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Ewan Sutherland
LINK Centre, Wits University
CRIDS, University of Namur
Coordinating market regulation across the EU
21 June 2013 London
 Scotland:
◦ Yet another regulator; or
◦ Some complex extra-legal, pseudo-federal network governance
 International mobile roaming:
◦ 25 years of “regulatory” activities (1996-2022)
◦ 9 years of statutory price controls (2007-2016)
◦ A failure to address tax havens
◦ Precious little to do with a single market
 Operators:
◦ Reduced their geographic “footprints”
◦ Actively pursuing consolidation within member states
 Telecommunications regulators:
◦ Ensuring their independence
◦ Entrenching their position
◦ A Gordian knot of network governance
 Single market for telecommunications:
◦ Neither the same as nor a prerequisite for the Digital Single Market
◦ There are neither measures of nor data on harmonisation
◦ What benefits are there for consumers and enterprises?
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 2
 One of the four UK “nations”
 Plebiscite due in September 2014
 Presumed to be(come) a member state of EU
 Would need a new set of regulatory bodies:
◦ OFCOM, CMA, CAT, GCHQ, OTA2, ASA, etc.
◦ With its own network governance
 Split the licences
 Split the markets
 Argued to be closer to the people
 SNP wants to aggregate all regulators
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 3
 Polling evidence says Scotland will stay in UK
 Need to rethink “devolution”:
◦ Will additional powers be transferred?
 How to channel political and community
messages to regulators?
 Engage with complex non-transparent
network governance coordination in:
◦ Scotland
◦ United Kingdom
◦ European Union
 How to channel and coordinate state aid?
 Little evidence of preparation for this revamp
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 4
 Original deal was to deliver economies of
scale for GSM manufacturers
 Operators would get to enter new markets
 A few premium customers could roam:
◦ Handsets would not need further approval
◦ Home country numbers would be used abroad
◦ Up to 15 per cent surcharge on home prices
 The issue of high prices identified in 1998
 Commissioner van Miert authorised initial
investigation in 1999
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 5
 Never expected to be a 25-year problem
 Without exception everyone made mistakes
 Few admit those mistakes:
◦ Commissioner Kroes recanted her views
 Price regulation is very crude but effective
 However, there was no bounce in demand
 Structural remedies will not work
 Why has roaming taken up so much time?
◦ What is it diverting attention from?
 Minimal relevance for the internal market
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 6
 Regulators have been investigating operator
costs for years or decades
 The issue of the use tax havens has never
been raised
 Yet not paying (much) tax greatly affects
costs
 Regulators have a massive trans-national
network which could address such matters
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 7
They also failed to spot corruption
 Old complaints about leased lines
 On-going U.S. regulation of “special access”
 Service providers failed in alliances
 Then they created their own networks:
◦ Acquired networks from customers
◦ Built facilities in foreign countries
◦ Leased facilities from incumbent operators
 Some recent complaints from service
providers about incumbent operators
 Never added mobile to fixed VPNs:
◦ A real market failure
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 8
 A long process to persuade member states:
◦ Disinterest
◦ Incomprehension
◦ Lack of tradition
 Gradual improvements
 EC still pressing member states
◦ Romania, Spain, Netherlands, etc.
 NRAs now seen to be permanent
◦ Sunset clauses have failed
◦ Regulation will never end
 But, do we still need the NRAs?
