return-to-hospitals-copper/2015/09/20/19251704-5beb- 11e5-8e9e-dce8a2a2a679_story.html
  144. 144. Thanks…

Beschreibung

Copper kills viruses and bacteria so why aren't our surfaces covered in it?

Transkript

  1. 1. Antimicrobial Copper Copper kills viruses and bacteria so why aren't our surfaces covered in it?
  2. 2. Copper • Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. • It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. • Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals)
  3. 3. Copper
  4. 4. Copper • Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. • Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
  5. 5. Copper
  6. 6. Introduction • Copper a material with the power to kill bacteria and viruses in their tracks — has long been exploited for its health benefits. • In ancient times, Egyptian and Babylonian soldiers would use it to sterilise their wounds; the Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used it to treat headaches and ear infections; and in India, copper vessels have been used for millennia in the transportation of water.
  7. 7. Egyptian and Babylonian soldiers would use it to sterilise their wounds
  8. 8. Surgical Instruments used by Susruta
  9. 9. Copper a material with the power to kill bacteria and viruses
  10. 10. Introduction • Today, we understand why copper is strong against viruses: because it is antimicrobial. • It kills bacteria. when influenzas, bacteria like E. coli, superbugs like MRSA, they can die within minutes and are undetectable within hours. • That’s a massive difference compared to the four to five days they can last on other surfaces. • what’s more, copper and its alloys like brasses, bronzes, cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc can self- sterilize its surface without the need for electricity or bleach.
  11. 11. Introduction • During the repeated cholera epidemics in the mid-nineteenth century, physician victor burq discovered that using the material could help prevent widespread disease. • He recommended using it for preventive and corrective ingestion of copper, after observing that smelter workers were unaffected by the disease.
  12. 12. Physician Victor Burq Discovered That Using The Material Could Help Prevent Widespread Disease
  13. 13. Introduction • The studies continue — as fast company reports, using copper has been shown to reduce bacteria in health care settings by 90 percent. • A study from 1983 found that hospital door knobs made of brass barely had any E. coli growth on them, compared to stainless steel knobs which were ‘heavily colonized.’
  14. 14. A Study From 1983 Found That Hospital Door Knobs Made Of Brass Barely Had Any E. Coli Growth On Them
  15. 15. Introduction • A more contemporary study, conducted by researchers working on a department of defence in 2015, compared infection rates at three hospitals, and found that when copper alloys were used in three hospitals, it reduced infection rates by 58%. • A similar study was done in 2016 inside a paediatric intensive care unit, which charted a similarly impressive reduction in infection rate
  16. 16. when copper alloys were used in three hospitals, it reduced infection rates by 58%.
  17. 17. Introduction • As a result of research like this, the united states environmental protection agency (EPA) has even approved the registrations of copper alloys as ‘antimicrobial materials with public health benefits’ allowing manufacturers to make legal claims to the public health benefits of products made of registered alloys.
  18. 18. environmental protection agency (EPA) has even approved the registrations of copper alloys as ‘antimicrobial materials with public health benefits’
  19. 19. Introduction • So why don’t we make the most of this material today? • while copper boomed during the industrial revolution as a material for objects, fixtures, and buildings it was later pushed out by new materials like plastic, tempered glass, aluminium and steel. • In addition to that, there’s not enough data on copper and other technologies to make recommendations on what hospitals should do.
  20. 20. So why don’t we make the most of copper today?
  21. 21. Introduction • The research that has been conducted is significant because of how much of a problem healthcare-acquired infections are, not to mention the current climate. • In the US alone, there are about 1.7 million infections and 99,000 deaths linked to HAIs per year, a total cost between $35.7 and $45 billion annually, from the extra treatments people need when they get infected.
  22. 22. Health Care Associated Infection
  23. 23. Introduction • Virus that causes COVID-19 was shown to hang around on plastic packaging and plastic medical equipment for up to three days after contamination, according to a pre-print paper from researchers at the national institute of health. the team behind the paper looked at how long the virus that causes the new corona virus (SARA-COV-2) can survive on different substances from cardboard to copper, comparing its lifespan to the virus that causes SARS (SARS- COV-1).
