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components of curriculum and curricular approaches

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components of curriculum and curricular approaches

  1. 1. Components of Curriculum and Curricular Approaches
  2. 2. ACTIVITY: Charades
  3. 3. Components of Curriculum and Curricular Approaches
  4. 4. Major Components of the Curriculum I. Aims, Goals, and Objectives II. Subject Matter / Content III.Learning Experiences IV.Evaluation Approaches
  5. 5. Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
  6. 6. Philippine Educational System Three Levels: 1. Primary 2. Secondary 3. Tertiary
  7. 7. Philippine Constitution of 1987 • Aims: 1. Inculcate patriotism and nationalism 2. Foster love of humanity 3. Promote respect for human rights 4. Appreciate the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country 5. Teach the rights and duties of citizenship
  8. 8. 6. Strengthen ethical and spiritual values 7. Develop moral character and personal discipline 8. Encourage critical and creative thinking 9. Broaden scientific and technological knowledge and vocational efficiency
  9. 9. Elementary Education Aims (Educational Act of 1982) : • Provide knowledge and develop skills, attitude, values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society; • Provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and the responsiveness to the changes in the society;
  10. 10. • Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and • Promote work experiences which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work.
  11. 11. Secondary Education Aims: • Continue to promote the objectives of the elementary education; and • Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavour and or to prepare them for tertiary schooling.
  12. 12. Tertiary Education Aims: • Provide general education programs which will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor; • Train the nation’s manpower in the skills required for the national development; • Develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and • Advance knowledge through research and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and respond effectively to changing society.
  13. 13. Vision, Mission and Goals • Vision - Clear concept of what the institution would like to become in the future - Provides focal point or unifying element according to which the school staff, faculty perform individually or collectively. - Guiding post which educational efforts and curricula should be directed. Example: WVSU Vision: WVSU as one of the top universities in South East Asia.
  14. 14. • Mission - spell’s out how it intends to carry out its vision - Target: to produce the kind of persons the students will become after having been educated over a certain period of time. Example: WVSU Mission : To produce globally competitive lifelong learners.
  15. 15. • Goals - educational objectives -sources: learners, society and fund of knowledge Examples: Build a strong foundation of skills and concept.
  16. 16. Educational ObjectivesBenjamin Bloom and Robert Mager • Explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process, and • Intent communicated by statement describing a proposed change .in learners.
  17. 17. Educational Objectives Cognitive Domain: (Bloom et al, 1956) – thought process • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation
  18. 18. Educational Objectives Affective Domain: (Krathwohl, 1964) – valuing, attitude and appreciation • Receiving – willingness to pay attention to a particular stimuli • Responding – active participation on part of the students • Valuing – worth or value attatches to particular phenomena, object or behaviour • Organization – bringing together different values and building a value system • Characterization by value – developing a lifestyle from a value system
  19. 19. Educational Objectives Psychomotor Domain (Simpson, 1972) – psychomotor attributes • Perception - use of sense organs to guide motor activities • Set – readiness to take particular type of action • Guided Response – Imitation and trial and error • Mechanism – responses have become habitual • Complex overt responses – skilful performance and with complex movement patterns • Adaptation – skill well-developed that the ability to modify with ease • Origination –creating new movements patterns; creativity
  20. 20. Component 2: Curriculum Content or subject Matter • Content - Compendium of facts, concepts generalization, principles and theories - Subject-centered view of the curriculum Gerome Bruner, “ knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience”
  21. 21. Subject Area and its Learning Content • Communication Arts – listening, speaking, reading, writing and effective use of language • Mathematics – numeric and computational skills, geometry and measurement, algebra, logic and reasoning • Science – all branches of natural sciences, exploration and discovery dealing with natural phenomena and scientific investigation • Social Studies – basic elememts of Geography, History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Civics, Political Science, and Psychology
  22. 22. Subject Area and its Learning Content • Music – basic music theory, practice in listening, singing, playing musical instrument, and music preparation • Physical Education - health and physical fitness, individual team sports, spectatorship and wise use of leisure • Vocational Education – psychomotor and manipulative skills in basic crafts and trades, design, work ethic and appreciation of manual productive work
  23. 23. Criteria in selection of subject matter • Self- sufficiency – attaining self- sufficiency in most economical manner; - less teaching and learner’s effort but more results and effective learning outcomes • Significance – content will contribute to basic ideas, concepts and principles, and generalizations to achieve the aim of the curriculum; - it will develop the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills of the learners; and cultural aspects will be considered
  24. 24. Criteria in selection of subject matter • Validity – authenticity of the subject matter • Interest - a key criterion in learner-centered curriculum; content should be based on the interest of the learner • Utility – usefulness of the content to the learner either for the present or the future • Learnability – subject matter should be within the range of the experiences of the learners • Feasibility – content should be learned within the time allowed, resources available, expertise of the teacher and nature of the learner.
