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Who am I? Why am I in front of you? We have two goals: to support a culture of sharing at U-M and to provide comprehensive public access to the scholarly output at U-M. We train, we build tools, we develop processes and workflows to support this. We also publish a lot of content based on volunteers and develop strategies to make the teaching and learning resources produced at U-M more visible, more useful and more impactful through open practices.
Try to align open policies and resources with the practices of content creators on campus like faculty, departments and students. At U-M since we give control of copyright decisions back to faculty and departmental heads of units, these units and faculty members can choose how they want to share their work with their students and with learners or other teachers worldwide. This means that the scholarly work that you produce through the TTI (including presentations, videos, how-to guides, blogs, etc.) can be licensed to share to meet your specific pedagogical or service-oriented goals. MPublishing and SPG on Copyright
Copyright is everywhere in our lives, but we often don’t think about it much unless we are thinking about scholarly publishing or our research. Initially, copyright was established to foster creativity and encourage innovation: “The Congress Shall have power To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States ConstitutionIf something is an original work, expresses creativity and it is fixed in tangible form, it’s copyrightable. Since its inception, however, interested parties have extended the terms of copyright and made it easier to infringe on others’ copyrights. EXPRESSION of ideas; NOT FACTS, NOT IDEAS, NOT DATA
These bundles of rights are yours to give away as a copyright holder. This is all important because our current copyright laws don't actually match our current sharing habits or abilities online. Think about how easy it is to create, distribute, and adapt other people's work today. These are the five Rights that you as copyright creators have. You are in charge of giving permissions to ANYONE else to use your work for these five things. It is ridiculously easy to do all of these things with the Internet today. The Internet allows for cheap and easy creation and distribution of work but it also means that it's very easy to infringe on copyrights according to these terms, whether you realize you're doing it or not.Copyright used to last 14 years after registration, it has since been extended to last the life of the creator plus 70 years and now requires NO registration. You can thank Mickey Mouse for that.
I’m not going to go into much detail about the sections of our law that cover the limitations of copyright or its exemptions. This includes Fair Use. We encourage people to consider being Open From the Start, meaning that they create and use licensed content to the extent possible when creating materials that they may want to share with others. When you start from Open, it’s much easier to share and be open to innovation and adaptation in the future and Fair Use gets tricky across institutions and jurisdictions like sharing resources across countries. From Wikipedia: “Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 17 U.S.C. § 106 and 17 U.S.C. § 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include: the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;the nature of the copyrighted work;the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; andthe effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.”
Because of all this trickiness, open licenses have become a powerful tool for us to make decisions about how we want to share our work. Licenses allow you to have a choice of sharing between all rights reserved and no rights reserved and they let you set the terms others must abide by when using your work. Open licenses cover the spectrum of sharing from the public domain (all federal government works, or work that have expired copyright) to all rights reserved where you have to go to the copyright holder to get permission to do one of the five things we just talked about with the work.Licenses allow for multiple authors to work asynchronously on a project, allow for quick adaptations and updates to keep content relevant and mean it can be easier to innovate around ideas.
What do they mean though? Here are the options you have when choosing a license. Almost all the licenses offered by Creative Commons start with attribution. From there, you choose whether or not you want others to profit off your work, if anyone else who uses your work must then apply the same licenses you chose to their adaption of your work and whether or not you will let others change your work. We discourage use of the “No Derivatives” clause, however, because it means you can’t translate the work, take a part out that is not relevant to another person’s teaching or learning needs and you can’t build off of it to create something new.
Creative Commons licenses are a layer of permissions you give on top of your copyright. You are exerting your copyrights when you use licenses, by giving others explicit, standardized permission to use your content in certain ways. They have three layers. This standardization is very important because it allows people to easily understand how they can use your work and also encourages proper attribution back to you and the University of Michigan.
When you want to use content that someone else has created, even on campus, here are the guidelines you can follow: Always include AUTHOR, TITLE, SOURCE, LICENSE (License Source) on your work. How you choose to show this is up to you.