  24. 24. Introduction • the results show that the COVID-19 virus appears to survive longest on polypropylene and stainless steel, where it can survive for two to three days after the initial contamination. • On cardboard, it survived for nearly an entire day in some cases—up to 24 hours—post- contamination. not surprisingly, it lasted the least amount of time on copper, where it survived only up to four hours.
  25. 25. How long can corona virus live on surfaces
  26. 26. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • Copper is humankind’s oldest metal being used for water transportation, coins and jewelry, weapons and more. • Long before the germ theory of disease was developed, civilizations used copper to kill diseases- causing organisms • Egypt (2000 BC) – Purify drinking water and treat wounds • Hippocrates (400 BC) – Treat leg ulcers related to varicose veins • Aztecs- Copper Oxide and malachite for Skin Conditions
  27. 27. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • The Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used copper-based preparations to treat burns, sore throats and skin rashes, as well as for day-to-day hygiene. • Greek soldiers are reported to have scraped the bronze from their swords into open wounds to reduce the likelihood of infection during battles.
  28. 28. The Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used copper-based preparations to treat burns, sore throats and skin rashes, as well as for day-to-day hygiene
  29. 29. Greek soldiers are reported to have scraped the bronze from their swords into open wounds to reduce the likelihood of infection
  30. 30. Historical Uses of Copper for Hygiene • In the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out on the antimicrobial properties of copper and its alloys against a range of microorganisms including those responsible for HCAIs.
  31. 31. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • Copper and its alloys (brasses, bronzes, cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc, and others) are natural antimicrobial materials. • Ancient civilizations exploited the antimicrobial properties of copper long before the concept of microbes became understood in the nineteenth century.
  32. 32. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  33. 33. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • In addition to several copper medicinal preparations, it was also observed centuries ago that water contained in copper vessels or transported in copper conveyance systems was of better quality (i.e., no or little visible slime or bio fouling formation) than water contained or transported in other materials.
  34. 34. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  35. 35. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper • The antimicrobial properties of copper are still under active investigation. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the antibacterial action of copper have been a subject of intensive research. • Scientists are also actively demonstrating the intrinsic efficacy of copper alloy "touch surfaces" to destroy a wide range of microorganisms that threaten public health.
  36. 36. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
  37. 37. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • In 1852 Victor Burq discovered those working with copper had far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else, and did extensive research confirming this. • In 1867 he presented his findings to the French Academies of Science and Medicine, informing them that putting copper on the skin was effective at preventing someone from getting cholera
  38. 38. Victor Burq discovered those working with copper had far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else Victor Burq
  39. 39. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • The oligodynamic effect was discovered in 1893 as a toxic effect of metal ions on living cells, algae, molds, spores, fungi, viruses, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic microorganisms, even in relatively low concentrations
  40. 40. Oligodynamic Effect
  41. 41. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • In 1973, researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories conducted a comprehensive literature, technology and patent search that traced the history of understanding the "bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces", which demonstrated that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of molds, fungi, algae and harmful microbes
  42. 42. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • Currently, researchers believe that the most important antimicrobial mechanisms for copper are as follows: • Elevated copper levels inside a cell causes oxidative stress and the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions, copper participates in the so-called Fenton-type reaction — a chemical reaction causing oxidative damage to cells. • Excess copper causes a decline in the membrane integrity of microbes, leading to leakage of specific essential cell nutrients, such as potassium and glutamate. This leads to desiccation and subsequent cell death.
  43. 43. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action
  44. 44. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action • While copper is needed for many protein functions, in an excess situation (as on a copper alloy surface), copper binds to proteins that do not require copper for their function. • This "inappropriate" binding leads to loss-of- function of the protein, and/or breakdown of the protein into non-functional portions. • These potential mechanisms, as well as others, are the subject of continuing study by academic research laboratories around the world.
