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Grammar book!

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Grammar book!

  1. 1. Grammar Book Emma Waldron
  2. 2. Table of Contents El Presente Ser y Estar Verbs like Gustar Nouns and Articles Adjectives Preterite vs. Imperfect
  3. 3. El Presente • Regular –ar –er –ir verbs are formed by dropping the infinitive ending and add these endings. AR Endings ER/IR Endings o emos/imos o amos as áis es éis/ís a an e En • Also used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future.
  4. 4. El Presente • Stem Changing Verbs change all forms of the verb EXCEPT FOR nosotros or vosotros • e:i pedir – Jugar changes its stem vowel from u to ue. – Add a y before personal endings for construir, destruir, incluir, and influir. – Jugar: juego, juegas, juegam jugamos, juegan
  5. 5. El Presente • Irregular yo Forms – Verbs ending in –cer or –cir change to –zco in the yo form – Verbs ending in –ger or –gir change to –jo. – Example: caer- yo caigo & conducir- yo conduzco – Ending in jo: escoger yo escojo saber yo sé - Verbs with prefixes FOLLOW THE SAME PATTERNS!
  6. 6. Irregular Verbs • Some verbs are irregular in the present tense or combine a stem-change with an irregular to form another spelling change.
  7. 7. Ser and Estar • Both mean to be, but they are not interchangeable. • Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such as inherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics • Ser and Estar with adjectives – Ser is used with adjectives to describe inherent, expected qualities. – Estar is used to describe temporary qualities. – Ser and estar can both be used with most descriptive adjectives, but have different meanings. *Estar, not ser is used with muerto/a.
  8. 8. Ser vs. Estar Ser Estar – Nationality and place of origin • Location or spatial relationships – Profession or occupation • Health – Characteristics of people, • Physical states and conditions animals, and things • Emotional states – Generalizations • Certain weather expressions – Possession • Ongoing actions(progressive – Material of composition tenses) – Time, date or season • Results of actions (past – Where or when an event participles) takes place
  9. 9. Verbos como gustar • Though gustar is translated as to like in English, its literal meaning is to please. • Because the things or person that pleases is the subject, gustar agrees in person and number with it. Most commonly the subject is third person singular or plural. • When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used. Les gusta cantar y bailar. • It is often used in the conditional
  10. 10. Verbs como gustar • Verbs like gustar: aburrir, caer bien/mal, disgustar, doler, encantar, faltar, fascinar, hacer falta, importarm interesar, molestar, preocupar, quedar, sorprender, and apetecer • The construction a + [prepositional pronoun] or a + [noun] can be used to emphasize who is pleased, bothered, etc. • Examples: A Felipe le molesta ir de compras. • Faltar expresses what someone or something lacks and quedar expresses what someone or something has left. Quedar is also used to talk about how clothing looks or fits on someone.
  11. 11. Nouns and Articles • In Spanish, there are feminine nouns and masculine nouns. In general, nouns that end in –a are feminine, and nouns that end in –o are masculine. However, there are some exceptions. (El agua) • The article used before a noun depends on whether it is indefinite or definite and whether the noun is masculine or feminine. Definite Feminine Masculine Indefinite Feminine Masculine Articles Articles Singular La El Singular Una Un Plural Las Los Plural Unas Unos
  12. 12. Adjectives • In Spanish, an adjective must agree in number and gender with the noun it is describing. • Examples • La chica alta • Las chicas altas • El hombre fuerte • Los hombres fuertes
  13. 13. Pretérito vs. Imperfecto • A single instantaneous • A description of a scene action or event in the past • An event that is done and • Tells in general when an over with action took place • A series of completed • Used to talk about a events recurring action in the • Tells specifically when an past event took place • An ongoing action in the • Used to describe actions past with definite beginnings • Used to describe a or endings physical or mental condition in the past
  14. 14. El Pretérito • Regular Verbs AR Verbs ER/IR Verbs é amos í imos aste asteis iste isteis ó aron ió ieron Verbs ending in –aer, -eer, -oír, oer The third person singular form of these verbs uses the “yó” ending. The third person plural form uses “yeron.” Add an accent on “i” for all other forms. Example: creer í, ó Creí Creímos Creíste Creísteis Creyó creyeron
  15. 15. Los verbos irregulares en el pretérito • Car, Gar, Zar Verbs – These verbs have changes in the “yo” form only. – Car- qué – Gar- gué – Zar- cé • Four Irregulars Ser y Ir Dar Fui Fuimos Di Dimos Fuiste Fuisteis Diste Disteis Fue Fueron Dio Dieron Hacer Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteis Hizo Hicieron
  16. 16. Los verbos irregulares en el pretérito Stem Changers Snake Verbs - These verbs change to the - Only stem changing following stems and have IR verbs change in these endings: the preterite. They - Andar- anduv - Estar- estuv only change in the - Tener- tuv third person. - Caber- cup - ei ou - Haber- hub - Poder- pud - Example: - Poner- pus Preferir - Saber- sup - Hacer - hic Preferí Preferimos - Querer - quis Preferiste Preferisteis - Venir- vin Prefirió Prefirieron - Endings e imos iste isteis o ieron

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