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Report on Solaris - Singapore [BSC]

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Report on Solaris - Singapore [BSC]

  1. 1. Location: One-north,Singapore Design Architect: TR Hamzah&Yeang Developer:SB (Solaris) Investment P/L Consultant Architect: CPG Corporation Consultants: Arup Client: SB (Solaris) Investment P/L, a subsidiary of SoilBuild Group Holdings Ltd TC Corporation Completion year: 2011 Site Context Fusionopolis is an integral part of the larger one-north master plan that is developed by JTC Corporation. Together with the adjacent Biopolis and Mediapolis land parcels, the three entities within one-north aim to become incubators for biomedical research, new media production and high-tech software engineering development in Singapore and in South East Asia. Building introduction Solaris is a 15-storey green office building designed by TR Hamzah& Ken Yeang SDN BHD. It was completed in the year of 2010, with an estimated cost of RM 300m. This green office building is located in the Fusionopolis hub of central Singapore's one-north business park, the vibrant focal point for the one-north. Prime objective of building Solaris is to foster entrepreneurship, research and new discoveries in these fields. Solaris comprises two tower blocks; first tower 15 levels and second tower 9 levels. The towers are separated by a grand, naturally ventilated central atrium and are linked by a series of sky bridges spanning through the atrium on the top floors. This flagship project has won multiple accolades for its integrated green design which includes BCA Green Mark Platinum Award as well as top honours at the Sky rise Greenery Awards held by the Singapore Institute of Architects and National Parks Singapore. It also clinched a Green Good Design Award for Architecture in 2010 - part of a series of globally recognised conferment from The Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture & Design and The European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies. The main innovative feature of Solaris is the continuous 1.5m spiral landscaped terraces that wind up to lush roof gardens. Other green features that were incorporated in this building are green corridor with central courtyards, a unique solar shaft that helps create a day lit, and also a naturally ventilated atrium. Other than that, this multi-tenanted facility is fitted with sun shading devices to reduce solar heat gain and rainwater harvesters to minimise water consumption. Design concept, Philosophy and intensions Solaris is the Green icon of Singapore for its design concept is to achieve a “Green Eco infrastructure” which is the balance between inorganic and organic. Solaris towers responds to its destroyed original ecological site through its design of the spreading vegetation and landscaping over the building with the intention of recreating a completely ecological site. Ar. Ken Yeang desires to create habitable green spaces that benefit the environment. Ar. Ken Yeang creates buildings which he claims, “In many ways it feels like a human made ecosystem in a tower form.” In order to design an effective sustainable building, many considerations where taken into account to make full use of the tropical climate of Singapore. 1
  2. 2. Location of Biopolis and Mediapolis land in Singapore kkImage :( http://www.nearby.sg/location/1.297991/103.790015/Solaris_1_Fusionopolis_Walk_Singapore_138628) Location of Solaris Image :( http://www.nearby.sg/location/1.297991/103.790015/Solaris_1_Fusionopolis_Walk_Singapore_138628) Location plan Site area for Solaris: 7,734m2 2
  3. 3. Site plan 3
  4. 4. Floor plans Basement 1 Mezzanine (Basement layout) Level 1 plan (Level 1 & 2 layout) 4
  5. 5. Level 3 plan (Level 3 to 12 layout) Level 17 Image Source: (http://www.archello.com/en/project/solaris/1509931) 5
  6. 6. Elevations Image source: (Yeang, K. (2011). Eco Architecture: the work of Ken Yeang (1. publ. ed.). West Sussex: Wiley.) 7
  7. 7. Section Image source: (http://blog.japhethlim.com/index.php/2011/06/14/green-architecture-is- underrated-a-case-study-on-solaris-by-tr-hamzah-and-ken- yeang/) 8
