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News Session-Based Recommendations Using Deep Neural Networks

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News Session-Based Recommendations Using Deep Neural Networks

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News recommender systems are aimed to personalize users experiences and help them to discover relevant articles from a large and dynamic search space. Therefore, news domain is a challenging scenario for recommendations, due to its sparse user profiling, fast growing number of items, accelerated item's value decay, and users preferences dynamic shift. Some promising results have been recently achieved by the usage of Deep Learning techniques on Recommender Systems, specially for item's feature extraction and for session-based recommendations with Recurrent Neural Networks. In this paper, it is proposed an instantiation of the CHAMELEON -- a Deep Learning Meta-Architecture for News Recommender Systems. This architecture is composed of two modules, the first responsible to learn news articles representations, based on their text and metadata, and the second module aimed to provide session-based recommendations using Recurrent Neural Networks. The recommendation task addressed in this work is next-item prediction for users sessions: "what is the next most likely article a user might read in a session?" Users sessions context is leveraged by the architecture to provide additional information in such extreme cold-start scenario of news recommendation. Users' behavior and item features are both merged in an hybrid recommendation approach. A temporal offline evaluation method is also proposed as a complementary contribution, for a more realistic evaluation of such task, considering dynamic factors that affect global readership interests like popularity, recency, and seasonality. Experiments with an extensive number of session-based recommendation methods were performed and the proposed instantiation of CHAMELEON meta-architecture obtained a significant relative improvement in top-n accuracy and ranking metrics (10% on Hit Rate and 13% on MRR) over the best benchmark methods.

News recommender systems are aimed to personalize users experiences and help them to discover relevant articles from a large and dynamic search space. Therefore, news domain is a challenging scenario for recommendations, due to its sparse user profiling, fast growing number of items, accelerated item's value decay, and users preferences dynamic shift. Some promising results have been recently achieved by the usage of Deep Learning techniques on Recommender Systems, specially for item's feature extraction and for session-based recommendations with Recurrent Neural Networks. In this paper, it is proposed an instantiation of the CHAMELEON -- a Deep Learning Meta-Architecture for News Recommender Systems. This architecture is composed of two modules, the first responsible to learn news articles representations, based on their text and metadata, and the second module aimed to provide session-based recommendations using Recurrent Neural Networks. The recommendation task addressed in this work is next-item prediction for users sessions: "what is the next most likely article a user might read in a session?" Users sessions context is leveraged by the architecture to provide additional information in such extreme cold-start scenario of news recommendation. Users' behavior and item features are both merged in an hybrid recommendation approach. A temporal offline evaluation method is also proposed as a complementary contribution, for a more realistic evaluation of such task, considering dynamic factors that affect global readership interests like popularity, recency, and seasonality. Experiments with an extensive number of session-based recommendation methods were performed and the proposed instantiation of CHAMELEON meta-architecture obtained a significant relative improvement in top-n accuracy and ranking metrics (10% on Hit Rate and 13% on MRR) over the best benchmark methods.

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News Session-Based Recommendations Using Deep Neural Networks