◦ They have not delivered competition
◦ Market analyses and remedies will continue for years
◦ They cannot deliver a telecoms internal market
◦ Could use “big data” instead
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 9
 Communications Committee (COCOM)
 Radio Spectrum Committee (RSC)
 Article 7 procedures
 Associations and groups:
◦ Independent Regulators Group
◦ European Regulators Group I
◦ European Regulators Group II
◦ Body of European Regulators of Electronic
Communications (BEREC)
 Enduring divergences arise from:
◦ Transposition of directives
◦ Implementation by regulators
◦ Decisions by national appellate bodies
◦ Unanticipated creativity of national regulators
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 10
 Single European Act:
◦ To be completed in 1992
 Liikanen contribution to Lisbon Agenda:
◦ “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based
economy in the world”
 Monti Report on the internal market:
◦ No digital internal market
◦ Digital single market represented a one-off €500 billion
potential boost to EU GDP
 Jobs and Growth 2020
 Digital Agenda for Europe
 A digital supply chain
 Digital invoicing
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 11
“A radical legislative compromise”
Commissioner Neelie Kroes
 Action 18: Harmonisation of numbering regimes
 Action 19: Spectrum Policy plan
 Action 20: Investigate the cost of non-Europe in the
telecoms market
 Action 42: Adopt an EU broadband communication
 Action 43: Funding for high-speed broadband
 Action 44: European Spectrum Policy Programme
 Action 45: Foster the deployment of NGA networks
 Action 48: Use structural funds to finance the roll-out
of high-speed networks
 Action 49: Implementing the European Radio Spectrum
Policy Programme in Member States
 Action 101: Look for durable solutions for voice and
data roaming by 2012
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 12
http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/our-goals/
 Digital Single Market:
◦ Is very much more than a single telecoms market
◦ Does not require a single telecoms market
 What would it require?
◦ A single regulator:
 Commissioner Reding at BITKOM
 Commissioner Kroes on Monday “not pragmatic”
◦ A single number for Europe:
 European Telephony Number Space
◦ Multi-country spectrum assignments:
 GMPCS
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 13
 No single market with 27+ regulators
 Tighter coordination will take decades
 Better/easier just to get rid of the NRAs
◦ If you want a telecommunications single market
 Roaming regulation is an abomination
◦ Not based on competition or market analyses
 Do not appear to be real consumer benefits
from a single telecommunications market
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 14
 International mobile roaming:
◦ Market definition(s)
◦ Market failure(s)
 Regulation:
◦ What was roaming regulation diverting us from?
◦ How might we measure harmonisation?
 Trans-national services for business
 Measuring harmonisation
 Operators geographic scope
 What comes after “ladders of investment”?
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 15
 Ewan Sutherland
 sutherla [at] gmail.com
 http://anti-corruption-telecoms.blogspot.com/
 http://www.ssrn.com/author=927092
 +44 141 649 4040
 skype://sutherla
Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 16

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A single market with 27 regulators

  • 1. Ewan Sutherland LINK Centre, Wits University CRIDS, University of Namur Coordinating market regulation across the EU 21 June 2013 London
  • 2.  Scotland: ◦ Yet another regulator; or ◦ Some complex extra-legal, pseudo-federal network governance  International mobile roaming: ◦ 25 years of “regulatory” activities (1996-2022) ◦ 9 years of statutory price controls (2007-2016) ◦ A failure to address tax havens ◦ Precious little to do with a single market  Operators: ◦ Reduced their geographic “footprints” ◦ Actively pursuing consolidation within member states  Telecommunications regulators: ◦ Ensuring their independence ◦ Entrenching their position ◦ A Gordian knot of network governance  Single market for telecommunications: ◦ Neither the same as nor a prerequisite for the Digital Single Market ◦ There are neither measures of nor data on harmonisation ◦ What benefits are there for consumers and enterprises? Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 2
  • 3.  One of the four UK “nations”  Plebiscite due in September 2014  Presumed to be(come) a member state of EU  Would need a new set of regulatory bodies: ◦ OFCOM, CMA, CAT, GCHQ, OTA2, ASA, etc. ◦ With its own network governance  Split the licences  Split the markets  Argued to be closer to the people  SNP wants to aggregate all regulators Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 3
  • 4.  Polling evidence says Scotland will stay in UK  Need to rethink “devolution”: ◦ Will additional powers be transferred?  How to channel political and community messages to regulators?  Engage with complex non-transparent network governance coordination in: ◦ Scotland ◦ United Kingdom ◦ European Union  How to channel and coordinate state aid?  Little evidence of preparation for this revamp Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 4
