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Java App
Servers are
Dead!
Eberhard Wolff
Freelancer
Head Technology Advisory Board adesso
http://ewolff.com
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Code
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
2003
App Server =
Java EE or
Servlet
Container
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
An Application
on a server
needs an
Application Server!
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Why??
The Price We Pay
What now?
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Multiple Applications
•  Isolation
•  ClassLoader
•  Can lead to non-trivial problems
App Server
App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Isolation
•  ClassLoader is not enough
•  CPU?
•  Memory?
•  Filesystems?
•  Applications are not isolated
•  Even individual parts are not isolated
•  i.e. JMS might eat away resources
from web requests
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Isolation is Impossible
•  Operating systems isolate processes
from each other
•  CPU, memory …
•  Resource allocation: #1 feature for
operating systems
•  Either the JVM becomes an
operating systems
•  …or isolation won’t be perfect
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Multiple Applications
•  Is that really what happens?
•  Java EE spec talks about
“components”
•  not Apps
App Server
App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
One Application
App Server
App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
One Application
App Server
•  Component e.g. WAR, EJB JAR …
•  Different ClassLoader isolation
needed
•  OSGi like
•  Memory/CPU isolation still missing
Component 1 Component 2App
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
What It Is More Like…
App Server
App 1
App Server
App 1
App Server
App 1
App Server
App 1
App Server
App 1
App Server
App 1
Cluster
App Server:
container for
one
application
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure
•  Two Phase Commit
•  Net / Threads
•  APIs
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure:

Two Phase Commit
•  Idea: Coordinate multiple
transactional resources
•  A talk in its own right
•  2 DBs: Consider a different
architecture
•  DB + JMS: Tx Synchronization
might help
•  http://bit.ly/JMS-2PC
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure:

Two Phase Commit
•  Slows down the good case in favor
of the bad case
•  No 100% - 2PC can fail
•  Of limited use in distributed
systems
•  E.g. REST + 2PC?
•  NoSQL + 2PC?
•  Limits scalability
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure: Net / Threads
•  Support i.e. for HTTP and thread
pooling
•  Connection pooling
•  Can be done inside the application
•  Embedded servers (Tomcat, Jetty)
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure: APIs
•  EJB, CDI, JPA, JSF...
•  Version tied to App Server version
•  App depends on Application Server
•  New APIs can’t be used until new
App Server in production
•  Version conflicts might arise
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure: APIs
•  Usually not every need covered
•  …so additional libraries are used
•  App Server APIs can be replaced by
libraries
•  Makes application more portable
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Infrastructure:

Application independent?
•  Each application has its own
infrastructure
•  E.g. database connections
•  + specific configuration
•  Might even add its own libraries to
the AppServer
•  Big no-no if the App Server should
be application independent
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Dependencies

App Server / Application
App Server
Application
Libraries
Infrastructure
Specific
configuration
Cyclic dependency
i.e. one component
Application
Servers

are just

another part of
the Application
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
You Don‘t Agree?
•  Can you deploy your application on a
different server?
•  On a different version of the same server?
•  Without modifications to the server?
•  Do you deploy other applications on the
App Server?
•  Could you?
•  Is the application server or an installation
script in your version control?
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Application Server: Just One
Kind of Infrastructure 
•  App Server focus on interactive
(web) applications
•  Other types of application:
•  Batches
•  Integration
•  Map / Reduce
•  App Servers are no universal
infrastructure
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Deployment
•  Deployment Format: WAR, EAR, JAR...
•  No way to define dependencies outside
Application
•  i.e. App Server version, database etc
•  Operations usually work with deb, RPM…
•  Completely different tool chain
•  Also: Usually Unix services to start
applications
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... infrastructure
•  …deployment
•  …monitoring
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Monitoring
•  Provided by JMX
•  Can be integrated in SMNP etc J
•  New tools arise
•  Logs + Logstash / Kibana or Splunk
•  REST based monitoring resources
•  Scripts for monitoring
App Server are
needed for
monitoring &
deployment
App Server
come with
their own
Ops Tool Set
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server...
•  …container for multiple applications
•  ... provide infrastructure
•  …support deployment
•  …support monitoring
1 App per server ..or per cluster
App Server part of the application
Deployment & monitoring OK
but different tools
The Price

