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Sail trim and balance 2013 draft

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Sail trim and balance 2013 draft

  1. 1. Sail Trim and BalanceSail Trim and Balance with Kristen “kb” Berry
  2. 2. Sail Trim and Balance• The Big Question• One Language• Two Modes• Three Sources of Power• Controls• Balance• Putting it all together
  3. 3. What makes a boat go?
  4. 4. Let’s Develop aCommon Sail Language
  5. 5. One Language• Most sails have three edges• Most sails have three corners
  6. 6. One Language Head Leech LuffClew Foot Tack
  7. 7. One Language LUFF Draft ChordLeech Camber
  8. 8. What are theTwo Modes of Sailing?Two Modes of Sailing?•Fast and Slow?• Cruising and Racing?•Upwind and Downwind?
  9. 9. TWO MODES PUSH PULL
  10. 10. Push Mode
  11. 11. Push Mode• Sail blocks the WIND wind. Creating high pressure on windward side• More wind = more power H H LL• More area = more power
  12. 12. Pull Mode
  13. 13. Pull Mode• Attached air WIND flows over both sides from leading to trailing edge• Outside air flows faster because of L H camber H L• Creates heel & forward force
  14. 14. Pull Mode - Keel Lift Keel Lift• Keel lift works the same way, below the water. L• Water flows over the curved surface of the keel. Leeway• Because of leeway, high H pressure builds on the LEEWARD side and keel lift occurs.
  15. 15. Pull Mode - The Watermelon Seed• When Sail Lift and Keel Combined Lift balance, the boat moves forward Keel Lift Force• Keels takes us upwind and sails take us downwind• We must have flow and Sail Lift balance
  16. 16. Pull mode is really FLOW mode.
  17. 17. So what mode are you sailing in?
  18. 18. CLOSE HAULED
  19. 19. Beam Reaching
  20. 20. Broad Reaching
  21. 21. WIND Close HauledNo GoZONE Beam Reach Broad Reach Run
  22. 22. What are thethree sources sail power? sail power?
  23. 23. Angle of AttackThe angle of a sail’s CHORD to the apparent wind.
  24. 24. WIND WIND WIND0 45 60Luffing Proper AoA Stalled
  25. 25. So what do telltalesshow us about AoA?
  26. 26. Attached Airflow Luff Luff
  27. 27. Attached Airflow Leech Leech
  28. 28. Let it out, until it luffs. Often doubt... Rarely in error. Rarely in error. Rarely in error. Rarely in error.
  29. 29. DraftThe AMOUNT of camber in asail and the LOCATION of the deepest point of camber.
  30. 30. Flat Deep Shape Shape Horizontal Profile:A deeper sail is more powerful but will also generate moredrag. A flat sail has less drag, but generates less power inlighter winds. Deeper sails for light air and flatter sails for heavier air.
  31. 31. Flat Mainsail Shape
  32. 32. Deep Mainsail Shape
  33. 33. Deep sails for light air.Flat sails for heavy air.Flat sails for heavy air.Flat sails for heavy air.
  34. 34. Twist The difference in Angle ofAttack from head to foot of a sail.The amount of leeward falloff of a sail’s leech.
  35. 35. UPWIND TWIST TWIST Note the top batten relative tothe boom. Both are showing the CHORD of the mainsail. Thetop batten is pointing to leeward while the boom is pointing behind the boat.
  36. 36. DOWNWIND TWISTTwisting OPEN the leech allows the wind to flow freely from leading edge to trailing edge. More twist equals more flow.
  37. 37. TWIST Wind Speed
  38. 38. Sail Controls• Primary Mainsail Controls• Primary Jib/Genoa Controls
  39. 39. Main Controls Angle of Attack Draft Twist Angle of Chord to Wind Amount and Location Difference in AoA Halyard Sheet Traveler Vang Outhaul BackstayCunningham
  40. 40. Jib/Genoa Control Angle of Attack Draft Twist Angle of Chord to Wind Amount and Location Difference in AoA Halyard SheetLead Car Blocks Backstay
  41. 41. Main Controls Angle of Attack Draft Twist Angle of Chord to Wind Amount and Location Difference in AoA Halyard ✔ Sheet ✔ ✔ Traveler ✔ Vang ✔ ✔ Outhaul ✔ Backstay ✔ ✔Cunningham ✔
  42. 42. Jib/Genoa Control Angle of Attack Draft Twist Angle of Chord to Wind Amount and Location Difference in AoA Halyard ✔ Sheet ✔ ✔ ✔Lead Car Blocks ✔ ✔ ✔ Backstay ✔
  43. 43. BALANCE• How does sail trim affect affect balance?• How does heel affect balance?
  44. 44. Mainsail Center of Headsail Effort Center of Effort ☢ ✇☢CombinedCenter of Effort Center of ✇ Lateral Resistence
  45. 45. Boat Sails Boat Turns Straight To Port View from astern Boat is heeledBoat is level to starboard