  1. 1. Newssession-based recommendationsusing DeepNeuralNetworks ThirdWorkshoponDeepLearningforRecommenderSystems(DLRS)
 ACMRecSys2018 Gabriel Moreira (CI&T | ITA) Felipe Ferreira (globo.com) Adilson Cunha (ITA)
  2. 2. Introduction 01
  3. 3. FelipeFerreira - PhD student - Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio) - Master Degree in Computer Science - Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM) - Machine Learning Engineer - Globo.com 01.AboutMe
  4. 4. AboutGlobo.com 02
  5. 5. 02.Aboutglobo.com O U R M A I N O F F I C E I S I N RiodeJaneiroOther offices: São Paulo and Porto Alegre Leaderinaudienceandoneofthemain technologycompaniesinBrazil
  6. 6. 87MILLIONUNIQUEUSER’SPER MONTH comScore feb/2018
  7. 7. 02.Aboutglobo.com 10millionunique users per day 2millionconcurrent connections 4billiondaily events 100thousand new content per month
  8. 8. NewsChallenges forRecommenderSystems 03
  9. 9. 1.Sparseuserprofiling Majority of readers are anonymous (no past information) and read a few stories from the entire repository 03.NewsChallengesforRecommenderSystems
  10. 10. 2.Fastgrowingnumberofitems Thousands of new stories added daily in news portals 03.NewsChallengesforRecommenderSystems
  11. 11. 3.Userpreferencesshift News topics of interests are not as stable as in the entertainment domain. Users short-term and long- term interests influence whether to read an article 03.NewsChallengesforRecommenderSystems
  12. 12. 4.Accelerateddecayofitem’svalue Most users are interested in fresh information and news articles are expected to have a short shelf life 
 (e.g. few day or hours)
 03.NewsChallengesforRecommenderSystems
  13. 13. CHAMELEON aDeep-Learning Meta-ArchitectureforNews RecommenderSystems 04
  14. 14. CHAMELEON Moreira, 2018 CHAMELEONiscomposedoftwocomplementarymodules
  15. 15. CHAMELEON CHAMELEONiscomposedoftwocomplementarymodules Moreira, 2018 ACR NAR
  16. 16. CHAMELEON Anarchitectureinstantiation Moreira, 2018 CNN LSTM
  17. 17. ACRModule
  18. 18. ACRModule part1of4
  19. 19. ACRModule part2of4
  20. 20. ACRModule part3of4
  21. 21. ACRModule part3of4
  22. 22. ACRModule part4of4
  23. 23. NARModule
  24. 24. NARModule part1of6
  25. 25. NARModule part1of6
  26. 26. NARModule part2of6
  27. 27. NARModule part2of6
  28. 28. NARModule part3of6
  29. 29. NARModule part4of6
  30. 30. NARModule part5of6
  31. 31. NARModule part5of6
  32. 32. NARModule part6of6
  33. 33. NARModule part6of6
  34. 34. NARModule part6of6
  35. 35. Experiments 05
  36. 36. Implementation 05.Experiments - CHAMELEON architecture instantiation implemented using TensorFlow (available in https://github.com/gabrielspmoreira/chameleon_dlrs)
 - Training and evaluation performed in Google Cloud Platform ML Engine
  37. 37. Dataset 05.Experiments - Provided by Globo.com, the most popular news portal in Brazil
 - Sample from October, 1st - 16th , 2017
 with over 3M clicks, distributed in 1.2 M sessions from 330 K users, 
 who read over 50K different news articles during that period
  38. 38. ACRModuletraining Trained in a dataset with 364 K articles from 461 categories, to generate the Articles Content Embeddings (vectors with 250 dimensions) Distribution of articlesbythetop200categories t-SNEvisualizationoftrainedArticleContentEmbeddings (fromtop15categories) 05.Experiments
  39. 39. NARModuleevaluation Temporalofflineevaluationmethod 1. Train the NAR module with sessions within the active hour
 2. Evaluate the NAR module with sessions within the next hour, for the task of the next-click prediction.
 Task: For each item within a session, predict (rank) the next-clicked item from a set with the positive sample (correct article) and 50 negative samples. Metrics HitRate@5 (HR@5) - Checks whether the positive item is among the top-5 ranked items
 MRR@5 - Ranking metric which assigns higher scores at top ranks. 05.Experiments
  40. 40. NARModuleevaluation Baselinemethods 1. GRU4Rec - Seminal neural architecture using RNNs for session-based recommendations (Hidasi, 2016) with the improvements of (Hidasi, 2017) (v2).
 2. Co-occurrent - Recommends articles commonly viewed together with the last read article, in other user sessions (simplified version of the association rules technique, with the maximum rule size of two) (Jugovac, 2018) (Ludewig, 2018)
 3. Sequential Rules (SR) - A more sophisticated version of association rules, which considers the sequence of clicked items within the session. A rule is created when an item q appeared after an item p in a session, even when other items were viewed between p and q. The rules are weighted by the distance x (number of steps) between p and q in the session with a linear weighting function.(Ludewig, 2018) 05.Experiments
  41. 41. NARModuleevaluation Baselinemethods 4. Item-kNN - Returns most similar items to the last read article, in terms of the cosine similarity between the vector of their sessions, i.e. it is the number of co-occurrences of two items in sessions divided by the square root of the product of the numbers of sessions in which the individual items are occurred.
 5. Vector Multiplication Session-Based kNN (V-SkNN) - Compares the entire active session with past sessions and find items to be recommended. The comparison emphasizes items more recently clicked within the session, when computing the similarities with past sessions (Jannach,2017) (Jugovac,2018) (Ludewig,2018)
 05.Experiments
  42. 42. NARModuleevaluation Baselinemethods 6. Recently Popular - Recommends the most viewed articles from the last N clicks buffer
 7. Content-Based - For each article read by the user, recommends similar articles based on the cosine similarity of their Article Content Embeddings, from the last N clicks buffer.
 05.Experiments
  43. 43. NARModuleevaluation AverageMRR@5byhour(sampledforevaluation),fora15-daysperiod Experiment #1 - Continuous training during 15 days (Oct. 1-15, 2017)
  44. 44. NARModuleevaluation DistributionofAverage MRR@5byhour(sampledfor evaluation),fora15-daysperiod 13% of relative 
 improvement on MRR@5 Experiment #1 - Continuous training during 15 days (Oct. 1-15, 2017)
  45. 45. NARModuleevaluation Experiment #2 - Continuous training and evaluating each hour, on the subsequent hour (Oct. 16, 2017) AverageMRR@5byhour,forOct.16,2017
  46. 46. Related Work 06
  47. 47. MainInspirations 06.Relatedwork GRU4Rec (Hidasi,2016) 
 The seminal work on the usage of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) on session- based recommendations, and subsequent work (Hidasi,2017). 
 MV-DNN (Elkahky,2015)
 Adapted Deep Structured Semantic Model (DSSM) for the recommendation task. MV-DNN maps users and items to a latent space, where the cosine similarity between users and their preferred items is maximized. That approach makes it possible to keep the neural network architecture static, rather than adding new units into the output layer for each new item. The MV-DNN was also adapted for news recommendation by Temporal DSSM (TDSSM) (Song,2016) and Recurrent Attention DSSM (RA-DSSM) (Kumar,2017)
  48. 48. Conclusion 07
  49. 49. Conclusion 07.Conclusion • Proposal of an instantiation of the CHAMELEON - a Deep Learning Meta- Architecture for News Recommender Systems, using a 1D CNN to extract textual features from news articles and a LSTM to model user sessions. • Recommendations accuracy and ranking quality provided by CHAMELEON were constantly higher over time than an extensive number of baseline methods for session-based recommendation. The median HR@5 and MRR@5 obtained by CHAMELEON were 10% and 13% higher than the best baseline method. • A temporal offline evaluation method was also proposed to emulate the dynamics of news readership, where articles context (recent popularity and recency) is constantly changing.
  50. 50. ThankYou www.linkedin.com/in/feliferr feliferrgo@gmail.com @feliferrgo FelipeFerreira www.linkedin.com/in/gabrielspmoreira gspmoreira@gmail.com @gspmoreira GabrielMoreira http://bit.ly/chameleon_dlrscode and dataset:

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