So let’s take a quick break and do some searching for licenses. Find someone close to you with a laptop and work together. Navigate to Flickr and click on Advanced Search. Make sure you scroll down and click on the Creative Commons licensing section to find only CC works. Type in a search term and see what you come up with. Where is the license information? What does it mean? How can you tell? Navigate to OER Commons and put in a search term. Where is the license? What does it mean? How can you tell?
So what happens if you’ve already created content without thinking about all this stuff but you want to share it and make it useful for others? What if you want to publish something on the open web (not Ctools!) and you want to license it to be shareable? We developed a process to guide folks through these decisions. It’s called dScribe and it features 8 steps. I’m going to focus on two of those steps today: assessing content you’ve used that you didn’t create and clearing it if you can’t republish your work as an Open Educational Resource. When you have content you didn’t create (third party content): you can make three decisions about what to do with it. Keep it in, replace it with a suitable openly licensed alternative or remove it and annotate it to let others know there was content in the original document. Also you will want to consider issues of privacy and endorsement when creating for public consumption.
You can retain a piece of copyrighted content if it falls under these three categories:Public Domain: it was created by the government, someone who created it dedicated it to the public domain or its copyright has expired.Permission: you have permission to use it under a Creative Commons license or some other licenseAnalysis: you have determined that the representation is, in fact, not copyrightable (is it factual information only?) or that you have used it in a way that is protected by Fair Use. Remember that others may not be able to use any content you have used under a Fair Use claim.
You’ll need to replace content if you don’t have permission to use it. There is a growing collection of licensed content available on the web. Check out our list of places to find open content in your infosheet. Creative Commons is making it easier to find content you can legally reuse. You may also have the skills to replace something by creating another version of it. This depends on your skillset and time.
If you can’t remove it and feel uncomfortable using it, then you can delete it and let others know you have done so. Try to find a stable URL to point back to the original source if you want future learners or teachers to know what you took out.
Michael Horscht (2010) Kathleen Stringer (2009)Matthew Velkey (2006)360 contributors(71 UMMS faculty)114 dScribesNow that you’ve been exposed to all this, what types of work do people at U-M make Open? Why do they do it? Here are a few examples.
Our office also supports the African Health OER Network. Built up of 17 institutions and organizations across the United States and Africa, this organization fosters open educational practices by co-creating and sharing educational content across institutions. By adding Creative Commons licenses to this work, these institutions are able to create effective, high quality educational programs and modules that can be shared and adapted to suit local needs. African-created resources are also being used at U-M to teach students here about surgical techniques and global health needs.
A few years ago, working with the Center for Global Health realized there wasn’t a resource available for them to guide them through what it is like to conduct research or scholarship abroad. Over 40 students, from PhDs to undergrads, got together to collaboratively write up a handbook. They added a Creative Commons license to the work because there were so many authors and students were always coming into and out of the project. Their goal was to have a dynamic, persistent and living document that was relevant to their work and timeframe.They didn’t have it anywhere but on individual hard drives, however, and so Open.Michigan worked with them to develop a strategy for sharing the Handbook across U-M and more broadly. Their goal with putting it online on a Google Site was to allow others engaged in global work at other institutions to be able to localize or contextualize sections of the handbook and then contribute it back to the main resource. This would allow for new information and perspective to be contributed to the resource, making it more robust and more useful.
This is a group project that has been using Learning Objects to support their classroom needs, especially addressing the “sticky” issues in the class. This team uses a combination of Ctools, wikis and voicethread to address the needs of their students. Anything published on the open web is licensed with a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license. This lets students access the resources anywhere and anytime (even after they graduate), allows other students in other schools to access the resources and use them in their own class needs. Students use voicethread to teach each other how to assess and explain problems. Open.Michigan will build out a landing page to this content, offering up a centralized, findable spot for students to return to when looking for U-M content they can use after graduation.