We Pay
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Slower Turn Around
•  Code
•  Package a WAR
•  Install it
•  Have it unpacked
•  Test
•  Solutions: JRebel, Spring Loaded
•  But: Why is it done at all??
Why??
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
App Server: Complex
Deployment
•  Deployment: not just an application
•  But also an Application Server
•  App Server configuration more
complex than Application
configuration
•  Look at automation scripts with
Puppet / Chef etc
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Cyclic Dependency
Application – App Server
•  Application and App Server must fit
each other
•  Configuration must be compatible
•  For each developer and each testing
stage
•  Old configuration e.g. for bug fixes
•  Hard to get right
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Deployment Is Important
•  Continuous Delivery means a lot
more deployment
•  Must optimize deployment
Commit
Acceptance
Tests
Capacity
Tests
Explorative
Tests
Production
Many times per day
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Continuous Delivery
•  Applications deployed more
frequently
•  …in many different stages
•  Simple deployment even more
important
•  App Servers become bigger headache
Continuous
Delivery increases
demand for
simple
infrastructure.
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Different Ops Mindset
•  App Server administrator?
•  Deployment, monitoring etc. have
been solved already!
•  Package manager
•  Ops Monitoring
•  Why not stick to general solutions?
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
DevOps
•  DevOps and Continuous Delivery:
focus on “normal” tools and
approaches
•  Dev will see more than only Java
Apps and App Servers
•  Need different tools
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Micro Services
•  Build software composed of services
•  Service has business meaning
•  i.e. Order, Catalog etc
•  Services (re)deployed
independently
•  …instead of deployment monolith
•  …and communicate e.g. via REST
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Micro Services: eCommerce
Catalog
Order Processing
Customer
Recommendation
Install and
configure App
Server for each
Microservice??
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Micro Services
•  Service might have different non-functional
requirements
•  So different infrastructure might be needed
•  E.g. asynchronous applications
•  Traditional Servlets
•  Batches
•  Map / reduce
•  ….
•  App Server just provide one kind of
infrastructure
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
The Price We Pay
App
Server
Slow Turn
Around
Standard
OPs Tools
Continuous
Delivery
Micro
Services
App Server specific
OPs tools
Deployment
complex
One infrastructure
doesn’t fit all
One App Server
per Micro Service?Smaller
deployment units
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
RIP Application Server!
What now??
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
The Re-Rise of the
Applications
•  Create a JAR files
•  …that contains a main class
•  Custom infrastructure
•  E.g. HTTP server
•  Or Batch
•  …
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Monitoring & Deployment
•  Rely on standard Ops deployment
and monitoring tools
•  REST based monitoring URLs
•  Evaluate log files
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Application: Benefit
•  Easier to Deploy: Just a JAR
•  + command line
•  + config file
•  Debug & run in IDE
•  Acceptance tests etc much easier
•  Ensured: Infrastructure compatible
with application
Spring Boot

Actuator &
CRaSH Demo
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Deploy Demo
•  mvn package
•  Show java –jar with JAR
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Actuator Demo
•  Open
http://localhost:8080/
monitor.html
•  Show metrics / trace
•  Show info and
application.properties
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Demo CRaSH
•  ssh -p 2000 user@localhost
•  Password in log output
•  help
•  Mention jpa / jdbc / problems
•  thread top CTRL-C
•  metrics
•  dashboard
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Technologies
•  Spring Boot
•  see my talk on Wednesday
•  Dropwizard by Yammer
•  Vert.x
•  see Tim Fox’s talk this evening
•  Play Framework
Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff
Thank You!!
eberhard.wolff@gmail.com
@ewolff

