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Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
June 2011
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Uni...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
June 2011
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good deed) through their socia...
Digital Value Creation
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willing to leave credit card d...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
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„development update‟ on the st...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
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Sales and marketing will becom...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
June 2011
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their own charitable goal and ...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
June 2011
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Hect, J. ―Ultrafast fibre op...
Digital Value Creation
Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University
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The new media landscape: Not for Profit organisations

Written in 2011 for World Vision, this article still provides a good overview of the changes in the digital landscape and the impacts for Not for Profit organisations.

Today, I believe that the "internet of things" should be added: sensors, beacons, wearables will also help not for profits, e.g., in agri culture.



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The new media landscape: Not for Profit organisations

  1. 1. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 1 We have worked with Monash University Melbourne to identify trends in the digital landscape for not-for-profit organizations. This paper summarises the key findings and hypothesised impacts. Anna Matwijw (Monash University Student) Erik van Vulpen (Growth Solutions Group) In the last few weeks, two research groups set a world record by sending more than 100 terabits of information per second through a single optical fibre i . (That is the equivalent of sending 250 double sided Blue-ray discs in one second.) Couple these unprecedented bandwidth speeds with increasing global penetration of wireless networks and growing affordability of internet access devices, and the dream of the ubiquitous internet is within reach. But where is all this leading? Here are some of the more foreseeable developments and impacts. The 6 technology trends shaping the new media landscape 1. What can be mobile, will be mobile According to a new report published by the International Telecommunications Union, the world will have 5.3 billion mobile phone subscribers by the end of the year ii . By end of this year, more than 85% of the mobile phone handsets shipped globally are expected to include a browser iii . Mobile phone networks are already available to over 90 percent of the world's population. Mobile phone penetration in developed countries is 68 percent, a saturation level higher than any previous technology iv . Forrester Research predicts that the next huge wave of Internet users - people in developing countries- will simply leapfrog the computer and predominately use Smartphones instead of PCs as their primary access method to the Internet v . Smartphones are now affordable, advanced and easily connected to global wireless networks. The added features on a smartphone are already helping people in developing countries. Farmers can use photo and video-recording facilities on Smartphones to share information about farming practices. In India, the non-profit organization Almost All Questions Answered (aAqua) already operates a network where farmers can send questions to agricultural experts via text message or the Internet, and check crop price information. vi ‗Flow‘ is an Android smartphone app that lets people snap photos of broken water pumps in developing countries, ensuring faster repair vii . A more widespread implication on the doorstep of mobile technologies is the global move to the ‗digital wallet‘ and streamlined digital micropayments. Already, ING Direct customers can transfer payments to friends with the bump of a smart phone — no account numbers needed viii . This trend towards mobile payments means it will be easier and safer to make streamlined payments using Smartphone, which means people will be able to donate anytime, anywhere, to any cause at the click of a button. Mobile phone accounts are harder to link to people‘s other identity details, so make it harder to hack, an additional advantage. In Kenya phones are being turned into mini-ATM machines via Vodafone's M-PESA program, which allows users to load money onto their phones in shops and then send it via a text message to someone else, for example, in their village. They can also withdraw the money at another location using a password, which in Kenya can be much safer than carrying cash. ix Payments companies like Twitpay, a Twitter-based social media payments solution, have responded quickly to the disaster in Japan. Twitpay, joined with non-profit Citizen Effect in the immediate aftermath of the Japanese earthquake to raise funds for disaster relief through the Citizen Effect Japan Earthquake Relief Fund. ―People are excited about a new and simple way to make small and immediate donations to non-profits,‖ said Twitpay‘s General Manager and EVP, Client Services, John Beisner x . Philanthroper.com is a new idea in the constantly changing giving industry. The site, similar to well- known daily deal sites such as Groupon, uses featured deals to capture customers' attention. The max daily donation for each user is just $1, passed on through a one-click payment system. Similar to Groupon, Philanthroper will send daily emails notifying users of the new charity and asking for donation. After users donate, they can share out the site (and their Digital Value Creation
