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LEA - Common Research Scenarios & APA Citation



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First day orientation for Gordon College Graduate Leadership Cohort.

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LEA - Common Research Scenarios & APA Citation

  1. 1. Common research scenario in the first-year.
  2. 2. My professor told me I need to read a specific article. How can I find it?
  3. 3. Campbell, A.,Whitehead, J., & Finkelstein, S. (2009).Why good leaders make bad decisions. Harvard Business Review, 87(2), 60-66.
  4. 4. ”Why Good Leaders Make Bad Decisions” in Harvard Business Review.
  5. 5. I need to do an article review for a class, and it needs to be about X topic. Where can I find articles?
  6. 6. Academic Search Ultimate - multidisciplinary ERIC - Education Professional Development Collection - Education Business Source Premier – Business & Finance DATABASES
  7. 7. Getting Started with APA Citations
  8. 8. Why?
  9. 9. Why? Why do we cite?
  10. 10. 255 Grapevine Rd Wenham MA 01984 ,
  11. 11. 255 Grapevine Rd Wenham, MA 01984
  12. 12. Paper Format Guide Documenting Sources Works Cited, Reference List, or Bibliography Rules for font, style, margins, line space, organization, and more. Mechanics of Style Guidelines for clear, consistent communication – includes bias free language, spelling, capitalization, numbers, punctuation, and more. WHAT IS A CITATION STYLE? APA is one example of a citation style.
  13. 13. I’m not the expert. They are the expert.
  14. 14. APA PAPER TYPES Student Professional No Abstract No headers Detailed title page Abstract Headers
  15. 15. What are the elements in an APA paper?
  16. 16. PAPER ELEMENTS Title Page Abstract BodyText Intro Literature Review Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion Reference List Appendices Supplemental Materials
  17. 17. BIAS FREE LANGUAGE “It is unacceptable to use constructions that might imply prejudicial beliefs or perpetuate biased assumptions, against persons on the basis of age, disability, gender, participation in research, racial or ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or some combination of these or other personal factors. Instead, authors should use affirming and inclusive language” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 131).
  18. 18. GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING BIAS 1. Describe at the Appropriate Level of Specificity Focus on relevant characteristics. Acknowledge relevant differences that do exist. Be appropriately specific. 2. Be Sensitive to Labels Acknowledge People’s Humanity – “the poor” v. “people living in poverty.” Provide Operational Definitions and Labels Avoid False Hierarchies APA Citation Manual, pp. 132-134
  19. 19. GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING BIAS 1. Age 2. Disability – first-person language or identity-first language. 3. Gender – “attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associations with a person’s biological sex” (p. 138). 4. Participation in Research – acknowledge contribution and agency. 5. Racial and Ethnic Identity – use racial and/or ethnic terms that your participants themselves use. 6. Sexual Orientation – “a person’s sexual and emotional attraction to another person and the behavior and/or social affiliation that may result from this attraction” (p. 146). 7. Socioeconomic Status – use first-person language, ”welfare mothers” v. “mothers who receive TANF benefits.” 8. Intersectionality – “identifies the way in which individuals are shaped by and identify with a vast array of cultural, structural, sociobiological, economic, and social contexts” (p. 148). APA Citation Manual, pp. 135-148
  20. 20. WEB PAGE JOURNAL ARTICLE BOOK Author(s) Title Edition Place of Publication Publisher Publication Date PARTS Chapters/Section titles Book titles Author(s) JournalTitle ArticleTitle Volume # Issue # Publication Date Page numbers URL/DOI Author(s) WebsiteTitle WebpageTitle Update date URL WHAT ARECOMMON ELEMENTS IN A CITATION?
  21. 21. On page 4, find examples of in-text citations.
  22. 22. TWO KINDS OF IN-TEXT CITATION Narrative (signal phrase) citation: As researchers Walker and Pearce (2014) note… Parenthetical citation: (Walker & Pearce, 2014, p. 281).
  23. 23. TWO KINDS OF IN-TEXT CITATION Narrative (signal phrase) citation: As researchers Walker and Pearce (2014) note… Parenthetical citation: (Walker & Pearce, 2014, p. 281). Note the difference of when “and” and “&” are used.
  24. 24. Does every source cited in- text need to be in your Reference List?
  25. 25. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Interviews, emails, online chats, text messages, etc. are cited in text only. (A. Smucker, personal communication, August 10, 2016).
  26. 26. On page 14, review each citation. What kind of source is this pointing to?
  27. 27. COMMON ELEMENTS Author PublicationYear Article title/Chapter title Source title (journal or book) Publishing information (vol/issue or publisher) DOI
  28. 28. Find a citation in the Reference List and find an example of an in-text citation for that source.
  29. 29. IN-TEXT v REFERENCE LIST Reference: Avery, R. J., Bryant, W. K., Mathios, A., Kang, H., & Bell, D. (2006). Electronic course evaluations: Does an online delivery system influence student evaluations? The Journal of Economic Education, 37(1), 21- 37. 37. http://doi.org/10.3200/JECE.37.1.21-37 In-text: Avery et al., (2006)
  30. 30. RESOURCES https://apastyle.apa.org/blog https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa6 _style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.h tml Publication Manual of the American Psychological Psychological Association – 7th edition
  31. 31. Your turn!
  32. 32. LEARN APA Work with a partner to complete the “Learn APA” worksheet. You will be asked the following: 1. Identify errors and correct in-text citations. 2. Identify errors and correct reference list citations. 3. Find a source and cite!
  33. 33. CORRECT THE IN-TEXT Many challenges are associated with this model, not least of which include time constraints and pressure to cover a “proliferating amount of information literacy content” (Buchanan, H. E. and & McDonough, B. A. 2017 p. 1). However, more critically is the one- shot’s often observed lack of student engagement.Walker & and Pearce (2014) acknowledge that when taking into account the defining characteristics of student engagement “it is not too great a leap to propose that one 50 or 75-min library instruction session does not provide ample opportunity for substantial levels of engagement to manifest” (p. 287)." Even the most well-intentioned librarian cannot hope to engage students within a 50 to 75-minute period and produce lasting, long-term information literate students”. (Markgraf et al., 2015). Needs a signal phrase ”Because librarians try to accomplish so much in a short amount of time, there is little time for active learning, and, as a result, most of the class session is lecture-based” (Markgraf et al., 2015, p. 6). The degree to which students must interact with information and apply good information use practices in order to truly become information literate requires much longer intervals between learning and practice (Spievak & Hayes-Bohana,YYYY).
  34. 34. REFERENCE LIST RE-DO 1. Source Type: book Citation: Buchanan, H. E., & McDonough, B. A. (2017). The one-shot library instruction survival guide. ALA Editions. 2. Source Type: journal article Citation: Walker, K. W., & Pearce, M. (2014). Student engagement in one-shot library instruction: An exploration of active-learning strategies. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 40(3/4), 281–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2014.04.004
  35. 35. CITE IT Library resource searched: Journal Finder or library database Source type: journal article Citation: Dustman, T. (2018). A call for emotional intelligence skills training curricula at Christian colleges. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 27(2), 183–191. https://doi-org.proxy2.noblenet.org/10.1080/10656219.2018.1499572 Bonus Parenthetical: (Dustman, 2018, p. #) Narrative: Dustman (2018) notes…