  8. 8. Singapore climate analysis Annual temperature One-North, Singapore’s Climate Just 1 degree north of the equator, it quite naturally enjoys a tropical/equatorial climate. No have clear-cut seasons like summer, spring, autumn and winter throughout the year. In Singapore, the average temperature is between 25 degrees Celsius and 31 degrees Celsius. Difference between the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature is slightly lesser than Malaysia, with a difference of two degree Celsius For One-North, Singapore, the average amount of sunshine hours in Singapore is 7.6 hours. Being different from the climate in Malaysia where the numbers of sunshine hours are mostly constant throughout the year. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Temperature: Averageand Extreme Absolute Max. Average Max. Average Min. Absolute Min. 6 8 7 8 9 8 8 9 9 8 6 6SUNSHINE HOURS Hours Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Singapore/Bishan/climate-profile.aspx Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/sentosa/averages/ 9
  9. 9. Average rainfall each year is around 1500 mm and 2700 mm, slightly lower than Malaysia. The wettest months would be during the Northeast Monsoon Season which occurs during November to May. Besides those months, the average rainfall during the whole year is considered relatively low. Singapore is located in Southeast Asian, characterized by a hot and humid climate. Rainfall is almost an everyday phenomenon, even during the non-monsoon period. The level of humidity in One-North, Singapore is often high due to the downpour. In the morning, percentage of humidity could reach 90% and drop to a 60% during the mid-afternoon for sunny days. The average relative humidity level in Singapore is 84.2%. 238 165 174 166 171 163 150 171 163 191 250 269 AVERAGE RAINFALL mm 80 77 79 79 77 77 79 78 77 77 80 81 HUMIDITY Percentage Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/sentosa/averages/ Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/sentosa/averages/ 10
  10. 10. The wind speed of both locations depends on the location of site. Singapore being an island, this factor has caused irregular wind speed as throughout the year. This could be due to the fact that, Singapore lies within 15 meters of sea level; its climate is influenced by the sea and its geographical location. Wind analysis Wind rose of Singapore (year) http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/singapore_changi 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 80 74 48 67 63 56 41 63 74 44 74 43 WIND SPEED [KM/H] Average Maximum Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year Wind direction SSW SSW SSW SW NNE NNE NNE N NNE NNE SSW SSW SSW Average Wind speed (m/s) 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 Average Air temperature(°C) 28 29 29 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 28 29 Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Singapore/Bishan/climate- profile.aspx 11
  11. 11. Certification granted by Greenmark Green award: BCA Green Mark Platinum Award (Awarded 2010) Rating: 97.5 Green features in Solaris also complies to the MS 1525 requirements. Green Features:-  Climatic-responsive façade system  Light shaft to enhance penetration of natural lighting to the building  Network of light sensors in stalled to reduce energy usage 12
  12. 12.  Naturally ventilated and day lit grand atrium 13
  13. 13.  Roof gardens and corner sky terraces as a thermal buffer  Planter box design on landscaped spiral ramp 14
  14. 14.  Rainwater harvesting through a network of siphonic drainage systems Image source: (SOLARIS graphic courtesy of T. R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn. Bhd.) 15
  15. 15. Passive features 1: Grand Atrium & Solar Shaft Image source: (SOLARIS graphic courtesy of T. R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn. Bhd.) 16
  16. 16. Image source: (SOLARIS graphic courtesy of T. R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn. Bhd.) To be the green icon of Singapore, building designers looked detail into climatic elements that will affect indoor comfort, heat transfer through building and also ventilation. One of the important main features in Solaris is the grand atrium that utilizes the natural environment by including consideration on the macroclimate of Singapore as the design strategy; this idea has allowed a passive driven feature. The atrium connects the two building blocks and functions as a public space where most functions will be held. The receptions and lounge in the building is also located in the grand atrium. This atrium design attains strive to provide ventilation effectiveness through mixed-mode zone; the used of passive and active system. This naturally-ventilated atrium has operable slanted louvers glass roof was adjusted through mechanical systems. It is sensor-operated thus protects the interior from extreme weather condition and it also designed to functions as a smoke vent during emergency situation. 17
