2. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION APPROACH
• Grammar rules and vocabulary is explicit.
• Emphazise the structures and the grammar rules within readings
and practical exercises.
• The input must be:
- take into consideration the affective filter.
• USE OF PATTERN DRILLS: repetition,substitution, transformation
• Practice of dialogues in role plays and small groups.
• Mimic and memorize dialogues.
4. COGNITIVE CODE
• Conscious Learning.
• Competence precedes performance.
• Develop the four skills: Listening, speaking, Reading and writing.
• Use of language in meaningful situations.(learning becomes acquistion)
• Explanation of rules.
5. DIRECT METHOD
• Classroom language is the target language.
• Teacher talk for class management.
• Inductive teaching of grammar.
• Students guess or work out the gramar rules.
• Conscious knowledge of grammar at all times.
• Over -use of the monitor.
• Control of structures and Oral production.
6. THE NATURAL APPROACH
• Provide input for Acquisition.
• Teacher speaks only the target language.
• Errors are not corrected unless there exist mis-communication.
• Homework for formal grammar work.(correct homework)
• Use of certain structures.
• Students talk about ideas, solve problems and perform tasks.
7. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
• Students obey and perform commands given by the teacher.
• Grammar learned inductively.
• Inductive learning of gramar or acquired grammar rules.
• Miss-use of conscious learning.
• Emphasis on listening comprehension , not in the output.
• Use of imperatives.
• Intensive clases. (four hours per day- for one month)
• Reviews by traditional conversation, games and plays.
• Error correction.
• Materials presented in the traditional way.
• Meditation in read Dialogues.
• Attractive classrooms.
• Dynamic teacher
• Relax in Students.
• Grammar does not interfere with communication.
9. APPLIED LINGUISTIC RESEARCH –METHODS TO
COMPARE SUCCESS IN THE APPROACHES
• METHOD COMPARISON-AMERICAN STUDY- GUME PROJECT
• When older methods are compared with each other, we see
small differences, or no differences in terms of efficacy.
• Few differences between audio-lingual (AL) and grammar-translation.
• Audio-lingual and cognitive - code teaching: skills emphasized in the method used,
but no differences after year two years.
10. GUME Project study
• No overall differences between "implicit" methods and "explicit"
• For adult subjects, explicit methods were somewhat better.
• Some sub-groups did better using explicit methods: female group.
• When adding some grammatical explanation to a method based
totally on pattern drills was helpful.
• The cognitive methods will allow somewhat more learning.
11. ALTERNATIVE TO OTHER METHODS
• with native speakers
• have maximun impact in subconscious acquistion.
-Depends on the students
-Comprehensible and Interesting for the student.
12. ALTERNATIVE TO OTHER METHODS
• Using subject matter for language teaching:
-Successful Immersion Programs
-Use in second language situations.
-No pressure for speaking succesfully .
13. COMMENTS ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING
• Instructional Value
• Language Requirements
• Testing limits the Language Acquistion Theory.
14. GAP IN MATERIALS
• Possibility to have native speakers outside the classroom.
• Easy understanding of radio or tv comments in the econd
• Big amounts of comprehensible and easy books to read.
• Enough input material.
15. SOME PROBLEMS
• There’s not acceptance by teachers and students.
• Comprehensible input.
• Acquisition is slow and takes time( years)
• Language Curriculum Design(not appropiate for everybody, just for
who likes learning)
• Not all the students show interest.
• Short courses of Language Acquistion.