  2. 2. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 2 good deed) through their social networks. Beyond mobile payments, the mobile phone is becoming the Swiss Army knife equivalent. Empowered by the net, it‘s able to do just about anything necessary in life for survival. For instance: Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a new way to identify eye disorders with a Smartphone. A person's vision problem is identified by the number of clicks, looking at phone screen. The results can be sent to an eye doctor to make glasses. And the question of affordability has already been addressed, with a program between business and government in India launching a program to make mobile phones available at the equivalent of $1 each and 1 cent per call. For Not-for-profit organisations, with the unprecedented affordability and growing network of mobile technology, the Smartphone would become a viable addition. This would allow more people living in developing countries to be able to become empowered by information technology and online communication services. Increased ownership of Smartphones would also improve the way in which people from all over the world interact and communicate with the causes and people they are supporting through Not-for-profit organisations. It will enable video content to replace or compliment traditional letter writing as a primary form of communication. It is in this way that mobile technologies have the ability to create new forms of connection between communities in donor countries with communities in Australia, building on the current efforts in that space. Closer to home, mobile payments pose many opportunities for fund raising, especially to raise more funds from impulse channels such as events and face-to-face. Lastly, digitalised mobile payments could open up the opportunity for supporters to track where their money is going in real-time using their mobile phone. Since every online payment has it‟s own automated receipt number, Not-for-profit supporters could potentially be able to track their donations, much like the way you can track the progress of a parcel delivery through Australia Post. 2. What can be “cloud based” will be “cloud based” This increased mobile digital activity will be enabled by information storage that is increasingly ―cloud‖ based. Recent privacy hick-ups of Sony Games and Amazon downtime have dented the trust in outsourcing private information, however, just as banks have a rating, these clouds will soon have a reliability rating and gain further ground. Google is certainly banking on the development and has released a new series of cloud-based notebooks called ‗Chromebooks‘. The laptops will coordinate tightly with Google's "cloud" online services, and have almost no capacity to store information. As a result the hardware is cheap, resists viruses and automatically updates so it will get faster over time. Chromebooks for Business & Education allows businesses and educational institutions to pay Google a monthly fee in exchange for a supported, updated Chromebook xi . While we are writing this, Apple unveils it‘s I-cloud taking vertical integration to the next level. The implication of cloud-based services will be that people have access to all their data and services all the time. This will have a big impact on the potential services offered by for instance medical and education providers, as well as many other industries - the music industry once again faces a new challenge. For Not-for profits this would mean that supporters have all their charity activities and information at hand. For example, if they are talking to friends and decide to ask for sponsorship of their run, they‟ll be able to quickly pull up the relevant information e.g., last year kms run, where did the money really go etc. Another advantage of cloud-based information storage is that it makes managing and mediating information much easier. It can allow direct communication between donor and project, while being managed and overseen by the organisation. This means information supplied and shared by the Not-for-profit community can be direct but still mediated for convenience and security. This „im- mediated‟ flow of information would work to define and facilitate the growth of the world global vision community. Most importantly, with supporters engaging through various means of communication an integrated experience is key. It needs to be managed as an “eco- system” where one medium feeds on the other and is dependent on. For instance, supporters may not be