  17. 17. Sun analysis on the effectiveness of the atrium design 23 September 9:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m. From the sun analysis above, it was proven that the atrium designed by the architect is effective throughout the year. The east direction of the sun showered on the lower tower of Solaris. Based on the diagram, sunlight shines into the atrium and lights up the upper floors of the higher tower. In the afternoon, sunlight showers directly into the atrium with most of the floors exposed to sunlight. The west direction of the sun showered on the lower tower of Solaris. Based on the diagram, sunlight shines into the atrium and lights up the upper floors of the lower tower. 18
  18. 18. Hot and cold air movement throughout the building Analysis of Grand Atrium This slanted louvers glass roof also allows for stack effect ventilation which is well-suitable for warm climate in Singapore. This is proved using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator. Stack effect ventilation draws in continuous cool air into the building at ground level as they push out warm air through the top. This increases the thermal comfort level and improves the air flow throughout the building. As a result, it reduces excessive use of active energy sources thus making it a more environmental conscious building. Stacked ventilation occurs by the difference in densities of air within an area. Internal hot air rises up to the upper levels and escapes through opening of the ceiling. From the diagram above, hot air escapes through the opened slanted louvers glass roof and cold air enters into the atrium through lower openings. In hot conditions, stack effect ventilation happens in the large volume of the atrium to constantly cool down the atrium. This effect enhances during hot days when hot air rises rapidly and speed up the air exchange rate creating a vertical pressure gradient within the atrium. Heat was transmitted from the slabs of each level to the atrium and rise up by pressure to the open louvers. Cool air comes in through the lower openings which are on the ground floor to achieve a well ventilated microclimate. Air movement within the atrium is vital to achieve thermal comfort for passive cooling system. The upper ventilation area has the same size ratio as the lower ventilation openings; the glass louvers opening compare to rain screens and the ventilation openings above the entrance area, to ensure balance air movements within the atrium. Based on our visit to Solaris building around 11a.m, the thermal performance and daylighting of the atrium is comfortable and is a habitable space for activities. Atrium provides more spaces with connection to natural ventilation and lighting which has highly reduced the energy cost for artificial lightings and air-conditionings. It also creates a healthier and productive working environment for the users as carbon emission is reduced 19
  19. 19. Image: Rain screen and ventilation opening at the entrance Air movement through the rain screen during rainy days Rain screens were included in the atrium entrance design to prevent entering of rain water. During worst weather conditions such as heavy raining seasons, the louver system was closed when rain was detected by the sensor. When atrium is enclosed the rain check opening or ventilation opening above the entrance becomes the ventilation operator where air comes in and exchanges and goes out through the screens. Rain screens acts as a shield to prevent rain from showing into the atrium through wind driving rains. This passively ventilated atrium gained points from BCA Green Mark Marking scheme. This was because it fitted into the criteria of part 1- energy efficiency under NRB 1-8 Ventilation in Common Areas. 20
  20. 20. The design element of the atrium complies with the MS 1525 requirement. Firstly, atrium of Solaris has two openings which are the rain screens (inlet) on the ground floor and sensor operated glass louvers (outlet) on the top of the atrium. The ratios of the inlet and outlet openings are equal hence having a balanced air movement. Secondly, the vertical distance between the sensors operated glass louvers and the rain screens were maximized to ensure better air flow throughout the building. Skylight roof over atrium . The naturally day lit grand atrium optimize the atrium facade design as the daylight can penetrate into the grand atrium which helps to light up the atrium using natural lighting and also gives a thermal comfort. The plant in the atrium acts as a screen for daylight The office units on the sides of the atrium space were designed to allow diffused daylighting in to the office spaces. Building envelope was carefully designed to prevent direct solar radiation. The high translucent atrium opening and well-designed fenestrations with double grazing properties reduces the amount of solar radiation and also allow optimum daylighting to enter into the office spaces. 21
