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A Self-Guided Angels & Demons Tour of Rome
This self-guided Angels & Demons tour assumes that you’ve read the book, and so...
The Pantheon (first location from the book)
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pantheon
Virtual Panorama and phot...
1. The Church of St. Maria del Popolo (EARTH)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_del_Popolo
The Chigi Chapel in St. ...
The famous statues of Habakkuk and the angel
pointing the way down the Path of Illumination,
by G.L. Bernini.
The Chigi py...
The skeleton covering the demon’s hole and
subterranean crypt, where the first cardinal is
found dead with the ambigram se...
“Crossing the open expanse of St.Peter’s square he sensed Bernini’s sprawling piazza having the
exact effect the artist ha...
“the golden coffer surrounded by
ninety-nine glowing oil lamps. It was
said they would burn until the end of
time.”
The do...
St. Peters square. The two gigantic
fountains.
The Vatican Museum with
particular emphasis on
The Sistine Chapel, where th...
Vatican Necropolis under St. Peter's
Basilica
The new section of the Vatican
Archives
http://asv.vatican.va
3. The Church of St. Maria della Vittoria (FIRE)
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_della_Vittoria
The ch...
4. The Fountain of The Four Rivers at Piazza Navona
(WATER)
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piazza_Navona
The foun...
5. Castel St. Angelo (The Illuminati’s lair)
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castel_Sant%27Angelo
Official Site: h...
The “passetto” (open only upon
specific request).
http://roma.andreapollett.com/S1/roma-
c7.htm
FINAL BOOK SCENE
The Bernini Hotel
The location of the novel final scenes (high above, like some sort of modern shrine to a bygone
hero, an...
with burning gold, give it the character of a living organism. An unprecedented fusion of sculpture
and architecture, the ...
spirited postures of conversation, reading, or prayer. The Cornaro Chapel carries Bernini's ideal
of a three-dimensional p...
Bernini's late works in sculpture are inevitably overshadowed by his grandiose projects for St
Peter's, but a few of them ...
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A Self-Guided Angels & Demons Tour of Rome by FSM

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A Self-Guided Angels & Demons Tour of Rome by Florencia San Martin Brück.

This self-guided Angels & Demons tour assumes that you’ve read the book, and so therefore don’t need elements of the story pointed out to you. All notes next to the pictures are from the book.
Four Altars of Science, representing the four elements of earth, air, fire and water, and a mysterious text from John Milton are the key clues that, once decoded, will enable you to
experience the Path of Illumination step by step.

From Santi’s earthly tomb with demon’s hole,
‘Cross Rome the mystic elements unfold.
The path of light is laid, the sacred test,
Let angels guide you on your lofty quest. (Chapter 55)

1. The Church of St. Maria del Popolo (EARTH)
2. St. Peter's Church and Square (AIR)
3. The Church of St. Maria della Vittoria (FIRE)
4. The Fountain of The Four Rivers at Piazza Navona (WATER)

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A Self-Guided Angels & Demons Tour of Rome by FSM

  1. 1. A Self-Guided Angels & Demons Tour of Rome This self-guided Angels & Demons tour assumes that you’ve read the book, and so therefore don’t need elements of the story pointed out to you. All notes next to the pictures are from the book. Four Altars of Science, representing the four elements of earth, air, fire and water, and a mysterious text from John Milton are the key clues that, once decoded, will enable you to experience the Path of Illumination step by step. From Santi’s earthly tomb with demon’s hole, ‘Cross Rome the mystic elements unfold. The path of light is laid, the sacred test, Let angels guide you on your lofty quest. (Chapter 55) 1. The Church of St. Maria del Popolo (EARTH) 2. St. Peter's Church and Square (AIR) 3. The Church of St. Maria della Vittoria (FIRE) 4. The Fountain of The Four Rivers at Piazza Navona (WATER)
  2. 2. The Pantheon (first location from the book) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pantheon Virtual Panorama and photo gallery: http://www.italyguides.it/us/roma/pantheon.htm “The Pantheon is a single room. A circular cell made of stone and cement. It has one entrance. No windows. One narrow entrance”. “The dimensions of the Pantheon’s main chamber were a tribute to Gaea – the goddess of the Earth. The proportions were so exact that a giant spherical globe could fit perfectly inside the building with less than a millimetre to spare”. The huge temple devoted to all pagan gods and goddesses that became a Christian church. It is covered by the largest dome ever built in ancient times. The secrets (still unsolved) of its construction (2nd cent. A.D.). The mysterious oculus (famous circular opening) at the top of the tremendous cupola, the subject of sinister folk stories. Raphael’s tomb.
