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CHAPTER FOUR
1
Learning Objectives
1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs
and Motives and the Meaning of Goals.
2. To Understand the D...
Motivation as a Psychological
Force
• Motivation is the
driving force within
individuals that impels
them to action.
• Nee...
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
4Chapter Four
Slide
Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered
primary needs or motives
Acquired Nee...
Goals
The sought-after results of motivated behavior
Generic goals are general categories of goals that
consumers see as...
The Selection of Goals
The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Pre...
Motivations and Goals
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8Chapter Four
Slide
Rational versus Emotional Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select goals
based on totally objective criteria, su...
The Dynamics of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
People who achie...
Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific
goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need
The subst...
Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration.
Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to
protect ...
Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal
Emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal
Environmental arousal
Copyright 2010 Pear...
Philosophies Concerned with
Arousal of Motives
Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus
Elements of consciou...
Types and Systems of Needs
Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
A trio of needs
Copy...
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
16Chapter Four
Slide
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
(continued)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
17Chapte...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Figure 4.10
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
18Chapter Four
...
A Trio of Needs
Power
individual’s desire to control environment
Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and belo...
Measurement of Motives
Researchers rely on a
combination of techniques
Qualitative research is widely
used
Projective t...
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Consumer Behaviour Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

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Consumer Behaviour Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

  1. 1. CHAPTER FOUR 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and Motives and the Meaning of Goals. 2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals. 3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers. 4. To Understand How Human Motives Are Studied and Measured. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2Chapter Four Slide
  3. 3. Motivation as a Psychological Force • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. • Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3Chapter Four Slide
  4. 4. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4Chapter Four Slide
  5. 5. Types of Needs Innate Needs Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired Needs Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 5Chapter Four Slide
  6. 6. Goals The sought-after results of motivated behavior Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6Chapter Four Slide
  7. 7. The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7Chapter Four Slide
  8. 8. Motivations and Goals Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8Chapter Four Slide
  9. 9. Rational versus Emotional Motives Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9Chapter Four Slide
  10. 10. The Dynamics of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10Chapter Four Slide
  11. 11. Substitute Goals Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need The substitute goal will dispel tension Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11Chapter Four Slide
  12. 12. Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12Chapter Four Slide
  13. 13. Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13Chapter Four Slide
  14. 14. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives Behaviorist School Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School Behavior is directed at goal achievement Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14Chapter Four Slide
  15. 15. Types and Systems of Needs Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs A trio of needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15Chapter Four Slide
  16. 16. Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16Chapter Four Slide
  17. 17. Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs (continued) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 17Chapter Four Slide
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 18Chapter Four Slide
  19. 19. A Trio of Needs Power individual’s desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1919 Chapter Four Slide
  20. 20. Measurement of Motives Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Qualitative research is widely used Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 20Chapter Four Slide

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