  21. 21. The size and position of the windows are designed covering 70% of floor height for each level. In addition, the sill height of the walls is lower compared to the window which also provides great viewing points to the atrium space. Besides that, this day lit area is integrated with automatic electric lighting control system to reduce the energy use for artificial lighting. From the photo above, we can prove that at least 75% of the office units facing the atrium have minimum luminance of sunlight. This design in a result had fulfilled green mark marking criteria of part 1- energy efficient under section NRB 1-5 Daylighting. Psychometric Chart Thermal comfort is a condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the environment. From this psychometric chart of Singapore, the indoor comfort ranges from 24-32 degree Celsius. The passively designed atrium provides a rather comfortable indoor microclimate for the users as the absolute maximum macroclimate of Singapore reaches 39 degree Celsius. 22
  22. 22. Solar shaft Image source: (http://www.greenroofs.com/images/content-TRHamzahandYeangSolaris) Solar shaft is a diagonal cut through the office units on 15 level first towers to promote natural lighting into the units. The units connected with the solar shaft have automatic light sensors to control lighting and reduce energy usage. This solar shaft was one of the innovative features designed to create positive environmental impact. Plants was added on the south west positioned solar shaft as solar screens to reduce heat gain into the units. With this feature this building had scored points from the green mark marking scheme under part 1– energy efficiency of NRB 1-10 Energy Efficient Practices & Features The design also works as a stack well that ventilates adjacent interior spaces where it displaces large volumes of air which satisfied the MS 1525 regulation. 23
  23. 23. Passive feature 2: Extensive sun-shading louvers Image source: (http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/solaris/solaris) 24
  24. 24. The design of the Solaris façade was greatly influenced by the characteristics of the local climate. Singapore has a sun-path of east-west, critical facade studies was required to achieve design intensions. Ecotext Solaris model: Sun path study of Solaris on 23 September 9am 12pm 3pm From the diagram above, we can observe that Solaris was exposed to solar radiation throughout the day. In relation to the buildable site area, Ar. Ken Yeang had designed a form which comprehends solar angle. The longer portion of the form was positioned east and west which the facades were exposed to maximum solar radiation. Being informed by the bioclimatic design principles, passive solar system was employed to bring natural lighting into the interior spaces of the building all year around. To control and ensure an optimum amount of daylight penetrations into the indoor, Ar. Ken Yeang had designed a natural ventilated exterior space along the spiral landscaped ramp. The habitable exterior space has deep overhangs, planter box design and sun shading louvers to cool the building façade to provide a comfortable microclimate. In addition, Solaris marks the start of organic form in Ar. Ken Yeang’s designs. 25
  25. 25. Ecotect Solaris model: Sun analysis on the effectiveness of the extensive sun-shading louvers 23 September 9am (East elevation) 12pm (Overall) 0 3pm (West elevation) From the diagram on the left, the shadow pattern shows that the building’s interior is well shaded by the louvers at 9a.m. At 12p.m. the louvers was not effective due to direct sunlight on top of the building. Therefore it is only shaded along the parameter of the louvers. From the diagram on the left, the shadow pattern shows that the building’s interior is slightly shaded by the louvers at 3p.m. FLOOR SLAB FLOOR SLAB FLOOR SLAB FLOOR SLAB FLOOR SLAB FLOOR SLAB LOUVERS 26
