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Theories of Teaching in Psychology -M.ed Level

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Theories of teaching
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Theories of Teaching in Psychology -M.ed Level

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e INDEX Sr. No. Particulars Page No. Signature Remarks 1. Introduction 3 2. Definition 3 3. Advantages 3 4. Types of Teaching Theories 4 1. FORMAL THEORY 4 i Meutic Theory 5 ii Communicative Theory 5 iii Molding Theory 6 iv Mutual Inquiry Theory 6 2. DESCRIPTIVE THEORY 6 i. Theories of Instruction 6 1 Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction. 7 2 Atkinson’s Decision Theoretic Analysis for optimizing learning. 7
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e 3 Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction. 7 ii. Prescriptive theories of teaching 8 3 NORMATIVE THEORY 8 i Cognitive theory 8 ii Theory of Teacher behavior 8 iii Psychological Theory 9 iv General Theory 10 5 Conclusion 10 6 References 10
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e THEORIES OF TEACHING :- Introduction:- THEORIES OF TEACHING are the general methodology of teaching,reflecting how teachers behave, why do they behave, when they perform and with effect it works. When applied in classroom it results in efficiency of teaching-learning process and also that of teachers.(i.e. .They can develop teaching skills and knowledge competencies.) Definition: “A theory of teaching is a set of inter-related constructs, definitions, prepositions which present a systematic view of teaching by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting”- Kerlinger Burner (1964) defines the theory of teaching as the explanation of “general methodology of teaching” A theory of teaching must answer the questions of the teaching for efficient learning i.e.the need for a theory of teaching. A teaching theory has the following advantages: 1) Teaching theory explains the relationship between teaching and learning and identifies common factors. 2) Teaching theory gives the knowledge about the assumptions of teaching activities which provide guideline for organizing teaching. The instructional designs can be developed with the help of theory of teaching. 3) Provides the scientific basis for planning, organizing, leading and evaluation the teaching. 4) The classroom teaching problems may be studied scientifically through the knowledge of teaching theory. 5) The pupil-teachers can develop teaching skills and competency by employing the knowledge given by theory of teaching. 6) Teaching objectives may be successfully achieved by the use of teaching theory.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e 7) The effective teachers enable produced with the use of teaching theory. N.L. Gage suggests that theories of teaching may be used to increase the understanding, prediction and control of teaching. TYPES OF TEACHING THEORIES 1. Formal Theories :- A formal theory is syntactic in natureand is only meaningful when given a semantic component by applying it to some content (i.e. facts and relationships) .  to formalize a broad range of common sense inferences related to human psychology, and on theories of human memory and emotions.  The set of concepts surrounding the idea of a goal turned out to be among the most important areas of common sense psychology.Goals are central not just in our work but in psychology.
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e  Formal Theories can be well explained by learning what are the theories concernedinit.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e iii. Molding theory :- The human personality is formed, shaped and molded by their ENV. Here st.behaviour is molded by Tr’s teaching styles impact on them. Implication :- Good Teachers know well that they are shaping the future of the students and so does they themselves are of that strong influence and good etiquettes that if they are been followed it will have an indirect good impact and at times direct too. iv. Mutual Inquiry theory This theory states that true knowledge is gained through inquiry and self desire of discovery to know. Implication :- This theory implies that a Teachers has a model in his mind to use in specific situation and st. themselves selects a one so as to learn through mutual inquiry. 2. Descriptive Theories :- A descriptive theories are based upon certain propositions and certain observations stating the relationship between the outcome of education and the condition and characteristics of learners. Descriptive Theories can be well explained by learning what are the theories concerned in it. i. Theories of Instructions 1. Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction. 2. Atkinson’s Decision Theoretic Analysis for optimizing learning. 3. Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e 1. Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction Learning event Corresponding instructional events Reception Gaining attention Expectancy Information learners of the Retrieval Stimulation recall or prior learning Selective Perception Presenting the stimulus Semantic encodingProviding learning guidance Responding Eliciting performance Reinforcement Providing feedback Retrieval Assessing performance Generalization Enhancing retention and transfer 2. Atkinson’s Decision-theoretic Analysis for Optimizing Learning. Atkinson Proposed four characteristics 1. Model of the learning process should be involved 2. It should involve specified instructional actions 3. The instructional objectives should be specified in behavioral terms. 4. Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner advocates that a theory of instruction is designing measurement scale or questions. 3.Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction. Bruner has specified four features 1) Predispositionto learn - A theory of instruction must be concerned with the experiences and context that will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school 2) Structure of knowledge -A theory of instruction should specify the ways in which bodyof knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner. 3) Sequence of instruction – A theory of instruction should specify the most effective sequences to present the material
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e 4) Reinforcement – A theory of instruction should specify the nature and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards of intrinsic one. ii.Prescriptive theory of Teaching E. Stones and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of teaching with the help of three types of related variables: 1) The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes place. 2) In the second Phasedecision are made about the interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to teaching objectives 3) The third phase concerns with evaluating the effectiveness and workability of phase two . 3.NORMATIVE THEORYOF TEACHING:- Learning theories been formulated and experimented on controlled situations with less generalizability and teaching theories concerned with human behaviour needs generalization .More rigorous experiment cannot be performed on human .Thus we need normative theories where a standard norms are based on humans i.e , teacher and students i.The cognitive theory of teaching 1. Types of teacher’s activity –Adviser, counselor, motivator, demonstrator, curriculum planner and evaluator. 2. Types of educational objectives –Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. 3. Types of learning theories –Psychological theories of learning, philosophical theories of learning 4. Types of components of learning - drive, cue, responseand reward. ii.Theory of Teacher behavior:- D.G. Ryan has tried to explain the conceptof teacher-behaviour and formulated a theory of teacher-behaviour. “Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher performs typically in the classroom in order to induce-learning”. -M. Meux and B.O. Smith
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e iv.General Theory of Teaching S.C.T. Clarke has formulated a general theory of teaching.It assumes that teaching is process which is designed and performed to produce change in behavior of students. Conclusion:- Teaching theory is prescriptive. Teachers and pupils are the major variables of teaching theory. It is narrow and specific. It is based upon learning theory, learning conditions and learning components. While learning theory are formulated by conducting experiments on animals teaching theory is developed by dealing with human subjects in normal situations. It is concerned with effective learning and development of pupils. References:- 1. Sharma. R.K. “Technological foundation of education”, Theories of teaching. 2. Mangal. S.K. “Advanced Educational Psychology”, Nature and theories of learning. PHI learning Private Limited.Pg.235 – 236. 3. http://www.slideshare.net/competents2011/teaching-theories?related=1

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