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IS2 Classification PPT

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IS2 Classification PPT

  1. 1. Classification<br />IS2<br />
  2. 2. Essential Questions<br />Why do we need to classify things?<br />How do we classify things?<br />
  3. 3. Binomial System<br />Used to categorize organisms<br />Created by Linnaeus in 18th century<br />2 Latin names: Homo sapiens<br /> Homo = genus Homo sapiens = species<br />Genus= always written with an initial capital letter<br />Specific name = lower case<br />Always italic (or different from text font) or underlined (when handwritten)<br />Examples:<br /> Tiger= PantheratigrisLion = Pantheraleo<br /> Dog = CanisfamiliarisWolf = Canis lupus<br />Sunflower = Helianthusannuus<br />
  4. 4. Helianthus annuus<br />Sunflower<br />Canisfamiliaris<br />Dog <br />BINNOMIAL SYSTEM<br />Canis lupus<br />Wolf<br />Pantheraleo<br />Lion<br />Escherichia coli<br />bacteria<br />
  5. 5. Hierarchy<br />KINGDOM<br />PHYLLUM<br />CLASS<br />ORDER<br />FAMILY<br />GENUS<br />SPECIES<br />If you need a trick to remember the sequence:<br />“king phillip came over for green soup”<br />
  6. 6. Basic features to remember...<br />Prokaryotic cell x Eukaryotic cell<br />Autotroph x Heterotroph<br />
  7. 7. Classification<br />For a long time: two kingdoms = ANIMALS AND PLANTS<br />With the microscope = more creatures discovered<br />Now:<br />
  8. 8. Kingdom Eubacteria<br />bacteria, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)<br />Unicellular organisms<br />Prokaryotes<br />Some move (flagellum), some don’t<br />Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic<br />
  9. 9. Kingdom Archaebacteria<br />Live in extreme environments:<br />Rich in methane (found for example in the digestive system of ruminants)<br />Salt <br />Hot springs<br />Ocean (plankton)<br />Closer to eukaryotes<br />Classification is still changing<br />
  10. 10. Kingdom Protista<br />Amoeba, Plasmodium, Trypanosomacruzi, Toxoplasma, Euglena, Paramecium<br />ALL unicellular<br />Eukaryotes<br />Some move (cilia, flagellum), some don’t<br />Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic<br />Amoeba moving/feeding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6rnhiMxtKU&feature=related<br />
  11. 11. Kingdom Plantae<br />algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants<br />ALL multicellular<br />Eukaryotes<br />ALL autotrophic<br />4 main divisions:<br />Bryophytes (moss)<br />Ferns (ferns)<br />Gimnospermophytes (pine trees)<br />Angiospermophytes (flowering plants)<br />
  12. 12. Kingdom Fungi<br />fungi, molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildews<br />Some unicellular, some multicellular<br />Eukaryotes<br />ALL heterotrophic (saprotrophic: absorb organic matter from decaying organisms)<br />Do not move<br />Cells: no chlorophyll, cell wall made of chitin (not cellulose like plants)<br />
  13. 13. Kingdom Animalia<br />invertebrates and vertebrates<br />ALL multicellular<br />Eukaryotes<br />ALL heterotrophic<br />Some move, some don’t<br />Many phyla:<br />Porifera (sponge)<br />Cnidaria (jellyfish)<br />Platyhelminthe (flatworm)<br />Nematoda (roundworm)<br />Annelida (earthworm)<br />Arthropoda (ant)<br />Mollusca (snail)<br />Echinodermata (sea star)<br />Chordata (includes vertebrates)<br />
  14. 14. What is a dichotomous key?<br />tool that allows the user to determine the identity of a certain item (like, for example, a tree, a flower, an animal or a simple object)<br />"Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous keys always give two choices in each step.<br />
  15. 15. Engage Activity – Create your own dichotomous key<br /> Create a dichotomous key to identify all students in this classroom, using questions based on gender, hair length/color, glasses (or not), clothing color/type, etc<br />Rule: You must not use characteristics that might make people feel uncomfortable!!! <br />1. Gender<br />1a. Is this person male? Go to question 2.<br />1b. Is this person female? Go to question 3.<br />
  16. 16. Kingdom Animalia<br />IS2<br />
