In this presentation I will show you the muslim dynasties and sufi in subcontinent. So please see all the slides and also subscribe to my youtube channel.
Fahad SaleemStudent of BS Accounting and Finance um International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan
4. MUSLIM DYNASTIES IN INDIA’S HISTORY:
Dynasties which ruled independently of Delhi/Agra are labeled as
Provincial Dynasties. Afghanistan was very much a part of India not
only in the days of these dynasties but till as late at the time of
Mughal Empire in the eighteenth century.
India had suffered the first attack in 634 CE, only two years after the
death of the prophet Muhammad .ﷺ
It was only in 712 CE that an Islamic invasion succeeded in occupying
Sindh, Multan and some parts of the Punjab.
5. Muslim Dynasties:
The Muslim dynasties which functioned from Sindh and Ghazni
undertook destruction of Hindu temples extensively whenever and
wherever they succeeded in occupying Indian Territory. The same
pattern was followed by the Muslim dynasties established at
An intensive destruction of temples was undertaken by the Muslim
dynasties which arose in the provinces Sindh, Kashmir, Bengal,
Malwa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
Now we discuss the following dynasties, which came in the history
of Indian Subordinates.
6. 1-The Umayyad (661 to 749 CE):
This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty (Banu ʾUmayya,
"Sons of Umayya) hailing from Makkah. Umayyad Caliphate covered
15 million km2 and 62 million people (29% of the world's population),
making it the fifth largest empire in history in both area and population
7. It has two rulers:
Al-Walid I was born in 668 CE and died in 715 CE. He ruled from 705
until his death in 715 CE. It was during his reign that one of his
general, Muhammad bin Qasim, succeeded in occupying Sindh and
some parts of the Punjab between 712 and 715 CE.
Walid ibn Yazid or Walid II, he was born in 709 and died in 744 CE. He was
an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 743 until 744 CE. He succeeded his uncle,
Hisham ibn Abdul Al-Malik.
8. 2-The Abbasids (750 to1258 CE):
This dynasty succeeded the Umayyad and moved the seat of the
Caliphate to Baghdad. Starting with the nineteenth caliph, it had thirty-
seven rulers, the last of whom was killed by Halaku in 1258 CE.
9. It had thirty five rulers but only two figure in our citations.
Al-Mansur was born in 754 at the home of the 'Abbasid family after
their emigration from the Hejaz in 714 and he died in 775 CE. It was
in his reign that his governor of Sindh, Hasham bin Amru, led an
expedition on the west coast of India in 756.
Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Abdallah al-Mansur (born in 744
and died in 785 CE), was better known by his regnal name Al-Mahdi.
He was the Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 775.
10. 3-The Saffarid Dynasty of Seistan (861 to 1003 CE):
This Dynasty arose when the Abbasid Caliphate had weakened.
He was a Muslim dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern
Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in Southwestern
Afghanistan) from 861 to 1003 CE.
11. It had 2 rulers both of whom figure in our citation.
Yaqub bin Laith:
Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar born in Makkah (in 840 and died in
879 CE), He was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty, with its capital
at Zaranj, as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part
Amru bin Laith:
Amru ibn al-Layth was the second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty of Iran from
879 to 901 CE. He was the son of a whitesmith and the younger brother of the
12. 4-The Qaramitah Dynasty of Multan (980-1175):
After the Saffarids lost their hold on Sindh, Multan separated from the
province and became an independent Muslim kingdom. By 980 it had
become a stronghold of the Qaramitah sect of the Ismailis.
13. 5-The Yamini or Ghaznivid Dynasty (977-1186):
The Saffarid dynasties in Khurasan, Seistan and Zabul had been taken
over by the Ghaznivid Dynasty. The Ghaznivid governor of
Khurasan, occupied Ghazni in 963 and declared independence. The
dynasty founded by him proved incompetent and the throne was seized
in 977 CE and became the founder of the Ghaznivid Dynasty which
came to be known as the Yamini.
14. It has three rulers that figure in our citations.
Ibrahim of Ghazna:
Ibrahim of Ghazna born in 1033 and died in 1099 was sultan of
the Ghaznavid Empire from 1059 CE until his death in 1099 CE.
Yamin-ud-Dawla Abul-Qaṣim Maḥmud more commonly known
as Mahmud of Ghazni born in 971 and died in 1030 CE. He was the most
prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He occupied the eastern Iranian
lands and the northwestern Indian subcontinent.
Abu Mansur was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 977 CE
to 997 CE. He was heavily involved in the defense of Ghazna's independence
for the next 15 years.
15. 6-The Ghurid Dynasty (1149 to 1206 CE):
This dynasty arose in the Ghur region of Afghanistan and had its seat
at Firuz Koh. We have counted the Ghurid rulers from Alaud-Din
Jahansuz who stormed and burnt down Ghazni in 1149. Ghazni was,
however, occupied by the Guzz Turks. The Ghurid king, Ghiyasud-
Din Muhammad bin Sam, who had succeeded his uncle Alaud-Din
Jahansuz at Firuz Koh, appointed his younger brother, Shihabud-
Din Muhammad bin Sam, as the governor of Ghazni. Shihabud-Din
( born in 1175 and died in 1206 CE) occupied Sindh and Multan.
17. 1-Abu Ishaq Shami:
Abu Ishaq Shami (died 940) was a Muslim scholar who is the
founder of the Chishti Order. He was the first in the Chishti lineage
(silsila) to live in Chisht and so to adopt the name "Chishti". He is one
of the oldest recorded Sufi orders.
18. 2-Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti:
He was born in 1139 and died in 1236 in “Chisht” in a city between
Afghanistan and Iran, also known as Gharib Nawaz. He was an imam
and Islamic scholar from South Asia. He was a Hafiz e Quran at age
of fifteen and had mastered the Arabic, Farsi and Turkic languages. He
traveled to Neshapur, where he became a disciple of Khwaja Uthman
19. 3-Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki:
Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki was born in 1173 and died in 1235, was a
Muslim Sufi and scholar of the Chishti Order from Delhi. He was the
disciple of the Moinuddin Chishti. Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar had much
influence on Sufism in India. He continued and developed the ideas of
brotherhood and charity within the Chisti order.
20. 4-Khwaja Fariduddin Ganjshakar:
Khwaja Fariduddin Ganjshakar, also known as Baba Farid born
in 1179 and died in 1266. He was a Sufi saint from the Chishti order,
living in Punjab. Once his education was over, he moved to Delhi,
where he learned the Islamic doctrine from his master, Qutbuddin
Bakhtiar Kaki. When Quṭbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki died, Farid became
his successor, and he settled in Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan,
Pakistan) instead of Delhi.
21. 5-Nizamuddin Auliya:
Nizamuddin Auliya was born in 1238 and died in 1325, also known
as Hazrat Nizamuddin. He was a famous Sufi saint of the Chishti
Order. At the age of twenty, Nizamuddin went to Ajodhan (the
present Pakpattan Sharif in Pakistan) and became a disciple of the Sufi
saint Fariduddin Ganjshakar. It was on his third visit to Ajodhan that
Baba Farid made him his successor.
22. 6-Najmuddin Kubra:
Najmuddin Kubra was a Persian sufi and the founder of
the Kubrawiya lineage (silsila). He was born in 1145. Najmuddin
Kubra began his career as a scholar of hadith and kalam. His interest in
Sufism began in Egypt, where he became a murid of Ruzbihan Baqli.
After years of study, he devoted himself to the sufi way of life.