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Java App Servers are Dead! Why Microservices and Spring Boot are the Future

  • 1. Java App Servers are Dead! Eberhard Wolff Freelancer Head Technology Advisory Board adesso http://ewolff.com
  • 2. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Code
  • 3. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff 2003
  • 4. App Server = Java EE or Servlet Container
  • 5. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff An Application on a server needs an Application Server!
  • 6. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Why?? The Price We Pay What now?
  • 7. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 8. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 9. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Multiple Applications •  Isolation •  ClassLoader •  Can lead to non-trivial problems App Server App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
  • 10. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Isolation •  ClassLoader is not enough •  CPU? •  Memory? •  Filesystems? •  Applications are not isolated •  Even individual parts are not isolated •  i.e. JMS might eat away resources from web requests
  • 11. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Isolation is Impossible •  Operating systems isolate processes from each other •  CPU, memory … •  Resource allocation: #1 feature for operating systems •  Either the JVM becomes an operating systems •  …or isolation won’t be perfect
  • 12. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Multiple Applications •  Is that really what happens? •  Java EE spec talks about “components” •  not Apps App Server App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
  • 13. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff One Application App Server App 1 App 2 App 3 App 4
  • 14. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff One Application App Server •  Component e.g. WAR, EJB JAR … •  Different ClassLoader isolation needed •  OSGi like •  Memory/CPU isolation still missing Component 1 Component 2App
  • 15. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff What It Is More Like… App Server App 1 App Server App 1 App Server App 1 App Server App 1 App Server App 1 App Server App 1 Cluster
  • 17. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 18. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 19. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure •  Two Phase Commit •  Net / Threads •  APIs
  • 20. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure:
 Two Phase Commit •  Idea: Coordinate multiple transactional resources •  A talk in its own right •  2 DBs: Consider a different architecture •  DB + JMS: Tx Synchronization might help •  http://bit.ly/JMS-2PC
  • 21. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure:
 Two Phase Commit •  Slows down the good case in favor of the bad case •  No 100% - 2PC can fail •  Of limited use in distributed systems •  E.g. REST + 2PC? •  NoSQL + 2PC? •  Limits scalability
  • 22. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure: Net / Threads •  Support i.e. for HTTP and thread pooling •  Connection pooling •  Can be done inside the application •  Embedded servers (Tomcat, Jetty)
  • 23. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure: APIs •  EJB, CDI, JPA, JSF... •  Version tied to App Server version •  App depends on Application Server •  New APIs can’t be used until new App Server in production •  Version conflicts might arise
  • 24. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure: APIs •  Usually not every need covered •  …so additional libraries are used •  App Server APIs can be replaced by libraries •  Makes application more portable
  • 25. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Infrastructure:
 Application independent? •  Each application has its own infrastructure •  E.g. database connections •  + specific configuration •  Might even add its own libraries to the AppServer •  Big no-no if the App Server should be application independent
  • 26. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Dependencies
 App Server / Application App Server Application Libraries Infrastructure Specific configuration Cyclic dependency i.e. one component
  • 28. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff You Don‘t Agree? •  Can you deploy your application on a different server? •  On a different version of the same server? •  Without modifications to the server? •  Do you deploy other applications on the App Server? •  Could you? •  Is the application server or an installation script in your version control?
  • 29. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Application Server: Just One Kind of Infrastructure •  App Server focus on interactive (web) applications •  Other types of application: •  Batches •  Integration •  Map / Reduce •  App Servers are no universal infrastructure
  • 30. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 31. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 32. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Deployment •  Deployment Format: WAR, EAR, JAR... •  No way to define dependencies outside Application •  i.e. App Server version, database etc •  Operations usually work with deb, RPM… •  Completely different tool chain •  Also: Usually Unix services to start applications