  45. 45. Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Action
  46. 46. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces • Copper alloy surfaces have intrinsic properties to destroy a wide range of microorganisms. • E. coli • E. coli O157:H7 is a potent, highly infectious, ACDP (Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens, UK) Hazard Group 3 food borne and waterborne pathogen. The bacterium produces potent toxins that cause diarrhoea, severe aches and nausea in infected persons
  47. 47. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  48. 48. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  49. 49. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces • Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7. • Over 99.9% of E. coli microbes are killed after just 1–2 hours on copper. On stainless steel surfaces, the microbes can survive for weeks. • Results of E. coli O157:H7 destruction on an alloy containing 99.9% copper (C11000) demonstrate that this pathogen is rapidly and almost completely killed (over 99.9% kill rate) within ninety minutes at room temperature (20 °C)
  50. 50. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper alloy touch surfaces
  51. 51. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  52. 52. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  53. 53. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  54. 54. Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill E. coli O157:H7.
  55. 55. MRSA • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous bacteria strain because it is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics • In 2008, after evaluating a wide body of research mandated specifically by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), registration approvals were granted by EPA in 2008 granting that copper alloys kill more than 99.9% of MRSA within two hours
  56. 56. MRSA
  57. 57. Influenza A • Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease from a viral pathogen different from the one that produces the common cold. • Symptoms of influenza, which are much more severe than the common cold, include fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. • Influenza can cause pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly.
  58. 58. Influenza A
  59. 59. Influenza A • After incubation for one hour on copper, active influenza A virus particles were reduced by 75%. • After six hours, the particles were reduced on copper by 99.999%. Influenza A virus was found to survive in large numbers on stainless steel.
  60. 60. Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Copper
  61. 61. Fungi • An increased die-off of fungal spores was found on copper surfaces compared with aluminium
  62. 62. Antimicrobial Properties Of Copper And Its Alloys
  63. 63. Laboratory Research • Laboratory tests have been developed to simulate contamination events under typical indoor temperature and humidity to measure the survival of bacteria on samples of copper and copper alloys such as brass and bronze.
  64. 64. Laboratory Research
  65. 65. Laboratory Research
  66. 66. Laboratory Research
  67. 67. Antimicrobial Effectiveness: Copper vs. Stainless Steel
  68. 68. Laboratory Research • The procedure is outlined below and simulates a splash or a sneeze landing on a surface: • The control is stainless steel, a material commonly used in hospitals but with no antimicrobial properties.
  69. 69. Laboratory Research • This graph is the kill curve for MRSA on copper, brass (80% Cu, 20% Zn) and nickel silver (55% copper, 27% zinc and 18% nickel) at 20o C and typical indoor humidity. • There is complete kill in less than 90 minutes on copper. • The two copper alloys also showed good kill rates but the kill times were longer and dependent on copper content. • Note that even after six hours, there is no reduction on the stainless steel coupon.
  70. 70. Laboratory Research
  71. 71. Laboratory Research • A similar protocol was used for extensive pass/fail laboratory testing as part of a United States regulatory registration process, where a >99.9% reduction of bacteria within two hours was required. • Copper alloys with copper contents greater than 60% passed this test, as well as two even- more demanding recontamination and wear tests, so this has become the minimum copper content for antimicrobial copper alloys.
  72. 72. Laboratory Research • The graph below shows how the kill time falls as the number of MRSA bacteria deposited on the copper surface reduces to more typical levels. • A hospital door handle could have 1000 colony forming units (cfus) on its surface and these would be totally eliminated in less than 15 minutes. • Because of the very high numbers of bacteria being investigated, these kill curves are shown with a logarithmic (log) scale, expressed as shown: 104 is equivalent to 10,000.
  73. 73. Laboratory Research
  74. 74. Clinical Trials • Having established the inherent ability of copper and copper alloys to eliminate bacteria and viruses in the laboratory, the next logical step was to discover how this would translate into real world environments and have practical application.
  75. 75. Clinical Trials
  76. 76. Clinical Trials • The first clinical trial was undertaken at Selly Oak Hospital in Birmingham, UK. The researchers replaced frequently-touched surfaces on a general medical ward – including over-bed tables, taps and door handles – with antimicrobial copper equivalents, measuring the contamination on these and comparing it with that on non-copper surfaces. • The copper surfaces were found to have 90–100% fewer micro-organisms on them than the same items made from standard materials.
