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Making an impact: Scientific profiles and bibliometric indicators

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Seminar given in June 24, 2018 in Santiago de Compostela within the CHEurope 1st Summer School organized by INCIPIT (CSIC).

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Making an impact: Scientific profiles and bibliometric indicators

  1. 1. Making an impact Scientific profiles Bibliometric indicators Nicolás Robinson-García @nrobinsongarcia
  2. 2. o Motivation o Digital identity and reputation o How-to guide: tools for disseminating scientific papers o Bibliometrics 101 ------------------------------------------------------ o Open Access and online visibility Agenda
  3. 3. Motivation
  4. 4. The role of a scientist “The goal of scientific research is publication” Day, R. Gastel, B. 2012 How to write and publish a scientific paper [7th ed]. Cambridge University Press
  5. 5. The role of a scientist
  6. 6. The role of a scientist Publishing does no longer ensure communicating
  7. 7. The role of a scientist Still, scientific journals perform an important role in the scholarly communication system as gatekeepers of science PEER REVIEW PROCESS
  8. 8. Balancing careers Academic career Scientific career Community career Based on Gläser & Laudel, 2011 Research achievements Peers’ recognition Career advancement VISIBILITY IMPACT
  9. 9. Digital identity and reputation o From scientific to digital reputation o Reputation and misconduct o Building a digital identity
  10. 10. Going digital The two worlds
  11. 11. Going digital The two audiences The web as a scholarly communication tool Publishing as a scientific communication tool The worldThe scientists
  12. 12. Going digital Reasons for disseminating research o Social outreach o Influencing public opinion o Self-presentation
  13. 13. HOWEVER… One cannot have a digital scientific reputation if they have no previous scientific reputation Going digital
  14. 14. Going digital Digital reputation A Digital Identity B What they say about us C Positioning
  15. 15. Going digital Digital Identity What they say about us Positioning
  16. 16. Going digital Early career researchers and postdocs are permanently in the market Also, they tend to change often of institution It is advisable to create your own personal website
  17. 17. Going digital Some examples
  18. 18. Going digital Some examples
  19. 19. Going digital Some examples
  20. 20. Going digital BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Always updated 2. Easy to maintain 3. Not only for others BUT ALSO for you
  21. 21. WHO DO YOU WANT TO BE? Building a digital identity Type of profile Speaker Researcher Innovative Miscellaneous Channel Web Blogs Networks …there are hundreds of tools… Style Formal vs Informal Scientific vs Personal Misc.
  22. 22. WHO DO YOU WANT TO BE? Building a digital identity Audience Audience – ej. journalists Community – ej. country Contacts – ej. selective Objective Dissemination of publications Discuss results Alert Share resources
  23. 23. Paco Herrera Science communication Selective audience Facebook Informal style Ismael Ràfols Science communication International audience Institutional blogs Formal style Daniel Torres Professional + Sci comm National audience Twitter Informal style Some examples…
  24. 24. Demos: How-to guides o Depositing a paper in a repository o Dealing with complementary material and data sets o Making your research visible o Managing scientific information
  25. 25. Depositing a paper Analyze the OA policy of the journal Choose a repository Prepare the post-print Deposit!!
  26. 26. Depositing a paper • Journal’s website • Sherpa/Romeo - Dulcinea OA journals’ policies • Arxiv • PaleoArxiv Repository • Example A (versions) • Example B (reference) Post-print
  27. 27. Complementary material Analyze the journal’s policy What do you want to share? Choose a repository Deposit!!
  28. 28. Complementary material • Journal’s website Data sharing policy • Material - Paper • Data - Paper • Code - Paper Material, data and code • DataCite • Re3Data Where to deposit
  29. 29. Visible research Deposit in a repository Link from your website Tweet, blog, spread the word
  30. 30. Managing sci information Create a profile in Google Scholar Add new publications Manage your publications Create Citation Alerts
  31. 31. Monitoring social media
  32. 32. BASIC TOOLS Wrapping up OA policies -> Sherpa/Romeo Repositories-> PaleoArxiv Data -> FIGSHARE Managing profiles -> Google Scholar Monitoring social media -> Altmetric.com
  33. 33. Bibliometrics 101 o Citations and research evaluation o Main bibliometric indicators o Main data sources to retrieve citation data o Pervasive effects and ill-informed use of bibliometrics
  34. 34. Quantifying research Governments absorbed, in the 1990s, the “new management” ideology that focused on the evaluation of everything using indicators and benchmarks as “objective” measures of efficiency and return on investment Gingras, 2014 o Solo scientists vs. research teams o Doing research becomes expensive o Economic constraints lead to deciding where to cut funding
