Who introduced social psychology?
What is social psychology?
When social psychology was introduced?
Why social psychology was introduced?
How social psychology was introduced?
4. What is social psychology ?
• Social psychology is about understanding individual
behavior in a social context
• Baron, Byrne & Suls (1989) define social psychology as “the
scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and
causes of individual behavior in social situations”
• According to psychologist Gordon Allport, social psychology
is a discipline that uses scientific methods "to understand
and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of
individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or
implied presence of other human beings."
5. Who introduced social psychology?
• Norman Triplett one of the first social
psychologists invented social psychology in
6. First two experiments of social
• Norman Triplett (1898), one of the first social
psychologists, demonstrated that
performance on tasks is improved in the
presence of others.
• Ringelmann (1913) showed that people put in
less effort when they worked together.
7. Why social psychology was
• Social psychology was energized by
researchers who attempted to understand
how the German dictator Adolf Hitler could
have produced such extreme obedience and
horrendous behaviors in his followers during
the Second World War. The studies on
conformity conducted by Muzafir Sherif
(1936) and Solomon Asch (1952 as well as
those on obedience by Stanley Milgram (1974)
9. Social Facilitation Theory
• If you are really good
at something….or it is
an easy task…you will
perform BETTER in
front of a group.
• If it is a difficult task
or you are not very
good at it…you will
perform WORSE in
front of a group
11. Attitudes and Attitude Change
• Another major research area in social psychology
involves the study of attitudes. Social psychologists
are interested in the components of attitudes, how
attitudes develop and how attitudes change.
Researchers have described three core components
of attitude: an affective component, a behavioral
component, and a cognitive component.
• Often referred to as the "ABC's of attitude," these
elements describe how we feel, behave and
12. Violence and Aggression
• What causes violence and aggression? Social
psychologists are interested in how and why
people engage in violence or act aggressively.
Research in this area looks at numerous
factors that may cause aggression including
social variables and media influences.
• Researchers often look at the role social
learning plays in producing aggressive
behaviors and actions.
13. Prosocial Behavior
• Prosocial behavior is another major research area in social
psychology. What is prosocial behavior? Prosocial behaviors
are those that involve helping and cooperating. Researchers
often look at why people help others, as well as why they
sometimes refuse to help or cooperate.
• Much of the research in this area was prompted by the
murder of a young woman named Kitty Genovese. This case
captured national attention when reports revealed that
neighbors had witnessed her attack and murder, but failed
to call the police for help. Research inspired by the case
produced a great deal of information on prosocial behavior
and how and why people choose - or sometimes refuse - to
14. Group Behavior
• The behavior of groups is one of the largest
research areas in social psychology. Most people
realize that groups tend to behave differently
than individuals. These group behaviors are
sometimes beneficial and positive, but they can
also be detrimental and negative. Social
psychologists often look at topics such as group
dynamics, leadership, group decision-making,
conflicts, cooperation and group influence
16. Social Loafing
• The tendency for
people in a group to
exert less effort
when pooling efforts
toward a common
goal than if they
17. Interpersonal Relationships
• Social relationships play a major role in shaping
behavior, attitudes, feelings and thoughts. Social
psychologists study how these interpersonal
relationships affect people by looking at
attachment, liking, love and attraction. How do
close relationships affect individuals? How
important are these interpersonal relationships?
These are just a few of the questions social
psychologists seek to explain.
18. What are some of the things you find
interesting about social psychology?
• Social psychology is very much concerned with the
inter-relational aspects of persons and groups; that is,
social psychology is the study of how people and
groups think about, influence and relate to self and one
another. Topics include social perception, social
cognition, conformity, compliance, obedience,
attitudes, persuasion, group processes, prejudice,
aggression, pro-social behavior, conflict management,
attraction, close relationships, and marriage. I find all
of these topics intrinsically interesting, as do most
students and persons, because this is a large part of
the “stuff” of living.
19. What social psychologist
• There are several educational paths that lead
to a career in social psychology. Students at
the bachelor’s level may earn a degree in
social psychology, or a general psychology
degree with a social psychology concentration.
Students can then work towards obtaining a
master’s degree in social psychology. On the
doctoral level, social psychology students may
earn a PhD or a PsyD.
20. Job Opportunities
• Social psychologists have a number of job
options available to them and can work at
colleges and universities, government
agencies, non-profit organizations, hospitals,
and private companies. In order to pursue
these careers, professionals need to complete
a graduate-level social psychology degree
21. Political Strategists
• It’s not uncommon for politicians to employ social
psychologists to help devise strategies that will win
over voters. Political strategists, also known as political
consultants, are responsible for polling constituents;
creating television, radio, and direct mail campaign
pieces; and raising funds for candidates.
• This career was developed during the last half of the
20th century, as the popularity of radio and television
allowed politicians to reach a large audience quickly.