  77. 77. Clinical Trials
  78. 78. Clinical Trials • Trials in the US, Chile, Germany and Finland have supported the Selly Oak findings and verified that the effect is a continuous reduction in contamination – occurring 24/7 and in between regular cleaning.
  79. 79. Clinical Trials • The largest trial to date was a multi-centre clinical trial, funded by the US Department of Defence. The group identified the most heavily contaminated touch surfaces and upgraded them to copper in 8 single ICU rooms. • They then sampled these and standard components in 8 control rooms regularly over two years and recorded the total bacteria recovered. They then reviewed the infections acquired by patients in the copper and control rooms.
  80. 80. US Department of Defence. The group identified the most heavily contaminated touch surfaces and upgraded them to copper in 8 single ICU rooms
  81. 81. Clinical Trials • The surfaces identified as most contaminated were those closest to the patient: • Bed rail • Over bed table • IV pole • Computer input devices (mouse/monitor bezel) • Visitor chair arms • Nurse call button
  82. 82. Copper Touch surface in ICU
  83. 83. Clinical Trials
  84. 84. Copper in Hospitals
  85. 85. Clinical Trials • This graph shows the number of bacteria found on these components in the copper and control rooms. The copper items had 83% fewer bacteria than the control items. • There were 58% fewer infections in the copper rooms than the control rooms. This result challenges current thinking that the environment only accounts for 20% of infections.
  86. 86. Clinical Trials
  87. 87. How does Copper Kill Bacteria? • Copper is an essential nutrient for bacteria as well as humans but, in high doses, copper ions can cause a series of negative events in bacterial cells. • The exact mechanism by which copper kills bacteria is still unclear, however several processes exist and are being studied. One proposed sequence of events is given below: • A. Copper ions dissolved from the copper surface cause cell damage. B. The cell membrane ruptures, leading to loss of the cell content. C. Copper ions lead to the generation of toxic radicals that cause further damage. D. DNA becomes degraded and leaves the cell.
  88. 88. How does Copper Kill Bacteria?
  89. 89. Won’t Microorganisms Develop Resistance to Copper? • As bacteria evolve resistance mechanisms to antibiotics, might resistance to copper develop? This is highly unlikely for three reasons: • Copper is naturally present in the Earth’s crust and, to date, no resistant organisms have been demonstrated. Copper-tolerant organisms do exist but even these die on contact with copper surfaces. In comparison, resistance to penicillin by certain bacterial species began to appear within 30 years of its introduction. • Copper kills microorganisms by multiple pathways rather than by acting in a specific way on one receptor like most antibiotics. • Microorganisms are killed before they can replicate, thus they cannot pass on genetic material that could ultimately lead to the development of resistance.
  90. 90. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Infection control professionals review scientific literature to keep abreast of developments and some believe there is now sufficient evidence to use copper to fight HCAIs in their hospitals. Others await further trials or official recommendations in infection control guidelines (these are starting to emerge in other countries e.g. Finland). • This is a relatively new field of research – not just on copper, but on the whole concept of the role of the environment in the transfer of infection.
  91. 91. Healthcare Associated Infections
  92. 92. Healthcare Associated Infections
  93. 93. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  94. 94. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Those installing copper have started to replace items such as door handles, bed rails, light switches, over-bed tables and taps – with copper and copper alloy (brass, bronze) items to help limit pathogens and prevent their transfer around the hospital and to susceptible patients. • These are some of the high-risk surfaces identified where contamination occurs and staff, patients and visitors touch.
  95. 95. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  96. 96. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized copper as the world’s leading anti- bacterial metal. This has led to a number of uses and opportunities for copper in medical applications. Here we explain the benefits of using copper in comparison to other materials on the market. • When you think of a typical hospital environment, you’ll probably think of a sterile setting that is likely adorned in white. However, many hospitals are beginning to punctuate the clinical white with another colour; the reddish glow of copper.
  97. 97. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized copper as the world’s leading anti-bacterial metal
  98. 98. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  99. 99. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • For example, a hospital in Chile recently started applying copper or copper alloys to medical applications that require repeated touching and handling. • This includes pens for inputting data on computers screens, bed levers and chairs for hospital visitors — all of which were traditionally made of plastic. • This is just one example. More and more healthcare equipment designers are swapping out plastics for time-tested copper.