  3. 3. 1. The Church of St. Maria del Popolo (EARTH) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_del_Popolo The Chigi Chapel in St. Maria del Popolo, is the first altar of science http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chigi_Chapel When you enter the Church the Chigi Chapel will be on your left. Inside the chapel you will find these symbols mentioned in the book: The Chigi Chapel, designed by Raphael in 1513-16. On the right is the tomb of Agostino Chigi (d.1520), with a unique pyramidal design based on ancient Roman models. Bernini added the medallion after 1652. At the same time, he sculpted the celebrated Habakkuk and the Angel (the one on the right in this picture).
  4. 4. The famous statues of Habakkuk and the angel pointing the way down the Path of Illumination, by G.L. Bernini. The Chigi pyramid tomb with its numerous symbols and the vault referring to zodiac signs designed by Raphael.
  5. 5. The skeleton covering the demon’s hole and subterranean crypt, where the first cardinal is found dead with the ambigram seared on his chest. 2. St. Peter's Church and Square (AIR) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Peter%27s_Basilica Vatican: http://www.vatican.va/
  6. 6. “Crossing the open expanse of St.Peter’s square he sensed Bernini’s sprawling piazza having the exact effect the artist had been commissioned to create – that of humbling all those who entered”. The Swiss guards Bernini's famed baldachin over the papal altar. The baldachin (or canopy) covering the very tomb of St.Peter and hiding place of the anti-matter canister. St. Peter’s tomb
  7. 7. “the golden coffer surrounded by ninety-nine glowing oil lamps. It was said they would burn until the end of time.” The dome. Visitors to St. Peters can climb to the top of the cathedral dome and enjoy a fabulous view. The Egyptian obelisk. The grand staircase. The west wind medallion, the second altar of science, close to which the second cardinal is murdered by the Hassassin by puncturing his lungs.
  8. 8. St. Peters square. The two gigantic fountains. The Vatican Museum with particular emphasis on The Sistine Chapel, where the Cardinals are sealed during the Conclave before they elect the new Pope. Michelangelo’s overwhelming frescoes: the ceiling (the creation of Adam) and the altar wall (the last judgment)
  9. 9. Vatican Necropolis under St. Peter's Basilica The new section of the Vatican Archives http://asv.vatican.va
  10. 10. 3. The Church of St. Maria della Vittoria (FIRE) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_della_Vittoria The church of St. Maria della Vittoria, where the third cardinal is burnt alive. This church is difficult to find, is better to ask for directions or take a taxi. Inside the last chapel on the left (Cornaro Chapel), the astonishing Ecstasy of St. Teresa, “a woman inflamed by passion’s fire”, Bernini’s masterpiece in the field of sculpture and also “the most unfit ornament ever to be placed in a Christian church”, according to an English critic, who considered it as “pornographic”. The triumph of Baroque style.
  11. 11. 4. The Fountain of The Four Rivers at Piazza Navona (WATER) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piazza_Navona The fountain of the Four Rivers “A flawless tribute to water, Bernini’s fountain glorified the four major rivers, one of his most celebrated sculptures. Everyone who came to Rome went to see it”. “The fountain’s most arresting quality was its height. The central core alone was over twenty feet tall – a rugged mountain of travertine marble riddled with caves and grottoes through which the water churned”. The four colossal male figures around portray the four continents: America, Africa, Asia and Europe and, of course, the four most important rivers of the Old World, i. e. the Rio della Plata, the Nile, Ganges and Danube. In the middle, the obelisk with the dove atop. Again, Bernini. Once a stadium built by order of Emperor Domitian, now one of the most peculiar Roman squares.
  12. 12. 5. Castel St. Angelo (The Illuminati’s lair) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castel_Sant%27Angelo Official Site: http://www.castelsantangelo.com Bernini’s angels (or “Breezy Maniacs”) on the Ponte S. Angelo (Bridge of Angels) over the Tiber. The spiral ramp. The balcony atop the Castle and breathtaking view.