  3. 3. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 3 willing to leave credit card details on a mobile phone and prefer their desktop, but when they have an opportunity to pay, they can do it on the spot as their phone application is synced with their desk-top. 3. What can be customised, will be customised The race to accumulate the most comprehensive database of individual information has become the new battleground for search engines, social networks, and software developers. Traditional concepts of ―private sphere‖ and ―public sphere‖ are being redefined. Why? Because the benefits of digital services (such as Facebook) outweigh the perceived costs (loss of privacy). Among those benefits are customised services. The most useful and popular apps are the ones that help people cut through the increasing clutter of the Internet, e.g., provide buying suggestions that match user preferences. In a world of information overload, context is king. Apps that are aware of the context in which they are being used will serve up better-filtered information. This means that if you are on a service like Quora that understands your interest graph, you are only shown topics that you care about, sorted in real time. For an example in the brick-and-mortar world, check out NikeID and customise your sneakers. The advertising industry is obviously first in line to customise messages: Facebook is currently running tests by using real-time conversations in ad targeting xii . Real-time ads would attempt to target a user based on what they just said, whether it be a status update, a wall posting or a comment. Based on their online activity, the Not-for-profit organisation can get to know a readers world concerns, levels of interest and reply with customised ways for the reader to support the situation or countries the reader is most concerned about. From the type of news items selected, it would be possible to discern whether this particular supporter is more a “rational”, or more an “emotional” type, allowing for the right kind of message to be sent to the supporter. This would be just the beginning of potential customisation; presence of children can trigger child education programs, music preferences can lead to artist endorsements, sports participation to event participation, etc., etc. While clearly, philanthropy requires a long term view and attributing too much control to supporters may endanger that long term view, the Not-for profit may be under threat of initiatives that do allow supporters to donate and be involved on their terms (e.g., Jumo and mycharitywater). 4. What can be localised, will be localised By the end of this year, Gartner expects more than 75% of the devices shipped to mature markets to include GPS xiii . This will allow for more information to be collected about users specific locations and create opportunities for localising content. ‗Nokia Situations‘ promises to combine location awareness with a few rules so your phone adjusts itself to where you are and what you're doing, so for example it might turn the ringer off if you're in a movie cinema. That jeans you‘re looking for and have entered into a wish list, may ―call out‖ when you drive past a shop that carries the item. xiv Layar is a mobile app for discovering information about the world around you. Using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, Layar displays digital information called ―layers‖ into your Smartphone‘s field of vision xv . For example: you point at houses in a street you like to find out which house is for sale. Layar will provide address, square meters, asking price, etc. McDonalds consumers can check in on Foursquare at any restaurant in the Philadelphia region and send their check-in to Twitter with a @McDPhilly mention. For every check-in received, the company will donate $1 to Ronald McDonald House Charities. In addition to $1 being donated for every check-in received, each customer who participates in the mobile social fundraiser will receive a Be Our Guest coupon for a free McCafe Shake. ‗The Do Good Channel‘ run by good2gether is a kind of localized charity directory that allows you to search charities by type, participation, opportunities. It can also enables searches that connect current news with charitable missions. good2gether gives an Internet ‗widget‘ to local TV, radio and newspaper media outlets. For example, when a story is posted about the crisis in Darfur, the widget points to local nonprofit resources that are working on the problem. Localisation poses great opportunities for Not-for- profit organisations when supporters are traveling. Knowing where they are in the world can help customise offers, extend and deepen the NFP experience. For example when a supporter lands in a country, the Not-for-profit organisation could send a
  4. 4. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 4 „development update‟ on the state of poverty in that country. This could also include options to donate to specific projects nearby and suggestions of where they could go „off the beaten track‟ to see development in action. More specifically, when a supporter is traveling past an area where the Not-for-profit organisation has been active, information could pop up as alert on their Smartphone explaining how the organisation has made a difference in that specific area and give them an option to make an immediate donation to the cause or suggest people they could talk to in the immediate vicinity to hear their story and gain more information. Paypal and Andoid have apps that discover the nearest charity, based on your preferences. A top of the list position will be important. Localization can also improve the effectiveness of the Not-for-profit‟s events and face-to-face activities by pre-engaging the audience that is in the vicinity. Social plug ins that allow supporters to further amplify the events if they are “worth it”. 