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  2. 2. History  The earliest historical reference to magnification dates back to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 5th century BC, which depict "simple glass meniscal lenses
  3. 3.  The first eyeglasses were made in Italy at about 1286, according to a sermon delivered on February 23, 1306 by the Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa
  4. 4. 1580–1645 Current
  5. 5. Frames
  6. 6. Frame Types and Parts  A frame generally consists of the front, which in one form  Temples ,which attach to the front and hook over the ears to help hold the spectacles in place.
  7. 7. Parts Frame Fronts  That area of the frame front between the lenses that rests on the nose is the bridge.  The hinges hold the temples to the front.  Nose pads ,which are plastic pieces that rest on the nose to support the frame.
  8. 8. The frame front
  9. 9. Parts of a temple.
  10. 10. Frames  Frames without an eyewire going completely around the lens are called mountings.  Lenses are “inserted” into frames, but “mounted” into mountings.  Frames themselves can be classified in a simplified manner by one of the following categories of frames or mountings.
  11. 11. TYPES OF FRAMES Plastics Metal
  12. 12. Plastics  Plastic frames were occasionally referred to as shell frames, dating back to the time when eyeglass frames were made of tortoise shell.  Another general term that many still use for certain plastic frames is zyl, since at one time zylonite (cellulose nitrate) was a commonly used material.
  13. 13. • Made up of plastic materials • Commonly used plastic material cellulose acetate • Inexpensive Plastics
  14. 14. Plastics  Thermoplastic  Thermosetting  Thermoplastic materials can be heated & cooled with out losing their plasticity.
  15. 15. Metal  Metal frames are those made of all metal parts, except for the nose pads and the posterior temple sections, which are plastic covered.  The eyewire runs completely around the lens.
  16. 16. Nylon cord frames  Nylon cord frames, sometimes called string mounted frames or nylon supras hold the lenses in place by means of a nylon cord that fits around the edge of the lens.  This gives the glasses the appearance of being rimless.
  17. 17.  Usually the top of the lens is fitted into the upper rim of the frames.  The rest of the lens has a small groove cut into an otherwise fl at edge.
  18. 18. Combination  Combination frames are commonly frames having a metal chassis and plastic top rims and temples.  Although this is the most common construction, technically any frame with a combination of metal and plastic could be included in this category.
  19. 19. Half-eye  Half-eyes are frames made especially for those who need a reading correction.
  20. 20. Rimless mountings  Rimless mountings hold the lenses in place by some method other than eyewires or nylon cords.  Often screws are used, but cement, clamps, and plastic posts have been used.  Most rimless mountings have two areas of attachment per lens, one nasally and one temporally.  Rimless mountings are sometimes referred to as 3-piece mountings.
  21. 21. 3-piece mounting
  22. 22. Semi rimless  It similar to the rimless except for a metal reinforcing arm, which follows the upper posterior surface of the lens and joins the centerpiece of the frame to the endpiece.  The centerpiece of a mounting consists of bridge, pad arms, and pads.
  23. 23. Numont mountings
  24. 24. BRIDGE AREA
  25. 25. BRIDGE  Plastic Bridges Saddle bridge Modified Saddle bridge Keyhole  Metal Bridges pad bridge Comfort bridge.
  26. 26. Saddle bridge  It is shaped like a saddle in a smooth curve and follows the bridge of the nose  This spreads the weight of the frame evenly over the sides and crest of the nose.
  27. 27. Modified saddle,  Modified saddle, same as the saddle bridge does when viewed from the front.  The difference is that there are nose pads that are part of the back of the bridge.  These pads help to carry some of the weight of the frame
  28. 28. Modified saddle
  29. 29. Keyhole  Is shaped like an old-fashioned keyhole.  At the top, the bridge flare out slightly. The bridge rests on the sides of the nose, but not on the crest
  30. 30. Keyhole
  31. 31.  Metal frame is equipped with a clear plastic saddle-type bridge, the bridge type is referred to as a comfort bridge. Metal frame bridge
  32. 32. Endpiece Construction
  33. 33. Plastic end piece Three types Butt types Mitre Turn back
  34. 34. Plastic Endpiece Construction (B) butt (C) turn-back (A) Mitre
  35. 35. Metal Endpiece Construction •This traditional metal endpiece has a turn-back
  36. 36. “wrap” endpiece Some metal end pieces are not really end pieces at all. The end piece and temple are one continuous piece of material as in this “wrap” end piece design
  37. 37. Temple Construction
  38. 38. TEMPLE  Five major categories 1.Skull temples  Thebent-down portion isnarrower at thetop of theear & widenstowardstheend.
  39. 39. Library temples An average width at the butt & increases in width posteriorly. Straight – back temples.
  40. 40. Convertible temples 1. Variety of temple, the temple may be easily straightened out & then re- bent to the wearer.
  41. 41. Riding bow 1. Used in children’s & safety frames.
  42. 42. Comfort cable 1. Same as riding bow temples 2. Metal construction behind the ear portion.
  43. 43. Coloration  Plastic frames may be partially classified by coloration.  A solid frame is all one color. A vertically gradient frame  A horizontally gradient The multitude of color combinations
  44. 44. ENDPIECE Plastic end piece Metal end piece
  45. 45. FRAME MATERIALS  Plastic Frame Materials  Metal Frame Materials
  46. 46. Plastic Frame Materials  Cellulose Acetate  Propionate  Optyl  Polycarbonate  Nylon and Nylon-Based Materials Nylon Polyamide/Copolyamide Grilamid
  47. 47.  Rubber  Carbon Fiber  Combinations of Plastic Materials
  48. 48. Metal Frame Materials  Nickel-Based Materials Pure Nickel Nickel Silvers Monel Metal Aluminum Stainless Steel Titanium Bronze Magnesium & Other Materials and Alloys.