Another example of teaching with open practices is the use of Wikipedia in the classroom. Dr Anne McNeil wanted to teach students skills relevant not only to Chemistry but that would enable them to be better researchers and students. She challenged them to write better articles in Wikipedia that any one could understand. She also had students from two different disciplines (Medicine and Organic) that didn’t socialize much. This project lead them to work together to build out better articles.Open.Michigan is able to organize and highlight the before, during and after articles on Wikipedia, showcasing the quality of work done by U-M students. All of theseexamples show how students are becomingco-teachers in these new educational settings and how using open platforms, licenses and content can open up new opportunities to collaboration, moving us from a « look but don’ttouch » to a « look, touch, and connect » teachingenvironment.Full article: http://www.ur.umich.edu/update/archives/100826/wiki
Thanks for listening, I'm happy to answer any questions y'all might have. Feel free to get in touch with me or the Open.Michigan team through any of these channels.
OverviewOpen Education | Copyright & CC Licenses | Examples of OER This presentation is designed to introduce the option of using openly licensed work in teaching and learning resources produced by those at the University of Michigan and elsewhere. Participants should be able to: 1. Recognize copyrighted material in learning resources 2. Understand what Open Educational Resources are 3. Understand how open educational practices can be incorporated into TTI projects 4. Find and use openly licensed material in learning resources 5. Clear and publish resources as Open Educational Resources
U-M’s Culture of Sharing Open.Michigan enables University of Michigan faculty, students, staff and others to share their educational resources and research with the world.
Open Education Cape Town Open Education Declaration SIGNED BY: 2348 individuals, 244 organizations “Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use. These educators are creating a world where each and every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge. They are also planting the seeds of a new pedagogy where educators and learners create, shape and evolve knowledge together, deepening their skills and understanding as they go.” capetowndeclaration.org/read-the-declaration
U-M’s Culture of Sharing:Copyright and Open Access Publishing Standard Practice Guide: Who Holds Copyright at or in Affiliation with the University of Michigan (9/21/2011) SCHOLARLY WORKS means works authored by FACULTY within the scope of their employment as part of or in connection with their teaching, research, or scholarship. Common examples of SCHOLARLYWORKS include: lecture notes, case examples, course materials, textbooks, works of nonfiction, novels, lyrics, musical compositions/arrangements and recordings, journal articles, scholarly papers, poems, architectural drawings, software, visual works of art, sculpture, and other artistic creations, among others, regardless of the medium in which those works are fixed or disseminated. openmi.ch/um-spg-copyright11
Educate yourself ① Copyright ② Creative Commons licenses “Seven Principles of Learning” by Darren Kuropatwa (Flickr) CC: BY NC SA
Copyright: All Rights ReservedCopyright covers:• Maps• Dramatic works• Paintings• Photographs• Sound recordings• Motion pictures• Computer programs “lend a hand” by alasis• and more…
Copyrights Copyright holders hold exclusive right to do and to authorize others to: ① Reproduce the work in whole or in part ② Prepare derivative works, such as translations, dramatizations, and musical arrangements ③ Distribute copies of the work by sale, gift, rental, or loan ④ Publicly perform the work ⑤ Publicly display the work US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 106
Exclusive rights and limits Section 106 outlines the exclusive rights of copyright holders. Sections 107 (Fair Use) through 122 outline all of the limitations on and exemptions from those exclusive rights. openmi.ch/libguide-copyright
Creative Commons licenses Some Rights Public Reserved All Rights Domain Reserved least restrictive most restrictive
You set the terms Attribution (I want to get credit for my work.) Non-Commercial (You can’t make a profit off my work.) Share Alike (If you use or adapt my work, use the same CC license.) No Derivative Works (You can use my work but don’t change it.)