  100. 100. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control
  101. 101. Antimicrobial Copper Ballpoint Pen
  102. 102. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), copper can kill 99.9 percent of bacteria that lands on its surface within two hours. • In comparison, additional chemicals and contaminants can leach onto plastics and make them harmful to both humans and wildlife.
  103. 103. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), copper can kill 99.9 percent of bacteria that lands on its surface within two hours.
  104. 104. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • With these antimicrobial features in mind, it’s no surprise that copper has become increasingly popular as an alternative to plastic in medical applications, such as sterile table tops and medical cart handles. • By replacing the current surfaces in hospitals with antimicrobial copper surfaces, it’s reported that the number of healthcare- associated infections could be reduced by 58 percent, according to the Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.
  105. 105. By replacing the current surfaces in hospitals with antimicrobial copper surfaces, it’s reported that the number of healthcare-associated infections could be reduced by 58 percent
  106. 106. How Hospitals are Using Copper to Improve Infection Prevention and Control • Turning to traditional materials, like copper, offers designers some surprising benefits compared to the materials that are currently used in medical applications. • By helping healthcare professionals to significantly reduce the risk of spreading infections across a hospital, copper can help medical staff improve the overall quality of care for their patients.
  107. 107. copper can help medical staff improve the overall quality of care for their patients.
  108. 108. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours • While you may think that antiseptic wipes or sprays are necessary to kill germs, there's actually a metal that kills germs on contact — no cleaning supplies necessary.
  109. 109. Copper can kill viruses and bacteria • Studies have shown that copper can kill many types of germs on contact. • According to a 2015 study published in Health Environments Research and Design Journal, some of the common germs copper has been proven to kill are:
  110. 110. Copper can kill viruses and bacteria • MRSA • E. coli • Influenza A • Nor virus • Brand new research published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that copper can be effective against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the corona virus pandemic. • The study showed that after four hours, the virus was no longer infectious on copper's surface. • In comparison, corona virus was still infectious on plastic surfaces after 72 hours.
  111. 111. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours
  112. 112. Copper Kills COVID-19 Within 4 Hours
  113. 113. The applications of antimicrobial copper • One of the main applications of copper is in hospitals, although the use is not widespread. • In the same study as above, researchers determined the germiest surfaces in a hospital room – bed rails, call buttons, chair arms, tray table, data input, and IV pole – and replaced them with copper components.
  114. 114. Touch Surfaces replaced with Copper • For Clinical Studies in UK, USA & Chile • Push plates • Thumb turns • Cubicle locks • Grab rails • Hot & cold taps • Toilet seats • Switches & sockets • Bed table tops • Drip pole stand • Sanitizer buttons
  115. 115. Touch Surfaces replaced with Copper • Light pulls • Cistern flush levers • Dressings trolleys • Soap dispensers • Apron dispensers • Towel dispensers • Commodes • Sink traps & wastes • Call buttons • Door handles
  116. 116. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  117. 117. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  118. 118. The Applications Of Antimicrobial Copper • The results were very promising. Compared to the rooms made with traditional materials, there was an 83% reduction in bacterial load on the surfaces in the rooms with copper components. • Additionally, infection rates of patients were reduced by 58%.
  119. 119. The Applications of Antimicrobial Copper
  120. 120. The applications of antimicrobial copper • Technically, you can use copper at home. However, according to Johnson, the majority of copper products for the home have a treatment on it to prevent the oxidation that causes the beautiful original color of the copper to turn to a greenish- blue over time. • This treatment prevents you from getting the beneficial antimicrobial properties of copper. That being said, copper still has the ability to be toxic to bacteria when it's at this oxidized greenish state, however, according to Johnson, scientists still don't know exactly how this mechanism works.
  121. 121. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  122. 122. The Applications Of Antimicrobial Copper • According to current research, the downside of using copper is that it isn't as effective at destroying viruses as it is at killing bacteria – particularly if it's an airborne virus. • Much of this has to do with the fact that viruses are technically not living organisms — they are infection agents, which are not "alive" like cells are, and as such they are more durable.
