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Project planning and project work plan

  1. Project Planning and Project Work Plan Presented by: Ferdinand C. Importado DBA 744 – Project Planning, Development and Evaluation October 7, 2012
  2. Project process A process is a series of actions bringing about a result Project management processes Describing and organizing the work of the project Product-oriented processes Specifying and creating the project product
  3. What is planning? Planning is the process of stating objectives and then determining the most effective activities or accomplishments necessary to reach the objectives
  4. Who makes the plans? Everybody must plan Project manager initiate the planning process Project manager coordinates planning activities into the overall project master plan
  5. Characteristics of a project planner Flexible Creative Responsive Communicative Analytic
  6. Planning process Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address
  7. Project integration management
  8. Project integration management This involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout the project’s life cycle. This integration ensures that all the elements of a project come together at the right times to complete a project successfully.
  9. Project integration management Project Integration Management Project plan development Project plan execution Overall change control
  10. Project integration management Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing Develop project charter Develop primary project scope statement  Develop project management plan Direct and manage project execution Monitor and control project work Integrate change control Close project
  11. Core processes
  12. Facilitating processes
  13. Planning process Core processes • Scope planning • Scope definition • Activity definition • Activity sequencing • Activity duration estimating • Schedule development • Resource planning • Cost estimating • Cost budgeting • Project plan development Facilitating processes • Quality planning • Organizational planning • Staff acquisition • Communication planning • Risk identification • Risk quantification • Risk response development • Procurement planning • Solicitation planning
  14. Core processes • Scope planning – developing a written scope statement as a basis for future project decisions • Scope definition – subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller and more manageable components
  15. Core processes • Activity definition – identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables • Activity sequencing – identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies
  16. Core processes • Activity duration estimating – estimating the number of work period which will be needed to complete individual activities • Schedule development – analyzing activity sequences, activity durations and resource requirements to create the project schedule
  17. Core processes • Resource planning – determining what resources and what quantities • Cost estimating – developing an approximation of the costs of the resources • Cost budgeting – allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items
  18. Core processes • Project plan development – taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent and coherent document
  19. Facilitating processes • Quality planning – identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them • Organizational planning – identifying, documenting and assigning project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships
  20. Facilitating processes • Staff acquisition – getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project • Communication planning – determining the information and communication needs of the stakeholders; who needs what information, when will they need it, and how it will be given to them
  21. Facilitating processes • Risk identification – determining which risks are likely to affect the project and documenting the characteristics of each • Risk quantification – evaluating risks and risks interactions to assess the range of possible project outcome • Risk response development – defining enhancement steps for opportunities and responses to threat
  22. Facilitating processes • Procurement planning – determining what to procure and when • Solicitation planning – documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources
  23. Dimensions of project plan development Project plan development Inputs Tools and techniques Output • Other planning outputs • Historical information • Organizational policies • Constraints • Assumptions • Project planning methodology • Stakeholder skills and knowledge • Project management information system • Project plan • Supporting detail
  24. Inputs to project plan development • Other planning outputs – includes all of the outputs derived from the core and facilitating processes as well as the work breakdown structure and supporting details • Historical information – includes all available historical information to assist in verifying assumptions and assessing alternatives that are identified as part of this process
  25. Inputs to project plan development • Organizational policies – formal and informal policies that includes but are not limited to: – Quality management – Personnel administration – Financial controls • Constraints – factors that will limit the project management team’s options • Assumptions – factors that are considered as true, real or certain but involves risk
  26. Tools and techniques for project plan development Project planning methodology • Structured approach used to guide the project team during development of the project plan Stakeholder skills and knowledge • Tapping stakeholders or other professionals for their contributions in the project PMIS • Gather, integrate, and disseminate inputs of the other project management projects
  27. Project plan and project planning A formal, approved documents used to guide both project execution and project control The processes involved in the development of a project plan