  13. 13. The “passetto” (open only upon specific request). http://roma.andreapollett.com/S1/roma- c7.htm FINAL BOOK SCENE
  14. 14. The Bernini Hotel The location of the novel final scenes (high above, like some sort of modern shrine to a bygone hero, an enormous neon sign blinked on the roof of a luxurious hotel. the sign seemed eerily befitting “Hotel Bernini”. The Tritone Fountain by Bernini, “the Greek god of the sea” BERNINI Biography Self-Portrait as a Mature Man, 1630-35 Italian artist who was perhaps the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and an outstanding architect as well. Bernini created the Baroque style of sculpture and developed it to such an extent that other artists are of only minor importance in a discussion of that style. Early years Bernini's career began under his father, Pietro Bernini, a Florentine sculptor of some talent who ultimately moved to Rome. The young prodigy worked so diligently that he earned the praise of the painter Annibale Carracci and the patronage of Pope Paul V and soon established himself as a wholly independent sculptor. He was strongly influenced by his close study of the antique Greek and Roman marbles in the Vatican, and he also had an intimate knowledge of High Renaissance painting of the early 16th century. His study of Michelangelo is revealed in the St Sebastian (c. 1617), carved for Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, who was later Pope Urban VIII and Bernini's greatest patron. Bernini's early works attracted the attention of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, a member of the reigning papal family. Under his patronage, Bernini carved his first important life-size sculptural groups. The series shows Bernini's progression from the almost haphazard single view of Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Troy (1619; Borghese Gallery, Rome) to strong frontality in Pluto and Proserpina (1621-22; Borghese Gallery) and then to the hallucinatory vision of Apollo and Daphne (1622-24; Borghese Gallery), which was intended to be viewed from one spot as if it were a relief. In his David (1623-24; Borghese Gallery), Bernini depicts the figure casting a stone at an unseen adversary. Several portrait busts that Bernini executed during this period, including that of Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1623-24), show a new awareness of the relationship between head and body and display an ability to depict fleeting facial expressions with acute realism. These marble works show an unparalleled virtuosity in carving that obdurate material to achieve the delicate effects usually found only in bronze sculptures. Bernini's sensual awareness of the surface textures of skin and hair and his novel sense of shading broke with the tradition of Michelangelo and marked the emergence of a new period in the history of Western sculpture. Patronage of Urban VIII With the pontificate of Urban VIII (1623-44), Bernini entered a period of enormous productivity and artistic development. Urban VIII urged his protégé to paint and to practice architecture. His first architectural work was the remodeled Church of Santa Bibiana in Rome. At the same time, Bernini was commissioned to build a symbolic structure over the tomb of St Peter in St Peter's Basilica in Rome. The result is the famous immense gilt-bronze baldachin executed between 1624 and 1633. Its twisted columns derive from the early Christian columns that had been used in the altar screen of Old St Peter's. Bernini's most original contribution to the final work is the upper framework of crowning volutes flanked by four angels that supports the orb and cross. The baldachin is perfectly proportioned to its setting, and one hardly realizes that it is as tall as a four- story building. Its lively outline moving upward to the triumphant crown, its dark colour heightened
  15. 15. with burning gold, give it the character of a living organism. An unprecedented fusion of sculpture and architecture, the baldachin is the first truly Baroque monument. It ultimately formed the centre of a programmatic decoration designed by Bernini for the interior of St Peter's. Bernini next supervised the decoration of the four piers supporting the dome of St Peter's with colossal statues, though only one of the latter, St Longinus, was designed by him. He also made a series of portrait busts of Urban VIII, but the first bust to achieve the quality of his earlier portraits is that of his great patron, Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1632; Borghese Gallery). The cardinal is shown in the act of speaking and moving, and the action is caught at a moment that seems to reveal all the characteristic qualities of the subject. Bernini's architectural duties increased after the death of Carlo Maderno in 1629, when Bernini became architect of St Peter's and of the Palazzo Barberini. By this time he was not only executing works himself but also having to rely on assistance from others as the number of his commissions grew. He was successful in organizing his studio and planning his work so that sculptures and ornamentations produced by a team actually seem to be all of a piece. Bernini's work, then and always, was also shaped by his fervent Roman Catholicism (he attended mass every day and took communion twice