5. What can be interactive, will be interactive Digital media distribution (Digital radio and Internet based TV) is challenging conventional broadcasting. Nearly 20% of all TVs shipped in 2010 featured Internet TV capabilities. The Internet TV category is forecast to grow to over 123 million shipments in 2014 xvi . The world's best websites are adapting and are now being perfected for television. YouTube ‗Leanback‘ is a new interface for YouTube, to be used on Google TV, while the user ―leans back‖ on their couch xvii . This opens up new potential for organisations to create their own YouTube-based TV channels filled with interactive and customised content. Not-for-profit organisations could utilise this technology to participate in news channels relevant to development issues and events, where the viewer could make donations and show support whilst watching. For example, a popular news program such as the 7PM Project on Channel Ten could finish the show with a short story on a specific project run by the Not- for-profit organisation, whilst the credits are running, viewers would be presented with the option to press a button on their remote or Smartphone and make an immediate, micro-donation to the cause that was just reported. This principle could also be incorporated into television advertising. Another industry that is increasingly becoming interactive is the video-gaming industry. With a population that is expected to reach 68.7 million players by the end of 2012 xviii , big brands have are leveraging the platform with integrated ads and offers as well as games that combine digital and real-world incentives. Using Zynga‘s Farmville game it is possible to buy Farmville credits (using PayPal) and make an instant donation to Save the Children. In exchange, donors receive a special virtual present that can be used in the Farmville game xix . ‗GamesThatGive‘ makes custom-branded Facebook games with charitable twist. Their ‗You Play, We Give‘ campaign for MasterCard donates as much as 10 cents to charity for every minute a person plays the game. The game gets more than 80% of visits from returning visitors and, on average, gamers spend 45 minutes on the game page each visit xx . ‗CEO2‘ is an online game, which was released by the UK-based World Wide Fund for Nature to help companies decrease their carbon footprint. Players act as CEOs and determine which strategic investments will help their corporations grow in a low- carbon economy. Even billboards and print ads will be digitally integrated: "There is a lot of physical media out there– billboards, posters, restaurant menus, building–they could turn into a doorway for more information," says Philipp Schloter from Nokia. "This makes the connection between the digital and the physical world." xxi Nokia Point & Find, is a technology that allows users to simply point their camera phones at a banner and get more information on their device. ‗Earthjustice‘ is a nonprofit environmental organization that has combined the use of Foursquare and direct marketing via billboards for a unique fundraising campaign in San Francisco. The idea is to encourage Bay Area commuters to check-in on Foursquare when they see Earthjustice ads placed throughout the region. In return, an Earthjustice donor will donate $10 for every check-in to save the American Pika – an endangered animal in the US similar to rabbits and hares. For Not-for-profits – and all other companies engaged in marketing and sales activities – it means that the traditional boundaries between sales and marketing are changing. This is especially true for organisations who‟s product – for supporters - is largely “intangible” and is defined and consumed through media. The traditional division: “marketing creates demand” and sales “converts demand into sales” will disappear, as everything that creates demand will ultimately have the opportunity to convert into sales immediately.
  5. 5. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 5 Sales and marketing will become more integrated then ever and customer intelligence will take a more central role in the process. This will also present new challenges in terms of instead of just calls, DM, face- to-face and retail interactions, a wide variety of digital channels will have to be added to the CRM management system. 6. What can be human, stays human The use of human intelligence and interaction to create trust, solve problems and provide service remains invaluable. Zappo‘s is the ultimate example of how customer service – the human factor – drives online success and is becoming even more important. The call centre doesn‘t have scripts- a conversation of an hour with a customer is fine, even if it doesn‘t lead to a sale. All this is stemming from the vision that, as the face-to- face interaction of a brick-and-mortar store is missing, it has to be over compensated in other ways: there is no replacement for it xxii . The implication for Not-for-profit organisations: the call centre will certainly not disappear but will work with more diverse media platforms to communicate messages. What will be key is to allow supporters to interact as they please, just as Apple has brick and mortar stores, chat help services and their genies who‟s time can be booked in advance. The human face (including call centre, door-to-door sales, events, ambassadors) will remain important, and, it will be even more important to manage that the impression they leave is consistent with all the other touch-points at supporters‟ disposal. Consequently there are 4 key consumer behaviours empowered by these technology trends: 1. What can be peer influenced will be "Advertisers around the world are able to reach consumers across an increasingly diverse range of media platforms," David McCallum, Nielsen's global managing director of customized research, said in a statement. "Even so, the recommendation of someone else remains the most trusted source of information when consumers decide which products and services to buy."