  25. 25. Other considerations in selection of learning content: a. Frequently and commonly used in daily life; b. Suited to the maturity levels and the abilities of the students; c. Valuable in meeting the needs and the competencies of a future career; d. Related with other subject areas; and e. Important in the transfer of learning
  26. 26. Organizing Different Learning Contents: (Palma,1992) • Balance • Articulation • Sequence • Integration • Continuity
  27. 27. Component 3: Curriculum Experiences • Teaching Strategies and Methods • Educational activities
  28. 28. Guide for Selection and Use of Methods: 1. Teaching methods are means to achieved at the end. 2. There is no single best teaching method. 3. Teaching methods should stimulate the learners desire 4. Learning styles of the students should be considered. 5. Every method should lead to the development of learning outcomes in three domains. 6. Flexibility.
  29. 29. Component 4: Curriculum Evaluation • Curriculum Evaluation - Formal determination of the quality, effectiveness, or value of the program, processes, product of the curriculum - Meeting the goals and matching them with the intended outcomes (Tuckman)
  30. 30. • Stufflebeam’s CIPP (Content, Input, Product, Process) - most widely used in evaluation.
  31. 31. CIPP • Content/Context • Input • Process • Product
  32. 32. Plan of Action for Curriculum Evaluation: 1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. 2. Collect or gather the information. 3. Organize the information. 4. Analyze information. 5. Report the information. 6. Recycle the information.
  33. 33. Aims Objectives Content/ Subject Matter Methods/ Strategies Evaluation Interrelationship of the Components of a Curriculum
  34. 34. Curriculum Approaches • Behavioral Approach - anchored on behaviorist principles, usually based on a blueprint which goals and objectives are specified, contents and activities are arranged. - Frederick Taylor - aimed to achieved efficiency - begins with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objectives
  35. 35. Curriculum Approaches • Managerial Approach - general manager(principal) sets the policies and priorities, establishes the direction of the change and innovation, and the planning and organizing curriculum and the instruction - less concerned about the content than the organization and the implementation
  36. 36. Roles of the Supervisor (Managerial Approach) 1. Help develop the schools educational goals. 2. Plan curriculum, with students, parents, teachers, and other stakeholders. 3. Design programs of the study by grade levels. 4. Plan schedule classes or school calendar. 5. Prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area.
  37. 37. Roles of the Supervisor (Managerial Approach) 6. Help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks. 7. Observed teachers. 8. Assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum. 9. Encourage curriculum innovation and change. 10.Develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation.
  38. 38. Curriculum Approaches • Systems Approach - influence by systems theory - the parts of the total school district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to each other. - represented by organizational chart - shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made.
  39. 39. Curriculum Approaches George Beauchamp The system theory of education are: 1. administration 2. counseling 3. curriculum 4. instruction 5. evaluation
  40. 40. Curriculum Approaches • Humanistic Approach - Rooted in the progressive philosophy and child- centered movement - Considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum - Learner is at the center of the curriculum