  • Why are we talking about citation styles now at the beginning of your career as a LEA students?
  • And more specifically why do we cite at all?
  • Here is a very practical everyday examples of why citations are important and how they can help us. Can we all identify what this is? Right, it’s a street address. And how do we know? Well we’ve been trained over the years to recognize certain things about street addresses. But its in correct right? In order for this to actually be useful for the purposes of navigation, mailing items, etc. it has to be in the right sequence.
  • And doesn’t that look so much better. So our brains new what we were looking at, new it had the right components of what we need but it wasn’t useful yet. We need it in the proper order and pattern to be useful. This is what citations are. Addresses to information. Pathways to not only finding the information again but also documentation of the paths you as researchers took when you were working on your research.
  • But what is a citation style. I think many of us are taught in high school and maybe even college about citation as a consequence – here are the rules to obey and break them results in points off. But a citation style itself is about much more than documenting of sources, it’s a language that helps different disciplines talk to each other about their research. Most of us are used to citation styles as documentation – how we reference our sources, in text and in the reference list. But the rules of APA also tell us how we format our paper and even how we write. It’s the first two that we are going to focus our attention on today.
  • Now before I go further, I want to say I am not an expert on citation styles. I just happen to really really like citations. And librarians and citing often go hand in hand. It’s going to feel like a lot of information today but this is just the tip of what APA is all about. For full guidance you should really get the APA 7th edition manual.
  • This is one of the biggest changes to APA 7th edition. The distinction between student papers and professional papers. Take out the sample paper in your folder. We’ll be working with that throughout the rest of this workshop. Let’s compare the differences.
  • Take a look at the sample paper in your packet. What are the distinct parts you recognize?
  • Describe at the Appropriate Level of Specificity Focus on relevant characteristics. – do you need to include that characteristic? Does it matter to your argument or your research if gender is mentioned? Acknowledge relevant differences that do exist. – acknowledging there are differences, this is important in research, how does the sample population differ to the generalizations you are making? Be appropriately specific. – determine characteristics to describe and choose the appropriate level of specificity.

    Be sensitive to labels – respect the language people use to describe themselves, call people what they call themselves
    Acknowledge people’s humanity – choose labels with sensitivity ensuring that people’s individuality and humanity are respected. Ex. the poor v. people living in poverty.
    Provide Operational Definitions and Labels – describe participants by the measures used to classify them
    Avoid False Hierarchies – compare groups with care. Authors often use one group as the standard against which others are judged
  • Age
    First person language – “a person with epilepsy”
    Identity first – allows individual to claim the disability and choose their identity rather than permitting others to name it. “a blind person”
    You can mix these
    Gender - pronouns –use identified pronouns, alternate between he/she, or use “they.”
    Participation in Research -
    Racial and Ethnic Identity
    Sexual Orientation
    Socioeconomic Status
  • Now let’s turn our attention to documentation of sources – or citing. Every source you site is a little different, but there are the most common elements for each type of source. Details of each of these can be found in the APA guide I created for you, but we are going to take a look at some examples as we continue to explore our sample paper.
  • - APA 7th edition now says that 3 or more authors you can use the abbreviation et al!
  • Things to note:

    3 or more authors
    And v. &
  • Yes!
    But the follow up question - does every source you consult for your research need to be in your reference list? No.
  • APA is more than how you cite your sources.
  • Things to note:

    3 or more authors
  • Things to note:

    3 or more authors
  • ×