  • 33. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 34. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... infrastructure •  …deployment •  …monitoring
  • 35. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Monitoring •  Provided by JMX •  Can be integrated in SMNP etc J •  New tools arise •  Logs + Logstash / Kibana or Splunk •  REST based monitoring resources •  Scripts for monitoring
  • 36. App Server are needed for monitoring & deployment
  • 37. App Server come with their own Ops Tool Set
  • 38. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server... •  …container for multiple applications •  ... provide infrastructure •  …support deployment •  …support monitoring 1 App per server ..or per cluster App Server part of the application Deployment & monitoring OK but different tools
  • 40. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Slower Turn Around •  Code •  Package a WAR •  Install it •  Have it unpacked •  Test •  Solutions: JRebel, Spring Loaded •  But: Why is it done at all?? Why??
  • 41. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff App Server: Complex Deployment •  Deployment: not just an application •  But also an Application Server •  App Server configuration more complex than Application configuration •  Look at automation scripts with Puppet / Chef etc
  • 42. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Cyclic Dependency Application – App Server •  Application and App Server must fit each other •  Configuration must be compatible •  For each developer and each testing stage •  Old configuration e.g. for bug fixes •  Hard to get right
  • 43. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Deployment Is Important •  Continuous Delivery means a lot more deployment •  Must optimize deployment Commit Acceptance Tests Capacity Tests Explorative Tests Production Many times per day
  • 44. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Continuous Delivery •  Applications deployed more frequently •  …in many different stages •  Simple deployment even more important •  App Servers become bigger headache
  • 46. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Different Ops Mindset •  App Server administrator? •  Deployment, monitoring etc. have been solved already! •  Package manager •  Ops Monitoring •  Why not stick to general solutions?
  • 47. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff DevOps •  DevOps and Continuous Delivery: focus on “normal” tools and approaches •  Dev will see more than only Java Apps and App Servers •  Need different tools
  • 48. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Micro Services •  Build software composed of services •  Service has business meaning •  i.e. Order, Catalog etc •  Services (re)deployed independently •  …instead of deployment monolith •  …and communicate e.g. via REST
  • 49. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Micro Services: eCommerce Catalog Order Processing Customer Recommendation
  • 50. Install and configure App Server for each Microservice??
  • 51. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Micro Services •  Service might have different non-functional requirements •  So different infrastructure might be needed •  E.g. asynchronous applications •  Traditional Servlets •  Batches •  Map / reduce •  …. •  App Server just provide one kind of infrastructure
  • 52. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff The Price We Pay App Server Slow Turn Around Standard OPs Tools Continuous Delivery Micro Services App Server specific OPs tools Deployment complex One infrastructure doesn’t fit all One App Server per Micro Service?Smaller deployment units
  • 53. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff RIP Application Server!
  • 55. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff The Re-Rise of the Applications •  Create a JAR files •  …that contains a main class •  Custom infrastructure •  E.g. HTTP server •  Or Batch •  …
  • 56. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Monitoring & Deployment •  Rely on standard Ops deployment and monitoring tools •  REST based monitoring URLs •  Evaluate log files
  • 57. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Application: Benefit •  Easier to Deploy: Just a JAR •  + command line •  + config file •  Debug & run in IDE •  Acceptance tests etc much easier •  Ensured: Infrastructure compatible with application
  • 59. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Deploy Demo •  mvn package •  Show java –jar with JAR
  • 60. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Actuator Demo •  Open http://localhost:8080/ monitor.html •  Show metrics / trace •  Show info and application.properties
  • 61. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Demo CRaSH •  ssh -p 2000 user@localhost •  Password in log output •  help •  Mention jpa / jdbc / problems •  thread top CTRL-C •  metrics •  dashboard
  • 62. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Technologies •  Spring Boot •  see my talk on Wednesday •  Dropwizard by Yammer •  Vert.x •  see Tim Fox’s talk this evening •  Play Framework
  • 63. Eberhard Wolff - @ewolff Thank You!! eberhard.wolff@gmail.com @ewolff