 xxiii The challenge for brands is to be interesting enough to be part of the conversation. The metric that has been added for social marketing is ―connected experiences‖. This metric reflects the principle that in social media, the objective of the brand is to earn a place in a dialogue between two connections. Mobile phone applications are playing a role in the charitable giving revolution as well. One of my favorite charitable apps is the Salvation Army‘s Red Kettle, powered by Charity Dynamics. This free app enables individuals who have signed up to raise money via their Online Red Kettle program, to send messages to friends and family members to join the campaign. Innovative programs like this helped the Salvation Army to a record-breaking fundraising year in 2010, despite the recession and unemployment concerns xxiv . Ads worth sharing become social currency. In this way, a Not-for-profit has great ability to become a „news and experience‟ based organisation, where people are informed by and experience stories that would not usually appear on major news channels. A new brand of „third world news‟ could be created where people are shown first-hand the confronting intricacies of poverty. This would provide a calibre of information that could stir people‟s interest and could stimulate conversations. The next step from this would be to provide the tools necessary to amplify this discussion and let it spread organically. For a Not-for-profit the opportunity lies in empowering active supporters and fuelling their passion with stories to share among their connections. 2. What can be collaborated and co-created, will be collaborated and co-created Collaboration and co-creation is one of the most important trends for organisations and businesses, empowered by the Internet. Linux and Wikipedia being the well-known collaboration examples, and companies like P&G having firm co-creation goals and practices. xxv . new forms of collaboration evolve everyday. Groups with a likeminded interest can easily connect and start working on a common goal. ‗Sparked‘ is an online-only volunteer network that incorporates crowdsourcing principles to bring talented individuals together in support of non-profits. Instead of donating money, you‘re giving time and in- kind contributions. You provide the site with your specific skills, such as copywriting or graphic design. Specify what types of causes interest you such as environmental or health. You‘ll then start receiving requests from the site to help non-profits on relevant projects such as developing copy and designing a new direct mail piece for a conversation project. For a Not-for-profit organisation, there is collaborative opportunity to co-create the experience with supporters rather than for the supporters, which would also provide ongoing insights for customer satisfaction. Potentially, this could even allow for groups to pick
  6. 6. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 6 their own charitable goal and with the Not-for-profit providing the platform that enables the vision of the group to come true. Even though these interest groups could potentially donate directly to people in areas of need, the organisation can guarantee that funds are used well and efficiently. The outcome of co-creation processes is that it creates supporters who feel ownership through the collaboration and are therefore more likely to be passionate advocates. 3. What can be immediate and on demand, should be immediate and on demand Consumers now expect immediate response and immediate delivery. Even though ―slow-trends‖ as in ―slow-food‖ have evolved as an antidote to the fast paced world of today, things shouldn‘t take any longer then absolutely necessary and be on demand if they can. Ease of payment is a crucial part of this. Many charities began accepting SMS-carrier payments during the Haiti Earthquake. The text donation options were so simple, the Red Cross alone received over $29 million in SMS donations in 15 days, in small increments of $10 each. Another example of this type