a week). He would agree with the formulations of the Council of Trent (1545-63) that the purpose of religious art was to teach and inspire the faithful and to serve as propaganda for the Roman Catholic church. Religious art should always be intelligible and realistic, and, above all, it should serve as an emotional stimulus to piety. The development of Bernini's religious art was largely determined by his conscientious efforts to conform to those principles. Under Urban VIII Bernini began to produce new and different kinds of monuments - tombs and fountains. The tomb of Urban VIII (1628-47; St Peter's, Rome) shows the pope seated with his arm raised in a commanding gesture, while below him are two white marble figures representing the Virtues. Bernini also designed a revolutionary series of small tomb memorials, of which the most impressive is that of Maria Raggi (1643). But his fountains are his most obvious contribution to the city of Rome. His first, the Barcaccia in the Piazza di Spagna (1627-29), is analogous to the baldachin in its fusion of sculpture and architecture. The Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini (1642-43) is a dramatic transformation of a Roman architectonic fountain - the superposed basins of the traditional geometric piazza fountain appearing to have come alive. Four dolphins raise a huge shell supporting the sea god, who blows water upward out of a conch. Bernini's early architectural projects, however, were not invariably successful. In 1637 he began to erect campaniles, or bell towers, over the facade of St Peter's. But, in 1646, when their weight began to crack the building, they were pulled down, and Bernini was temporarily disgraced. Patronage of Innocent X and Alexander VII Bernini's most spectacular public monuments date from the mid-1640s to the 1660s. The Fountain of the Four Rivers in Rome's Piazza Navona (1648-51) supports an ancient Egyptian obelisk over a hollowed-out rock, surmounted by four marble figures symbolizing four major rivers of the world. This fountain is one of his most spectacular works. The greatest single example of Bernini's mature art is the Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome, which completes the evolution begun early in his career. The chapel, commissioned by Cardinal Federigo Cornaro, is in a shallow transept in the small church. Its focal point is his sculpture of The Ecstasy of St Teresa (1645-52), a depiction of a mystical experience of the great Spanish Carmelite reformer Teresa of Ávila. In representing Teresa's vision, during which an angel pierced her heart with a fiery arrow of divine love, Bernini followed Teresa's own description of the event. The sculptured group, showing the transported saint swooning in the void, covered by cascading drapery, is revealed in celestial light within a niche over the altar, where the architectural and decorative elements are richly joined and articulated. At left and right, in spaces resembling opera boxes, numerous members of the Cornaro family are found in
  16. 16. spirited postures of conversation, reading, or prayer. The Cornaro Chapel carries Bernini's ideal of a three-dimensional picture to its apex. The figures of St Teresa and the angel are sculptured in white marble, but the viewer cannot tell whether they are in the round or merely in high relief. The natural daylight that falls on the figures from a hidden source above and behind them is part of the group, as are the gilt rays behind. The Ecstasy of St Teresa is not sculpture in the conventional sense. Instead, it is a framed pictorial scene made up of sculpture, painting, and light that also includes the worshiper in a religious drama. In his later years, the growing desire to control the environments of his statuary led Bernini to concentrate more and more on architecture. Of the churches he designed after completing the Cornaro Chapel, the most impressive is that of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658-70) in Rome, with its dramatic high altar, soaring dome, and unconventionally sited oval plan. But Bernini's greatest architectural achievement is the colonnade enclosing the piazza before St Peter's Basilica. The chief function of the large space was to hold the crowd that gathered for the papal benediction on Easter and other special occasions. Bernini planned a huge oval attached to the church by a trapezoidal forecourt - forms that he compared to the encircling arms of the mother church. The freestanding colonnades were a novel solution to the need for a penetrable enclosure. The piazza guides the visitor toward the church and counterbalances the overly wide facade of St Peter's. Bernini's oval encloses a space centred on the Vatican obelisk, which had been moved before the church by Sixtus V in 1586. Bernini moved an older fountain by Maderno into the long axis of the piazza and built a twin on the other side to make a scenographic whole. The analogies to Bernini's oval plan of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale are fascinating, as are the differences in meaning and function. Bernini's most spectacular religious decoration is the Throne of St Peter, or the Cathedra Petri (1657-66), a gilt-bronze cover for the medieval wooden throne (cathedra) of the pope. Bernini's task was not only to make a