  • 5.  Original deal was to deliver economies of scale for GSM manufacturers  Operators would get to enter new markets  A few premium customers could roam: ◦ Handsets would not need further approval ◦ Home country numbers would be used abroad ◦ Up to 15 per cent surcharge on home prices  The issue of high prices identified in 1998  Commissioner van Miert authorised initial investigation in 1999 Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 5
  • 6.  Never expected to be a 25-year problem  Without exception everyone made mistakes  Few admit those mistakes: ◦ Commissioner Kroes recanted her views  Price regulation is very crude but effective  However, there was no bounce in demand  Structural remedies will not work  Why has roaming taken up so much time? ◦ What is it diverting attention from?  Minimal relevance for the internal market Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 6
  • 7.  Regulators have been investigating operator costs for years or decades  The issue of the use tax havens has never been raised  Yet not paying (much) tax greatly affects costs  Regulators have a massive trans-national network which could address such matters Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 7 They also failed to spot corruption
  • 8.  Old complaints about leased lines  On-going U.S. regulation of “special access”  Service providers failed in alliances  Then they created their own networks: ◦ Acquired networks from customers ◦ Built facilities in foreign countries ◦ Leased facilities from incumbent operators  Some recent complaints from service providers about incumbent operators  Never added mobile to fixed VPNs: ◦ A real market failure Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 8
  • 9.  A long process to persuade member states: ◦ Disinterest ◦ Incomprehension ◦ Lack of tradition  Gradual improvements  EC still pressing member states ◦ Romania, Spain, Netherlands, etc.  NRAs now seen to be permanent ◦ Sunset clauses have failed ◦ Regulation will never end  But, do we still need the NRAs? ◦ They have not delivered competition ◦ Market analyses and remedies will continue for years ◦ They cannot deliver a telecoms internal market ◦ Could use “big data” instead Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 9
  • 10.  Communications Committee (COCOM)  Radio Spectrum Committee (RSC)  Article 7 procedures  Associations and groups: ◦ Independent Regulators Group ◦ European Regulators Group I ◦ European Regulators Group II ◦ Body of European Regulators of Electronic Communications (BEREC)  Enduring divergences arise from: ◦ Transposition of directives ◦ Implementation by regulators ◦ Decisions by national appellate bodies ◦ Unanticipated creativity of national regulators Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 10
  • 11.  Single European Act: ◦ To be completed in 1992  Liikanen contribution to Lisbon Agenda: ◦ “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”  Monti Report on the internal market: ◦ No digital internal market ◦ Digital single market represented a one-off €500 billion potential boost to EU GDP  Jobs and Growth 2020  Digital Agenda for Europe  A digital supply chain  Digital invoicing Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 11 “A radical legislative compromise” Commissioner Neelie Kroes
  • 12.  Action 18: Harmonisation of numbering regimes  Action 19: Spectrum Policy plan  Action 20: Investigate the cost of non-Europe in the telecoms market  Action 42: Adopt an EU broadband communication  Action 43: Funding for high-speed broadband  Action 44: European Spectrum Policy Programme  Action 45: Foster the deployment of NGA networks  Action 48: Use structural funds to finance the roll-out of high-speed networks  Action 49: Implementing the European Radio Spectrum Policy Programme in Member States  Action 101: Look for durable solutions for voice and data roaming by 2012 Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 12 http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/our-goals/
  • 13.  Digital Single Market: ◦ Is very much more than a single telecoms market ◦ Does not require a single telecoms market  What would it require? ◦ A single regulator:  Commissioner Reding at BITKOM  Commissioner Kroes on Monday “not pragmatic” ◦ A single number for Europe:  European Telephony Number Space ◦ Multi-country spectrum assignments:  GMPCS Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 13
  • 14.  No single market with 27+ regulators  Tighter coordination will take decades  Better/easier just to get rid of the NRAs ◦ If you want a telecommunications single market  Roaming regulation is an abomination ◦ Not based on competition or market analyses  Do not appear to be real consumer benefits from a single telecommunications market Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 14
  • 15.  International mobile roaming: ◦ Market definition(s) ◦ Market failure(s)  Regulation: ◦ What was roaming regulation diverting us from? ◦ How might we measure harmonisation?  Trans-national services for business  Measuring harmonisation  Operators geographic scope  What comes after “ladders of investment”? Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 15
  • 16.  Ewan Sutherland  sutherla [at] gmail.com  http://anti-corruption-telecoms.blogspot.com/  http://www.ssrn.com/author=927092  +44 141 649 4040  skype://sutherla Ewan Sutherland, June 2013, Coordinating market regulation across the EU 16