  28. Uses of project plan  Guide project execution  Document project planning assumptions  Document project planning decisions  Facilitate communication  Define key management reviews  Provide a baseline for progress measurement and control
  29. Purpose of project planning Directing Objectives Goals Special influences Constraints on the project scope
  30. Purpose of project planning Identifying Actions Risks Responsibilities
  31. Purpose of project planning Guiding Identification of required activities Establishing workable procedures
  32. Purpose of project planning Preparing Flexibility to adapt to changes Retain the qualities of integrity and durability
  33. Elements of a project plan Project summary An executive summary that can be easily absorbed by high-level executives within a few minutes that typically identifies: – Objectives – Goals – Constraints
  34. Elements of a project plan Specifications Work Statement Define the characteristics and the performance goals for the final end product Tells the contractor what is desired, or what exactly the contractor proposes to do
  35. Elements of a project plan Interrelates all tasks on a common time scale including: – Names of the tasks and work packages listed in the WBS – Names of the persons responsible for each task – Expected duration of each task – Due date of each task Master Schedule
  36. Elements of a project plan Covers the rules and practices to be observed during the project Provides the project manager with cost, schedule and performance status Procedures Guide Budgets and Cost Control System
  37. Elements of a project plan Activity / Event / Network Plan Materials and Equipment Forecast Representation of how the project activities and events progress Includes procurement and management of materials and equipment that starts with the documentation of what materials and equipments are needed
  38. Elements of a project plan Indicates which organizational units and which key personnel are involved in the process of completing each task of the project Cross-Impact Matrix
  39. Elements of a project plan Project Organizational Plan • Indicates breakdown of major project responsibilities • Who is specifically responsible for each project subsystem and task • Establish key responsibilities
  40. Elements of a project plan Management Plan It should describe how management will conduct and monitor the project that includes: – Corporate organizational charts – Statements of authority and responsibility – Information and control systems – Top management plan of attack
  41. Elements of a project plan This includes the labor resource requirements and organization that will establish key responsibilities, numbers and qualifications Project Plan Personnel
  42. Elements of a project plan Reporting and Review Procedure It includes an early assessment of required reports, meetings, presentations and project documents to determine those contributing to the overall or individual activity performance
  43. Other elements of a project plan • Financial plan • Contingency analysis • Logistics support plan • Facilities requirement plan • Market intelligence plan • Quality assurance plan • Configuration management plan • Security plan • Test plan • Production plan • Make or buy plan • Procurement plan • Training plan
  44. References: Cleland, D. I., Ireland, L. P. (2007). Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation (5th edition). McGraw Hill. Michael, S. B. (1980). Project Planning. In L. C. Stuckenbruck (Ed.) The Implementation of Project Management: The Professional Handbook. (pp. 95 – 117). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. PMI Standards Committee (1987). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (1996). Project Management Institute. Schwalbe, K. (2007). Information Technology Project Management (5th edition). Cengage Learning Asia, Pte Ltd.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Before we define the planning process, let me first provide an overview of what process and planning is all about within the context of project management. Project management is an integrated endeavor, an action, or failure to take an action in one area usually affect other areas. These interactions often require trade-offs among project objectives meaning a performance in one area can be greatly enhanced or improved by sacrificing performance in another area.Projects are composed of processes. A process is a series of actions bringing about a result. Project processes are performed by people and generally fall into one of two major categories: Project management processes are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project. Product-oriented processes are concerned with specifying and creating the project productProject management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project. The scope of the project cannot be defined in the absence of some basic understanding of how to create the product.
  2. Planning can be defined as the process of stating project objectives and then determining the most effective activities or accomplishments necessary to reach the objectives. Planning is somewhat similar or related with the decision-making process, that consists of different steps, starting with:The definition or identification of the problemIdentification of the alternative courses of actionCollection and analysis of data Choosing the best alternative The end product of a project planning process is the project plan whereas in general the end product of the planning process as related to a business enterprise is a plan or a budget.
  3. Everybody involved with the project must plan. Planning is not done by the project manager alone. Rather, the project manager is the heart of the planning effort. The project manager must initiate the planning process and coordinate all subordinate planning activities into the overall project master plan.