  17. 17. Phyllum Porifera<br />Sponges<br />Aquatic environments<br />Oldest of the animal phyla /<br />Porifera = "pore bearer"<br />Asymmetrical / Stationary animals<br />No specialized tissues<br />No “real” skeleton<br />Body structure = numerous small pores + few large openings<br />Food: filters plankton <br />Respiration: diffusion of O2 and CO2<br />Hermaphrodites<br />Sexual and Asexual Reproduction<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Phyllum Cnidaria<br />Jellyfish, anemone, coral, hydra <br />Cnidos = “stinging needle”<br />Aquatic environments<br />Radial symmetry<br />Two layers of tissue (including some nerve cells)<br />Two main life forms: free-swimming medusa (jellyfish) or stationary polyp (anemone)<br />Body = single opening to gastrovascular cavity that serves as the mouth and anus and is typically surrounded by a ring of tentacles packed with stinging cells <br />Stinging cells: offense and defense<br />Food: from tiny protists to large fish<br />Reproduction: sexual and asexual<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Phyllum Platyhelminthes<br />Planaria, tapeworm<br />Platy = "flat" ; helminth = “worm”<br />Marine, freshwater, damp environments<br />Bilateral symmetry<br />Nervous system present<br />Three tissue layers<br />No circulatory system and no hard skeleton<br />Their bodies have only a single opening, which serves as both a mouth and an anus.<br />Food: carnivorous OR steal food from host<br />Eyespot = group of light-sensitive cells<br />Respiration: diffusion through skin<br />Hermaphrodites<br />Sexual and asexual reproduction<br />Some parasites<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. PhyllumNematoda<br />Unsegmented cylindrical body<br />Nematos= “thread"<br />Freshwater, sea, soil + parasites<br />Bilateral symmetry<br />Body with 2 openings: mouth and anus<br />Nervous system present<br />Respiration: diffusion through skin<br /> Separate genders<br />Wuchereriabancrofti<br />Larva migrans<br />Free living nematode<br />Ascarislumbricoides<br />
  25. 25. Phyllum Mollusca<br />Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squid, Octopus<br />Mollis – “soft”<br />Terrestrial, Aquatic (freshwater + marine)<br />Muscular foot: used for locomotion or grasping<br />A calcium shell present in most mollusks: some mollusks have greatly reduced their shells (squid); while others have completely lost it, e.g., slugs and octopus<br />Octopus/squid: eyes with retina and lenses<br />Nervous system (with brain)<br />Respiration: gills / lungs / skin<br />Main body systems<br />Octopus = venom<br />Sexual Reproduction<br />
  26. 26. Sepia<br />Sea slugs<br />Nautilus<br />
  27. 27. Phyllum Annelida<br />Earthworms, Leeches, Polychaetes<br />Anellus = "little ring”<br />Terrestrial, freshwater, marine, parasites<br />Bilateral symmetry<br />Movement: muscles<br />Body divided into segments (“rings”)<br />Circulatory system present<br />Two openings: mouth and anus<br />Respiration: diffusion through skin<br />Food: small invertebrates, earth, blood<br />Sexual and asexual reproduction<br />Some hermaphrodites<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Phyllum Arthropoda<br />Crabs, barnacles, lobsters, shrimp, spiders, mites, scorpions, millipedes, centipedes, insects<br />All environments<br />Arthron = “joint”; podos: “foot”<br />Hard exoskeleton<br />Jointed appendages + segmented body<br />Must molt to grow = shed exoskeleton and inflate the body before the new skeleton hardens. <br />Many appendages : antennae, claws, wings, shields, mouth parts – allow arthropods to exploit nearly every niche on Earth.<br />Circulatory, excretory and nervous systems present<br />Respiration: gills, trachea <br />Sexual Reproduction<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Phyllum Echinodermata<br />Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Sand Dollar, Brittle Star<br />Marine <br />Larva: bilateral symmetry/ later: radial symmetry<br />No central brain<br />Internal skeleton made of little calcium plates<br />Move, feed and breathe with a unique water-vascular system ending in what are called tube feet<br />Most are either stationary or slow-moving animals<br />Main body systems present<br />Food: from particles to other starfish/shellfish<br />External fertilization<br />Regeneration <br />Sexual and asexual reproduction<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Phyllum Chordata<br />97% are vertebrates -- animals whose skeletons include a backbone (which include Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)<br />Notochord: an elongate rod-like structure replaced by vertebral column in vertebrates<br />Dorsal nerve cord: a hollow tube that turns into central nervous system<br />Pharyngeal gill slits or clefts: structures located behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus<br />Endoskeleton<br />Lancelet or Amphioxus<br />Ascidea or Tunicata<br />
  34. 34. Vertebrates<br />Skin: 2 layers – epidermis and dermis<br />Vertebral column + skull<br />Brain + spinal cord<br />Endoskeleton<br />Main classes (one of which is extinct): <br /><ul><li>Agnatha - jawlessfishes (lamprey/hagfish: scavengers/parasites)
  35. 35. Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes
  36. 36. Osteichthyes - bony fishes
  37. 37. Amphibia - Amphibians
  38. 38. Reptilia - Reptiles