of demand for immediacy is shown through the rapid uptake of mobile applications as a way to fast track conventional websites. For example, ‗Urban Signals‘ is a New York- based company whose iPhone app notifies you when compatible singles are nearby and giving you the opportunity to meet them right away xxvi . Genuine and effective charitable organisations have a tremendous opportunity to demonstrate the impact of their work in a more immediate manner: directly fed by the field, supporters should be able to see progress made. This would reinforce feelings of trust and effectiveness, answering questions such as “Is my money really going to where it needs to and does it really make a difference?” Twitter feeds will provide the organisation with the most immediate way to provide poverty related news and with Twitpay, can solicit immediate reactions. As well as this, the fact that all the information will be perpetually accessible, on demand and immediate means that the organisation‟s experience has the potential to become an integrated part of everyday life, part of the way supporters think and interact on a daily basis. 4. What is worth spreading, will be spread The difference between media consumption and media production is blurring, coined in the term - the new ―media produser‖. Mainstream media are capitalising on the new phenomena of the ―media produser‖: CBS News has launched a citizen journalism site xxvii , where users can upload photos and videos directly from their mobile phone, for everyone to see. The butterfly effect – a small initiative growing into a movement - is amplified even further through online media platforms. Tom‘s shoes is a good example. Tom (Actually Blake) started to sell shoes and give away one pair to the needy for every pair he sells. During its first year in business, TOMS sold 10,000 pairs of shoes. Blake returned to Argentina later that year with family and friends and gave back to the children who had first inspired him. Thanks to supporters, TOMS gave the One Millionth pair of new shoes to a child in need in September 2010. TOMS now gives in over 20 countries and works with charitable partners in the field who incorporate shoes into their health, education, hygiene, and community development programs. For Not-for-profit organisations, this provides an opportunity to work closer with mass media to set the agenda of mediatised issues. The Internet now provides ways to engage those who are interested the detail of specific stories, information that is not always provided by mass media channels. Freed from the news bulletin format, the Internet has the ability to transform stories into real experiences. For Not-for-profits, the competitive landscape will broaden and the pressures intensify as the entry barriers for other charitable organisations become lower. On the up-side, new digital media technology puts global change within reach for every individual. Not- for-profits have a lot to offer in terms of stories, experience and solutions. Digital new media has the potential to provide the communicative tissue necessary to stimulate envisioned widespread, global change.
  7. 7. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 7 i Hect, J. ―Ultrafast fibre optics set new speed record,‖ New Scientist, Apr. 29, 2011 (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2102809 5.500-ultrafast-fibre-optics-set-new-speed- record.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=online- news). ii Indo-Asian News Service, ―Unwired world: 5.3 billion mobile phone users by year end,‖ NDTV, Oct. 21, 2010 (http://www.ndtv.com/article/technology/unwired- world-5-3-billion-mobile-phone-users-by-year- end-61295). iii Smith, A. ―Mobile Access 2010,‖ Pew Internet & American Life Project, Jul. 2010 (http://i.zdnet.com/blogs/pew-mobile-study.pdf). iv Indo-Asian News Service, ―Unwired world: 5.3 billion mobile phone users by year end,‖ NDTV, Oct. 21, 2010 (http://www.ndtv.com/article/technology/unwired- world-5-3-billion-mobile-phone-users-by-year- end-61295). v Swartz, J. ―More marketers