  4. Flexibility is the ability to adjust to change and see the impact of changeCreativity means imaginative in developing tools or applying tools to match project needsResponsiveness is the ability to be time conscious in identifying potential problems and providing plan alternativesCommunicative creates a two-way rapport within project and the reporting networkAnalytic is the ability to explore all internal-external factors to identify uncertainties and variables
  5. Planning process is devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address.It is a rational determination of how to initiate, sustain and terminate a project. The planning process also includes: Developing the plan in the required level of detail with accompanying milestones And the use of available tools for preparing and monitoring the plan.
  6. The planning process is part of a continuum of processes known as project integration management within the project management framework that includes:Initiating processesPlanning processesExecuting processesControlling processesClosing processesThe process groups are linked by the results they produce meaning the result of the prior process becomes the input of the other process.
  7. Project integration management involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout the project’s life cycle. This integration ensures that all the elements of a project come together at the right times to complete a project successfully.
  8. This means that the processes are required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. Project plan development means taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document known as project planProject plan execution means carrying out the project plan by performing the activities includedOverall change control means coordinating changes across the entire project
  9. The planning process is of major importance to a project because the project involves doing something which has not yet been done before. The core processes have clear dependencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order on most projects. Example activities must first be defined before schedules or costed.
  10. Facilitating processes are processes that are generally independent among each other and can be performed intermittently but this does not necessarily mean that they are mostly optional.
  11. Project planning is of critical important in the project environment. The extent of planning is dictated by the objectives of the project and the resources to be applied to it. In directing the intent of the project, the plan must clearly identify the project objectives, goals and any special influences or constraints on the project scope.
  12. The identification of actions, risks and responsibilities provides the substance of the project plan. These requirements are translated into the determination of activities and the allocation of the resources of the project. It is also responsible for breaking the project in controllable segments understandable to those responsible for the project’s successful execution.
  13. The guiding of the activities is performed through the proper identification of all required activities for meeting the goals and objecnamicstives and in establishing workable procedures to generate project dyanamics.
  14. A final purpose in project planning is preparing for project changes. The plan must have enough flexibility to adapt to changes but still retain the qualities of integrity and durability. The plan must be alert to danger signals and be responsive in a positive manner.
  15. The project summary should be essentially an executive summary that can be easily read by high level executives in a few minutes. It should identify the objectives, goals and constraints of the project. An objective is the stated result of and the purpose for the project which can be a general statement of purpose. A statement of goals gives the size and shape of the project from which the technical work requirements may be devised. The goal applies to some quantitative factors to the results to be achieved in the project. Finally the constraints represents certain environment in which the project objectives are to exist, financial resources available, time limitations, local customs and government restrictions. The constraints further shape the project and set the parameters for procedures, location of project staff, type of project personnel, technical requirements, budgets and schedules
  16. Specification is the element of the project should define the characteristics and the performance goals for the final end product. This may be an extensive document or it may be small, depending on the needs of the project and the customer. Work statement this is part of the proposal request that tells the contractor what is desired, or the part of the proposal that tells the customer what exactly the contractor proposes to do. It specifies the path by which the project goals and objectives will be reached.
  17. The master schedule may consist of a simple bar or Gantt chart, while a complex project may necessitate the use of elaborate critical path or PERT to fix details of the schedule.
  18. The procedures guide covers the rules and practices to be observed during the project. Care should be taken so as not to violate existing company procedures. The purpose of this guide is to set down project guidelines and standards for the conduct of the project that includes mostly of administrative practices. Budgets and cost control system is inherent in any planning process that provides the project manager with cost, schedule and performance status.
  19. Activity / Event / Network Plan is a representation of how the project activities and events progress
  20. It is important that the matrix identify not only the person responsible for the completion of the task but also what key personnel are involved and who has to be consulted or who should give approval
  21. It should contain the individual listing of every position in the project, regardless of the classification and its period of assignment.
  22. The key word in an managerial effort is communication. Good communications give the motivation and control required for a smoothly functional operation. It doe not normally refer to telephone or fax communication, but the manner by which the entire group is kept informed. This includes early assessment of required reports, meetings, presentations and project documents that will aid in contributing to performance.