  123. 123. According to current research, the downside of using copper is that it isn't as effective at destroying viruses as it is at killing bacteria
  124. 124. The applications of antimicrobial copper • "Viruses are different in that they are not cells but rather infect healthy cells that allows them to replicate. The virus can come in direct contact with the upper respiratory tract and eyes and enter healthy cells, so a copper strategy would be largely ineffective. • Another downside is that there are some unsubstantiated claims that may mislead people. Some companies try to market copper jewellery or copper-infused socks as antimicrobial protection for the wearer, but these are ineffective.
  125. 125. The applications of antimicrobial copper
  126. 126. The applications of antimicrobial copper • Hopefully, more research will continue to be conducted so we can better understand the antimicrobial properties of copper and the most effective ways to use it in everyday life to keep us healthy.
  127. 127. Terminology • Oligodynamic effect • The oligodynamic effect (from Greek oligos "few", and dynamis "force") is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.
  128. 128. Oligodynamic effect
  129. 129. “Contact Killing” • Bacteria, yeasts, and viruses are rapidly killed on metallic copper surfaces, and the term “contact killing” has been coined for this process. • While the phenomenon was already known in ancient times, it is currently receiving renewed attention. This is due to the potential use of copper as an antibacterial material in health care settings. • Contact killing was observed to take place at a rate of at least 7 to 8 logs per hour, and no live microorganisms were generally recovered from copper surfaces after prolonged incubation
  130. 130. “Contact Killing”
  131. 131. Antimicrobial • An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi (including moulds) – or inhibits their growth.
  132. 132. Healthcare-associated Infections • A healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is an infection that a patient develops in a hospital either as a direct result of medical or surgical treatment, or from simply being in that setting. The important criterion for defining an infection as an HCAI is that the patient did not have the infection when they were admitted to the hospital.
  133. 133. Healthcare-associated Infections • The spread of these infections affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. They increase patients’ suffering and prolong the length of stay in hospital. A growing number of bacterial HCAIs are resistant to the antibiotics used to treat them. This situation can be summed up by ‘bad bugs, no drugs’.
  134. 134. Healthcare-associated Infections
  135. 135. Healthcare-associated Infections
  136. 136. How long does the novel corona virus live on different surfaces?
  137. 137. How long does the novel corona virus live on different surfaces?
  138. 138. Ted Talks • The Secret and the Solution: Michael Schmidt • https://youtu.be/mIFjAvkomoA
  139. 139. Dr. Michael G Schmidt
  140. 140. Copper Kills Germs On Contact See The Science. • https://youtu.be/fJB16x0t3pE
  141. 141. The Schmidt Lab • Michael G. Schmidt, Ph.D. Professor of Microbiology and Immunology • https://medicine.musc.edu/departments/microb iology/research-program/schmidt-lab
  142. 142. References • Antimicrobial Copper: Everything Old is New Again • https://www.copper.org/publications/newsletters/ba-news/2010/january/article3.html • Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_copper-alloy_touch_surfaces • Antimicrobial properties of copper • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_properties_of_copper • Antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of solid copper alloys with chemical disinfectants • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086424/ • Copper, Pathogens and Disease • https://copperalliance.org.uk/knowledge-base/education/education-resources/copper- pathogens-disease/ • Copper is great at killing superbugs – so why don’t hospitals use it? • https://theconversation.com/copper-is-great-at-killing-superbugs-so-why-dont-hospitals- use-it-73103
  143. 143. References • Copper takes aim at corona virus with killer coatings • https://www.indiatoday.in/science/story/copper-coronavirus-study-1675845-2020- 05-08 • Copper’s Virus-Killing Powers Were Known Even to the Ancients • https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/copper-virus-kill-180974655/ • Does copper kill germs? Yes, it's effective against COVID-19 within 4 hours • https://www.insider.com/does-copper-kill-germs-and-viruses • The bacteria-fighting super element that’s making a comeback in hospitals: copper • https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/the-bacteria-fighting- super-element-making-a-return-to-hospitals-copper/2015/09/20/19251704-5beb- 11e5-8e9e-dce8a2a2a679_story.html
  144. 144. Thanks…

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