In the ft
from psychology, education, sociology,
social work, biology, medicine,
economics, and other related fields
Physical Cognitive Socioemotional
Growth in size,
Changes in how
the world, think,
Changes in how
7. Themes and Child Development Continued
interested in the
positive and negative
effects of diversity on
a micro and macro
level of society
Positive Development and
Negative Pathways of
1. Which of the following professions contribute to the field of child
D. All of the Above
2. Learning new strategies for solving problems and remember
information is part of
A. Cognitive Development
B. Physical Development
C. Social Development
D. Natural Development
9. Review Continued
3.What was John Watson’s position of the nature-nurture debate?
A. Nature plays the biggest role in child development
B. Nurture plays the biggest role in child development
C. Nature and nurture play equal roles in child development
D. You can never tell which force (nature or nurture) is playing the biggest
4. True or False: Genetics is an example of how nature can influence a
10. Review Continued
5. The general conclusion that researchers draw from studies of
twins and adopted children is that
A. Nature governs most of child development
B. Nurture governs most of child development
C. Nature and nurture both interact to govern child development
D. Neither nature or nurture play strong roles in child development
6. True or False: The fact that IQ scores are more similar
between identical twins than between paternal twins shows
the influence of nurture on children’s intellectual
18. Focus on
Assimilation: The process of bringing new
tasks into a scheme that already exists in
the mind. If assimilation is unsuccessful,
the accommodation needs to be
accommodated. (Child drops the ball)
Accomodation: Process of adjusting or
adapting a scheme to better fit the new
example. (Child learns to hold the ball with
24. Systems Theory Continued:
Dynamic Systems Theory
Theories that use models from mathematics and physics to
understand complex systems of development.
Dynamic systems theories depart from conventional
approaches because they seek to understand the overall
behavior of a system not by dissecting it into parts, but by
asking how and under what circumstances the parts
cooperate to produce a whole pattern.
This theory tries to predict future behaviors and events
based off statistics.
1. Who proposed that an important component of personality forms when a
child identifies with the same-sex parent?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Erik Erikson
D. Urie Bronfenbrenner
2. The microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem are parts of
A. Erikson’s Psychoanalytic Theory
B. Banduras Social Learning Theory
C. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
D. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
3. Which of the following is NOT one of the useful functions served by
A. Theories summarize the facts as currently known
B. Theories allow prediction of future behavior and events
C. Theories contradict the facts gathered by scientific observation
26. Review Continued
4. True or False: The CT scan, PET scan, and fMRI are tools used in
neuroscience to study brain development.
5. In her research on reading, Dr. Sam uses measures such as the
number of words a child can pronounce correctly and analyzes
how this relates to their scores on reading comprehension tests.
Dr. Sam is most likely using which theory to guide her work?
B. Cognitive Theory
C. Contextual Theory
D. Psychoanalytic Theory
6. True or False: Dynamic Systems Theories are useful in isolating
variables like nature and nurture and determining which one has
the most influence on development.
27. Research in Child Development
Descriptive Methods: Research
methods that describe a behavior
of interest, such as how often it
occurs and under what conditions.
Correlation Method: Research
method that measures the
degree to which two or more
variables are related or
Positive Correlation: Hypothetical
correlation where higher reading
scores in second grade tend to be
associated with families who read
more to children at preschool age.
Negative Correlation: Hypothetical
correlation where lower birth weights tend
to be associated with babies born to
mothers who consumed more alcoholic
beverages during pregnancy
1. Which of the following research methods is capable of demonstrating a
A. Correlational Methods
B. Experimental Methods
C. Path Analysis Methods
D. All of the above
2. True or False: Differential Dropout is a problem that plagues the cross-sectional
method of assessing development.
3.True or False: One reason that all researchers must have their studies
approved by an institutional review board before working with children is so
that the rights and privacy of the children will be well protected.
4.Attendance in school tends to decline as drug use increases. This is an
A. Positive Effect
C. Lack of Correlation
B. Negative Correlation
D. Cohort Correlation
33. Review Continued
5. Dr. Jorgenson conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new parent
training program. She randomly assigned 40 parents to two groups. One group
received the new parent training program, and the other group received the old
standard program. After the training programs were finished, Dr. Jorgenson asked
each parent to rate their interactions with their children. In this scenario, what is
the independent variable?
A. The two-parent training programs ( new versus standard)
B. The interaction rating given by each parent after the training.
C. The number of parents assigned to each training program.
D. The amount of time each parent spent in the training program.
6. Which of the following is the most important limitation of correlational research?
A. It is difficult to obtain positive correlations.
B. Correlation does not prove causation.
C. Correlational research cannot describe the complex relations among three or more variables.
D. Correlation coefficients do not tell you anything about the strength of the relationship between
34. Social Policy Attempts to
improve the lives of
families by using
research to affect
1. Research findings about child development have been used
A. To offer practical advice to parents about raising children.
B. To stimulate new laws, government regulations, and other social policies.
C. To help professionals work with children in therapeutic, educational, and other
D. All of the Above
2. True or False: People interesting in working with children, or working to
improve the lives of children, can find employment in social service agencies,
government agencies, and many corporations.
3. True or False: Child development researchers are often responsible for
evaluating how changes in social policy affect children.
4.An overall theme of this chapter is that the best and most reliable information
about child development comes from
A. Casual observation of children
B. The personal opinions of authorities
C. The personal stories told by parents
D. Research that uses the scientific method