decorative cover for the chair but also to create a meaningful goal in the apse of St Peter's for the pilgrim's journey through the great church. The seat is seemingly supported by four imposing bronze figures representing theological doctors of the early church: Saints Ambrose, Athanasius, John Chrysostom, and Augustine. Above, a golden glory of angels on clouds and rays of light emanates from the Dove of the Holy Spirit, which is painted on an oval window. The cathedra was produced about the same time as the piazza, and the contrast between these two works shows Bernini's versatility. Both works were done for the Chigi pope, Alexander VII (1655-67), who was one of Bernini's greatest patrons. The tomb that Bernini designed for Alexander VII (1671-78; St Peter's) was largely executed by his pupils. In addition to his large works, Bernini continued to produce a few portrait busts. The first of these, of Francesco I d'Este, duke of Modena (1650-51; Este Gallery and Museum, Modena), culminates his revolution in portraiture. Much of the freedom and spontaneity of the bust of Cardinal Scipione Borghese is kept, but it is united with a heroic pomp and grandiose movement that portray the ideals of the Baroque age as much as the man. Trip to France Bernini went to Paris in 1665, in what was his only prolonged absence from Rome. The trip was made in response to invitations that for many years had been extended to him by King Louis XIV, and the purpose was the design of a new French royal residence. By this time, Bernini was so famous that crowds lined the streets of each city along the route to watch him pass. His initial reception in Paris was equally triumphant, but he soon offended his sensitive hosts by imperiously praising the art and architecture of Italy at the expense of that of France. His statements made him unpopular at the French court and were to some degree responsible for the rejection of his designs for the Louvre. The only relic of Bernini's visit to France is his great bust of Louis XIV, a linear, vertical, and stable portrait, in which the Sun King gazes out with godlike authority. The image set a standard for royal portraits that lasted 100 years. Later years
  17. 17. Bernini's late works in sculpture are inevitably overshadowed by his grandiose projects for St Peter's, but a few of them are of outstanding interest. For the Chigi Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome, he carved two groups, Daniel in the Lions' Den and Habakkuk and the Angel (1655-61). These works show the beginnings of his late style: elongation of the body, expressive gesture, and simplified yet emphatic emotional expression. The same characteristics are already found in the figures supporting the Throne of St Peter and culminate in the moving Angels for the Sant'Angelo Bridge in Rome, which Bernini redecorated with the help of assistants between 1667 and 1671. Pope Clement IX (1667-69) so prized the Angels carved by Bernini that they were never set up on the bridge and are now in the church of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome. The redecorated Sant'Angelo Bridge leading across the Tiber forms an introduction to the Vatican, and Bernini's other works - the piazza, Scala Regia, and the baldachin and cathedra within St Peter's - form progressively more powerful expressions of papal power to support and inspire Roman Catholic pilgrims to the site. Bernini completed one more decoration in St Peter's in his last years: the altar of the Santissimo Sacramento Chapel (1673-74). The pliant, human adoration of the angels contrasts with the timeless architecture of the bronze tabernacle that they flank and typifies Bernini's late style. In his last years he seems to have found the inexorable laws of architecture a consoling antithesis to the transitory human state. Bernini's greatest late work is the simple Altieri Chapel in San Francesco a Ripa (c. 1674) in Rome. The relatively deep space above the altar reveals a statue representing the death of the Blessed Ludovica Albertoni. Bernini consciously separated architecture, sculpture, and painting for different roles, reversing the process that culminated in the Cornaro Chapel. In that sense, the Altieri Chapel is more traditional, a variation on his church interiors of the preceding years. Instead of filling the arched opening, the sculpted figure of Ludovica lies at the bottom of a large volume of space, and is illuminated by a heavenly light that plays on the drapery gathered over her recumbent figure. Her hands weakly clutching her breast make explicit her painful death. Bernini died at the age of 81, after having served eight popes, and when he died he was widely considered not only Europe's greatest artist but also one of its greatest men. He was the last of Italy's remarkable series of universal geniuses, and the Baroque style he helped create was the last Italian style to become an international standard. His death marked the end of Italy's artistic hegemony in Europe. The style he evolved was carried on for two more generations in various parts of Europe by the architects Mattia de' Rossi and Carlo Fontana in Rome, J.B. Fischer von Erlach in Austria, and the brothers Cosmas and Egid Quirin Asam in Bavaria, among others.

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