to sign on to social media,‖ USA Today, Aug. 27, 2009 (http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2009-08- 27-social-networks-marketers_N.htm). vi Marshall, J. ―Smartphones are the PCs of developing world,‖ New Scientist, Aug. 4, 2007 (http://www.allbusiness.com/consumer- products/toys-games/15097429-1.html). vii ―WeTap – New Android Smartphone App Maps Water Fountains,‖ The Filter Files, May 9, 2011 (http://www.filtersfast.com/blog/index.php/2011/0 5/wetap-new-android-smartphone-app-maps- water-fountains/). viii Kessler, S. ―Bank Lets Customers Pay Friends By Bumping iPhones,‖ Mashable, Apr. 29, 2011 (http://mashable.com/2011/04/29/ing-direct- customers-bump/). ix Marshall, J. ―Smartphones are the PCs of developing world,‖ New Scientist, Aug. 4, 2007 (http://www.allbusiness.com/consumer- products/toys-games/15097429-1.html). x Welchert, M. ―Mobile and social payments for charity- making a difference in Japan,‖ Catalyst Code, Mar. 17, 2011 (http://www.thecatalystcode.com/theconversatio n/blog/2011/03/17/mobile-and-social-payments- for-charity-making-a-difference-in-japan/). xi ―Google Chromebook,‖ Google (http://www.google.com/chromebook/#). xii Slutsky, I. ―Facebook Test Mines Real-Time Conversations for Ad Targeting,‖ AdAge, Mar. 23, 2011 (http://adage.com/article/digital/facebook- test-mines-real-time-conversations-ad- targeting/149531/). xiii Maisto, M. ―IT Management: 10 Mobile Tech Trends to Watch into 2011,‖ Gartner, Mar. 29, 2010 (http://www.eweek.com/c/a/IT- Management/10-Mobile-Tech-Trends-to-Watch- Into-2011-Gartner-493266/). xiv Perez, S. ―Nokia's New "Situations" App Makes Phones Self-Aware‖, ReadWriteWeb, Nov. 26, 2010 (http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/nokias_n ew_situations_app_makes_phones_self- aware.php). xv Layar B.V. ―Layar Reality Browser - Augmented Reality software,‖ Apple iTunes, May 16, 2011 (http://itunes.apple.com/au/app/layar- reality-browser-augmented/id334404207?mt=8). xvi DisplaySearch, ―Connected TVs Forecast to Exceed 123M Units in 2014,‖ NPD Group, Apr. 25, 2011 (http://www.displaysearch.com/pdf/110425_conn ected_tvs_forecast_to_exceed_123m_units_in_ 2014.pdf). xvii Scott, J. ―YouTube Unveils New Interface for Google TV: YouTube Lean Back,‖ ReelSEO Video Marketing, 2011 (http://www.reelseo.com/youtube-unveils- interface-google-tv-youtube-lean/). xviii Verna, P. ―Social Gaming:
 Marketers Make Their Move,‖ eMarketer, Jan. 2011, (http://www.emarketer.com/Report.aspx?code=e marketer_2000759). xix Takahashi, D. ―Zynga links FarmVille and other games with American Express rewards,‖ Venture Beat, Nov. 30, 2010 (http://venturebeat.com/2010/11/30/zynga- american-express/). xx Hernandez, B. A. ―Why 5 Big Brand Marketing Campaigns Are Betting Big on Social Gaming,‖ Mashable, Jun 2. 2011 (http://mashable.com/2011/05/03/social-gaming- marketing/). xxi Vamien, ―Noki‘a Point & Find is Coming,‖ MobileTopSoft, Nov. 21, 2008 (http://www.mobiletopsoft.com/board/3770/video -nokias-point-find-is-coming.html). xxii ―Zappos Customer Service Strategy,‖ MarketingDeviant, Jun 30, 2009
  8. 8. Digital Value Creation Prepared by Growth Solutions Group and Monash University June 2011 8 (http://marketingdeviant.com/zappos-customer- service-strategy/). xxiii Nielson, ―Breaking News: Through the Grapevine,‖ Sept. 2011 (http://no.nielsen.com/news/documents/TrustAdv ertising_BreakingNews2609b.pdf). xxiv Innovation in Charitable Giving: Democratization of Philanthropy By: Margaret Weichert on March 2nd, 2010 xxv Gayner, H. ―Crowdsourcing,‖ Contagious Magazine, 2009 (http://www.slideshare.net/paulsmarsden/crowds ourcing-2020294). xxvi Dawson, R. ―Location-based dating is FINALLY hot, Hot, HOT!‖ Trends in the living networks, Apr. 13, 2010 (http://rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/201 0/04/locationbased_d.html). xxvii Duryee, T. ―CBS Launches Citizen Journalism Site For Mobile,‖ mocoNews.net, Apr. 14, 2008 (http://moconews.net/article/419-cbs- launches-citizen-journalism-site-for-mobile/).

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