  35. 35. Quantifying research USES OF BIBLIOMETRICS FOR RES. EVALUATION University rankings Funding centres Hiring processes Research projects
  36. 36. Citations ≈ Sci. impact o Researchers’ contributions are measured by their works o The main dissemination channel for scientists is the scientific journal o References/citations reflect the influence of the work of others
  38. 38. Some considerations Citations are partial proxies of scientific impact Context affects proxies (robustness) Policies affect researchers’ behaviors (meaning) There are well-known biases in citations Citation distributions are highly skewed
  39. 39. Bibliometric indicators Scientific impact Visibility Leadershi p Social capital Productivity Know. transference
  40. 40. The H-Index An author has an h index when at least h of her publications has received at least h citations
  41. 41. Journal Impact Factor The Journal Impact Factor does not reflect the actual impact of all papers published in such journal Number of citations received in year X to publications from years X-1 and X-2 Total number of publications from years X-1 and X-2
  42. 42. Quantifying research […] it is much easier to make a measurement than to ascertain just what has been measured, and considerable caution must therefore be exercised in any interpretations of the statistics of publication. Price, 1951 oChanges on researchers’ practices oEffects on research agendas oCitation gaming
  43. 43. Open Access and online visibility o Main milestones of the OA movement o The roads to Open Access o Some reflections on Open Access and Scholarly Communication
  44. 44. The OA rainbow Gold Green Bronze Black … OA
  45. 45. A few publishers control an increasingly higher share of ‘elite’ journals The problem THERE IS SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE PUBLISHING SYSTEM… Which they sell to academic institutions through a ‘big deal’ strategy
  46. 46. o Publishers impose their own collections o Abusive increases on pricing, up to 20% o Libraries acquire journals that are never used The problem … ALL OF THIS LEADS TO THE BEGINNING OF THE OPEN ACCESS
  47. 47. Government funds research Researchers publish their results in peer reviewed scientific journals Publishers edit these papers and sell them back to them through libraries Researchers access their papers through suscription The paradox
  48. 48. 1991 - Paul Ginsparg launches ARXIV The alternative 2002 - Budapest Open Access Initiative 2002 - Doris Lessig develops the Creative Commons licenses
  49. 49. Government funds research Researchers publish their results in peer reviewed scientific journals Publishers edit these papers and sell them back to them through libraries THIS ARE OFFERED IN OPEN ACCESS GRATIS Researchers access their papers through suscription Researchers publish their papers in journals or repositories The alternative
  50. 50. The revolution
  51. 51. The key to all these issues is the right of authors to achieve easily- accessible distribution of their work. If you would like to declare publicly that you will not support any Elsevier journal unless they radically change how they operate… THE COST OF KNOWLEDGE 2013 The revolution
  52. 52. We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks. We need to fight for Guerilla Open Acces Swartz † 1986-2013 Robin Hoods of Science
  53. 53. Robin Hoods of Science Alexandra Elbakyan
  54. 54. Recommendation on access to and preservation of scientific information States that “Policies on open access to scientific research results should apply to all research that receives public funds. EU Open Access policy Implementing OA
  55. 55. GREEN ROAD GOLD ROAD The Roads to OA Self-archiving Journals
  56. 56. The Roads to OA The author is responsible of ensuring open and free universal to its work WEBSITE REPOSITORY
  57. 57. A repository, deposit or archive is a centralized place where digital information is stored and preserved, normally databases or digital files • Institutional • Thematic • Articles • Data The Roads to OA
  58. 58. The Roads to OA Benefits of repositories o They ensure universal and permanent access o They use metadata to describe content and make it easier for research engines to find it o They use permanent URLs that ensure sustainability of hyperlinks.
  59. 59. Peer Review Accepted for publication Published version PRE PRINT POST PRINT PUBLISHER VERSION SUBMIT TO JOURNAL The Roads to OA
  60. 60. Personal Website Repository+ The Roads to OA My advice:
  62. 62. Author pays model JOURNAL Euros per article Articles 2010 Benefits 2010 Genome Biology (BMC) 1.800 € 155 279.000 € Breast Cancer Res. (BMC) 1.345 € 138 185.610 € PLoS One 987 € 6.690 6.603.030 € PLoS Medicine 2.120 € 85 180.200 € Hybrid Model: British Medical Journal>2.500 € The Roads to OA
  63. 63. The Roads to OA
  64. 64. The empire strikes back
  65. 65. The empire strikes back PLOS One Nature Springer Hindawi Publishing
  66. 66. The empire strikes back
  67. 67. Who’s Afraid of Peer Review? Bohannon, Science, 2014 Some reflections BEWARE! OA journals ≠ Predatory journals
  68. 68. Some reflections
  69. 69. At a crossroads Gold OA, Green OA and Free access Martín-Martín et al., 2018
  70. 70. Questions? elrobinster@gmail.com @nrobinsongarcia