  39. 39. Birds
  40. 40. Mammalia – Mammals</li></li></ul><li>Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes <br />Sharks, rays<br />Cartilaginous endoskeleton, gill slits, and paired fins and nostrils<br />Heart: 2 chambers<br />Ventral mouth<br />No bone marrow<br />Scales <br />Ectothermic<br />Lateral line (vibrations)<br />Internal fertilization<br />Whale shark<br />Hammerhead and Sting ray<br />
  41. 41. Osteichthyes - bony fishes <br />96% of living fish species. <br />Most numerous and diverse of the vertebrates. <br />eel, seahorse, tuna, clownfish<br />Anterior mouth<br />Swim bladder: allows them to float <br />Gills protected by operculum<br />Scales <br />Ectothermic<br />bone replaces cartilage<br />External fertilization <br />tuna/seahorse/eel/moonfish<br />
  42. 42. Amphibia - Amphibians <br />There are three living amphibian groups: <br /><ul><li>Frogs and toads
  43. 43. Salamanders
  44. 44. Caecilians </li></ul>Originated from fishes<br />All have bony endoskeletons and usually four legs<br />Ectothermic<br />Metamorphosis (some species)<br />All require water at some stage in the life cycle.<br />Most shed their eggs into water, which is also home to a free-swimming larval stage.<br />Respiration: gills, lungs (less efficient) , skin<br />WET skin = respiratory organ (usually thin and sometimes supplied with glands that produce toxins)<br />Heart: 3 chambers <br />External fertilization<br />Eardrums<br />Vocal cords<br />Caecilia – vestigial eyes + no legs<br />
  45. 45. Reptilia<br />Crocodiles, Alligators, Turtles, Snakes, Lizards<br />Evolved from amphibians<br />Heart = 4 chambers<br />Ectothermic<br />Skin = dry and full of scales (prevent dehydration)<br />Eggs with shell, amniotic sac (allows them to live on dry land)<br />Well developed lungs<br />Internal fertilization<br />
  46. 46. Birds<br />Penguin, Kiwi, Hawk, Ostrich <br />Eggs amnion: can develop on land<br />Heart – 4 chambers<br />Internal fertilization<br />Endothermic<br />Muscular stomach with stones for grinding food<br />Oil gland (help some float in water)<br />Flight adaptations:<br />Feathers – insulation/flight<br />Hollow bones<br />Toothless<br />Strong muscles<br />No bladder (why do you think?) <br />Lungs with air sacs<br />Cerebellum developed (balance)<br />Good vision<br />Membrane covering eye (not eyelid)<br />Some binocular vision (hunters)<br />Blue-footedBoobyBird<br />kiwi<br />Harpia<br />
  47. 47. Mammalia<br />3 groups:<br /><ul><li>Monotremes = platypus and equidna (egg layers)
  48. 48. Marsupials = pouch (where baby finishes its development)
  49. 49. Placental = most mammals </li></ul>Mammary glands<br />Parental care<br />Hair<br />Diaphragm<br />Differentiation of teeth<br />Large brain<br />Endothermic<br />Heart = 4 chambers<br />Internal fertilization<br />
  50. 50. Kingdom Plantae<br />IS2<br />
  51. 51. Bryophytes<br />Simple plants, limited size<br />Hold loose dirt in place: avoid weathering/erosion<br />Live in moist areas<br />Depend on water for sexual reproduction: motile male gamete<br />No vascular tissue = absorbs nutrients from environment<br />No true roots = have rhizoids - like root hairs (absorb water, anchor plant)<br />No real stems<br />No real leaves = similar structures but only one cell thick <br />Produce spores involved in asexual reproduction<br />moss<br />liverwort<br />
  52. 52. Have vascular tissue: can be bigger<br />Xylem: H2O + minerals<br />Phloem: sap (sugar, hormones...)<br />Have real roots, stems and leaves (aka fronds)<br />Live in moist areas: still needs water for sexual reproduction<br />Spores produced generally on the underside of the leaf (asexual reproduction)<br />Filicinophytes, or Ferns<br />frond<br />young frond<br />rhizome<br />roots<br />
  53. 53. http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio6.jpg<br />http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio4.jpg<br />
  54. 54. GimnospermophytesConifers<br /><ul><li>Pines, cypress, sequoias
  55. 55. Contain a well developed vascular tissue (big plants!), roots, woody stems and leaves
  56. 56. Produce male (contain pollen) and female (contain ovules) cones
  57. 57. Pollen = gamete = does not depend on water for reproduction
  58. 58. Produce seeds which develop on the scales of the female cones
  59. 59. NO REAL FLOWERS + NO FRUITS</li></li></ul><li>
  60. 60. Sequoias <br />National Park in California<br />
  61. 61. AngiospermophytesFloweringPlants <br />Flowering plants with real roots, stems and leaves<br />Occupy all environments<br />Male gamete = pollen (does not need water for reproduction)<br />Seeds are produced – develop inside the ovaries in the flower<br />Ovary develops into a fruit which aids in seed dispersal<br />