  46. 46. ☢ ☢ View from astern ✇ ✇ Boat is level Boat is heeledAnd TURNING and steering straight
  47. 47. What do we want?When do we want it?and how do we get it?
  48. 48. Light Air Days• GIVE ME POWER!• MORE FLOW!• MORE DRAFT!• MORE TWIST!
  49. 49. Light Air Days No Stall! Eased sheets, boom off AoA centerline. All telltales streaming aft. Not steering close hauled. Ease halyard, outhaul, backstay, Draft cunningham. Move jib lead forward. Open twist to promote flow at topTwist of sail. Jib and main should “match” Leeward heel to promote sail camber. Forward weight to reduceBalance drag. Trim crew weight to helm “feel.” Slight tug.
  50. 50. Moderate Air Days• No compromises• Max point and speed• Minimum Twist• Design Draft• Design Heel - Flatter is faster
  51. 51. Moderate Air Days Max trim, slight stall for point. Boom on centerline. Inside jib AoA telltale lifting, top leech telltale slight stall. Draft Moderate depth, starting to flatten Twist No twist for maximum power. Designed heel. Less than 10 Balance degrees. Trim crew weight to helm “feel.” Neutral tug.
  52. 52. Heavy Air• WHOA!!!!!!• Depower sails• Open AoA for waves• Keep the boat balanced
  53. 53. Heavy Air Days Traveler down for open AoA. AoA Jib/Genoa eased or even moved outboard Flat, Flat, Flat. Tight halyards and Draft OBC’sTwist Lots of twist to help depower. Reduce heel by moving crew weightBalance to windward. Balance CEs to keep helm pressure to light tug.
  54. 54. Angle/ Jib TelltaleGear When How Boom Heel Telltale Tales Straight line sailing in Main eased and twisted1st light air Boom below centerline. Light air with waves All flattening controls Press on the jib so that Whenever you need eased. Wide angle the windward telltale Jib lead forwardGear to accelerate Some leeward heel Inhauler on so mid-leech flows straight. After tacks/motorboat wakes pokes to leeward When sailing in bad air Max headstay sag Mainsheet trimmed so2nd Flat water in light air Chop in moderate air top batten is parallel to boom Leech telltales flows Moderate angle Inside telltale begins to bounceGear Nearly flat boat No luff in jib Footing mode 100% Boom on centerline Designed draft Mainsheet trimmed to3rd Moderate breeze max Flat water Top batten poked to Windward telltale lifts Point Mode windward Max point mode to 45 degreesGear Heavy air with flat Leech Telltale (on Flat boat Small luff bubble along water main) stalled 50% Jib luff Tight backstay Little headstay sag Tight leech, but active4th sheet ease to stay in Windward telltale lifts Overpowered control Feathering vertical most of the Moderate air with Top batten flowing Flat as possible time.Gear more waves than wind 100% Especially if you have Front of jib likely Survival Max flattening to bear off for waves luffing Vang hard Boom below center
  55. 55. More Helm Less helm Move crew forward and to Move crew aft and toCrew position leeward windward Rake the mast farther Mast rake Rake the mast farther aft forward Trim the leech harder and Ease the sheet and induceMainsheet trim reduce twist twistAngle of heel Heel more to leeward Flatten the boat Make sails fuller; especially Flatten sails; especially the Sail shape the main main Move it down and orCenterboard forward Move it up and or aft.
  56. 56. Thank you!• Let’s go sailing!• Submit your question cards.• Stay in touch - my pledge to you.• Resources.
  57. 57. SAIL FAST, SAIL SAFE AND STAY IN TOUCH KRISTEN BERRYKRISTEN@JWORLDANNAPOLIS.COMPHONE - 410-599-3542
  58. 58. Steering With Heel and Crew Weight
  59. 59. VANG ip tt as m on aft lls Pu Mast bends Main FlattensTension Main Leech More Vang Boom presses Tension into mast causing lower mast section bending
  60. 60. HalyardTensioning Halyard movesDraft forward andslightly opens twist
  61. 61. Cunningham Less Cunningham Tension More Cunningham TensionTensioning the cunnigham has the effect of moving the draft of the sail forwards, making for a rounder entry
  62. 62. Move the sails draft forward Draft DraftForward Draft Draft Aft Draft forward generates less drag and be more forgiving. Draft aft generates more power, but more drag.
  63. 63. Pull ModeClose Hauled
  64. 64. Pull Mode WINDBeam Reaching 45
  65. 65. WIND Pull ModeBroad Reaching 45
  66. 66. WIND WIND WIND WIND0 25 45 60Luffing Pinching/Feathering Proper AoA Stalled

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