Smart licenses Machine Readable: CC Rights Expression Language (CC REL) Human Readable: Commons Deed Legal Code: Traditional Legal Tool Creative Commons
Give Credit Where Credit is Due Author, title, source, license Example: <Author>, <URL of the resource>, <Name of License>, <URL Of Open Content License> Example: John Doe, http://domain.com/path/to/resource.html, CC:BY-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Public Domain: Source: <Name> <publication/website, if available> (<date of birth> - <date of death>) Except where otherwise noted, this work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Copyright 2012 The Regents of the University of Michigan
Hands On: Find and Use Exercise 1. Break into groups. (Flickr) CC: BY NC SA“Breaking out of the pack” by nocklebeast 2. Search for openly licensed media. 3. Share out!
Assess and Clear What if you have already have some work you want to make more open? You’ll have to make some decisions… ① Retain ① Replace ① Remove and Annotate* (And Don’t Forget Protecting Privacy!) *If you feel the object in question cannot be legally used in your materials but you would like it to be accessible to future learners.
Retain Retain: Public Domain Keep objects when it is clearly indicated or known that the content object is in the public domain. For example, a book published in the U.S. before 1923, such as Grays Anatomy, is the public domain. Retain: Permission Recommend this action when you have been given expressed permission to use the object. This action is appropriate when the object is licensed under Creative Commons or the the object was created by someone else who gave special permission for it to be used. Retain: Copyright Analysis Recommend this action when you come across an object for copyright status or permission is unknown, but you have reason to believe that it is legally acceptable to use it anyway.
Replace Replace: Search Recommend this action when it is easy search for Creative Commons (CC) or public domain replacements. Search http://search.creativecommons.org/ Replace: Create Recommend this action if you would like to create a content object with a different expression but the same meaning as the original copyrighted third party object.
Remove and Annotate Chose this action when a content object is too difficult to replace or it is unnecessary. If the object is useful, then you can add an annotation which will lead the learner back to the copyrighted original, either by URL or bibliographic citation for print material. Example: Electronic Visualization Lab Tele-Immersive Collaboration Removed in the CAVE Research Network photographs of the Lab. Source: CC: BY-SA-NC Paul Conway, SI 615: Seminar on Digital Libraries, Week 08: Cyberinfrastructure, Winter 2008.
Assess and Clear: DiscussionDrawings and Diagrams More info: open.umich.edu/wiki/Casebook some of these images used under section 107, U.S. copyright law: fair use
Assess and Clear: DiscussionGraphsMore info: open.umich.edu/wiki/Casebook
Open Up! Some examples…“Government Find civic engagement tools andtheir stories at Engagement Commons beta” byopensourceway (Flickr)
African Health OER Network To advance health education in Africa by creating and promoting free, openly licensed teaching materials created by Africans to share knowledge, address curriculum gaps, and support health education communities. • 17 institutions • Co-create resources • Share across institutions • Localize • Innovate
Student Handbook for Global Engagement • 40 students across university • Dynamic cohort • Community-focused • Global resource • Adaptations Requested
Organic Chemistry 216 • Students as co-teachers • Wiki, Ctools, VoiceThread, vi deos • Persistent resource • Dynamic resource • Need to link skills across disciplines
Chemistry 540 • Students as co-teachers • Teach others in plain English • Connect applications of disciplines • Visibility, persistence • New forms of scholarship
Thanks!Connect Contactopen.umich.edu Emily Puckett Rodgersopen.firstname.lastname@example.org Open Education Coordinatoru Open.MichiganFacebook email@example.com/mediafb @epuckettTwitter@open_michiganSome slides adapted from the works of: Garin Fons, Kathleen Ludewig Omollo, Greg Grossmeier, Molly Kleinman
Additional Resources Open.Michigan: Casebook open.umich.edu/wiki/Casebook Open.Michigan: Share open.umich.edu/share Open.Michigan: dScribe process open.umich.edu/dscribe Copyright Office lib.umich.edu/copyright Creative Commons: About the Licenses creativecommons.org/videos/get- creativecommons.org/licenses creative