  26. 26. Analysis of extensive sun-shading louvers Extensive sun-shading louvers along the facade of Solaris were specially designed; the shape and depth of the sun shading louvers were determined by proper local sun-path analysis. In general, most buildings do not consider the sun-shading potential as it was not a part of the design in the first place. But as the exterior façade of the Solaris are often exposed to the sunlight all year long, sun-shading louvers help prevents unpleasant glare and overheating of the inside of the building. The key objective of Ar. Ken Yeang was to maximize the use of natural light without the problems of glare or excessive solar heat gain. The sun-shading louvers are design for different sun angles as they subtend into the building through windows in the exterior space of the building. The shading features and strategies helped to block the excessive sunlight during the mid and late day where the sun is the most impactful. It improved the thermal and visual comfort of the user in the building. Well-designed solar shading system provides maximum yield of light, heat and ventilation into the building providing a comfortable yet bright working space for the users in Solaris. During day time, the need for artificial lighting reduces, units along the external glazed curtain wall was installed with sensor-operated lighting system. These sensors are able to reduce energy usage for artificial lightings and when there is a minimum detection of 500lux external luminance, artificial lights off automatically. 27
  27. 27. Other than that, this passive feature of extending solar shading louvers had screened of excessive sun light thus decreased the amount of heat transfer through the low-e double glazed curtain walls. As a result, contributes to a lower overall External Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV) of 40 W/m2 or less. Building fabric has important role in regulating the indoor environment. Colour selection is critical; it affects heat absorption of the material because of emissivity. Emissivity of materials are a concern, Ar. Ken Yeang used reflective colours to reduce absorption of thermal energy and to protect building from overheating in extreme hot conditions. The placements of the sunshade louvers surrounded along the building exterior were designed in a way to screen off direct heat and glare from the sun. This sun shading louvers has a total horizontal length exceeding 10km, thus making the shading effect more effective and innovative. Vertical distances between the louvers are further at strategic locations to reveal high volume entrances and sky terrace activity areas. In addition, these sun-shading louvers incorporate with the platform of the planter box creating an interesting and unique façade design for Solaris. The passive design of these sun-shading louvers complies with the MS 1525 requirement. The louvers that surround the whole building prevented direct sunlight and heat as most of the façade in Solaris is exposed to sunlight all day. The louvers are designed to minimize the amount of sunlight into the building but sufficient enough to provide daylight to reduce the use in energy consumption. Furthermore it helps in cooling down the interior of the building as the amounts of sunlight exposed are reduced. Moreover the continuous layering of the louvers helps to shade each floor in the building. 28
  28. 28. References Building and Construction Authority (n.d). BCA Green Mark Platinum Building (Singapore). . Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.bca.gov.sg/newsroom/others/pr11092013_IGBCA.pdf Building Massing | Sustainability Workshop. (n.d.). Building Massing | Sustainability Workshop. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/building- massing E-Jin, F. (2012). Solaris detail @ One North. Retrieved May 4, 2014, from http://blog.cpgcorp.com.sg/?p=2118 Lim C.L. . (2012). Thermal Comfort Guidelines and Policy. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.hsl.com.sg/misc/thermal-comfort-guidelines-and-policy.pdf Lyons, S. (n.d.). Solar shading applications. . Retrieved May 7, 2014, from http://designquarterly.ca.dnnmax.com/SolarShadingApplicationVancouverOlympic.aspx Solaris, Singapore. (n.d.). Solaris, Singapore. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildingArchive2012/Solaris Singapore/tabid/3854/language/en-GB/Default.aspx Solaris, Singapore. (n.d.). Solaris, Singapore. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildingArchive2012/Solaris Singapore/tabid/3854/language/en-GB/Default.aspx Solar Shading system. (n.d.). . Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.coltgroupamerica.com/solar-shading.html TR Hamzah & Yeang Sdn. Bhd.. (n.d.). TR Hamzah & Yeang Sdn. Bhd.. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.trhamzahyeang.com/project/large-buildings/solaris_01.html Windfinder.com - Wind and weather statistic Singapore Changi. (n.d.). Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/singapore_changi Book references The Green Skyscraper (1948). The Skyscraper and Other Large Buildings. New York : Prestel Verlag. Yeang, K. (2011). Eco Architecture: the work of Ken Yeang (1. publ. ed.). West Sussex: Wiley. 29