1. Diversity In Living Organisms
Prepared By -
Name - Asutosh Padhi
Class - IX
Section - C
Roll No. - 07
2. Types of Spices Diversity
• Point Diversity - This is diversity present on the smallest scale, i.e.,
the diversity of micro-habitat.
• Alpha Diversity – It is also known as local diversity and includes
variety of organisms local to a particular habitat.
• Gamma Diversity – It represents the diversity of a larger unit such
as an island or a landscape
• Epsilon Diversity – It is also called regional diversity and includes
total diversity of a group of gamma diversity areas.
3. Point Diversity, Alpha Diversity, Gamma
Diversity and Epsilon Diversity
Point Diversity Alpha Diversity
Gamma Diversity Epsilon Diversity
4. The Hierarchy of Classification
• Living organisms have been broadly classified into five main kingdoms.
• They are :-
i) Monera ii) Protista iii) Fungi iv) Plante v) Animalia
• Each kingdom has been further classified into smaller
sub - groups at various levels as :-
Phylum (for plants) / Division (for animals)
• By arranging organisms on the basis of hierarchy and characteristics
into smaller and smaller groups we arrive at the basic unit of
classification called species.
7. The Five Kingdom classification of living organisms
With cell wall
Do not perform
Able to perform
Without cell wall
• They are eukaryotic, unicellular, mostly
• Some have cilia or flagella which help them in
• The mode of nutrition may be autotrophic or
• These do not contain chlorophyll and hence
are heterotropic and have diverse modes of
• They may be saprophytic i.e., depending on
dead or decaying organic matter for their
food, or may be parasitic i.e., depending on
living organisms for their food .
• Every organism whether plant or animal is unique in itself.
There is a wide diversity in the flora (plants) and fauna
(animals) in the world.
• The diversity we see today is the result of 3.5 billion years of
organic evolution. During the course of this evolution several
species vanished from the surface of the Earth and became
extinct. It is estimated that more than fifty times the existing
species have become extinct.
• With such a vast number of organisms - both living and
extinct, it becomes impossible to study every one of them at
• This task of studying the diversity of living organisms can be
made easier and more effective if the various organisms are
arranged in an orderly manner
• The plant body is not differentiated into stem,
root and leaves but is in the form of an
• Vascular tissues are absent.
• The reproductive organs are single-celled and
there is no embryo formation after
• This division includes three sub-divisions:
algae, fungi and lichens.
• Bryophyta is a traditional name used to refer to
all embyophytes (land plants) that do not have
true vascular tissue and are therefore called 'non-
• Some bryophytes do have specialized tissues for the
transport of water; however since these do not
contain lignin, they are not considered to be true
• Currently bryophytes are thought not to be a natural
or monophyletic group; however the name is
convenient and remains in use as a collective term
for mosses, hornworts, and liverworts.
23. • Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive
structures (gametangia and sporangia), but
they produce neither flowers nor seeds,
reproducing via spores.
• The term bryophyte comes
from Greek βρύον - bryon, "tree-moss, oyster-
green" + φυτόν - fyton "plant".
• The Pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants
with xylem and phloem) that produce
neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence
called vascular cryptogams.
• Instead, they reproduce and disperse only
• Pteridophytes include horsetails, ferns, club
mosses, and quillworts.
• They are used for medicinal purposes, as soil -
binders, and are frequently planted
26. Pteridophyte classification
• They do not form a monophyletic group but is
often taken to consist of two groups:
• The Lycopodiophyta (club mosses, spike mosses,
– Marattioid ferns,
– Equisetophyta (horsetails),
– Psilotophyta (whisk ferns)
and Ophioglossophyta (adder's tongues and grape
– Leptosporangiate ferns (the largest group of ferns).
• This division is made up of plants that bear flowers
and seeds and make up the majority of the larger
plants. The body is differentiated into true stem,
leaves and roots.
• Propagation of the plant takes place with the help of
• Seeds are formed as a result of sexual reproduction.
The male and female gametes fuse together inside
the ovary and develop into the seed.
• In some plants seed is not produced inside an ovary.
Phanerogamae is made into two further divisions.-
(i)Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants)
(ii) Angiosperms (Seed born within a fruit)
29. (i) GYMNOSPERMAE
• The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing
plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo,
• The term "gymnosperm" comes from
the Greek word gymnosperms (γυμνόσπερμος),
meaning "naked seeds", after the unenclosed
condition of their seeds.
• Their naked condition stands in contrast to the
seeds and ovules of flowering plants
(angiosperms), which are enclosed within an
30. • Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the
surface of scales or leaves, often modified to
form cones, or at the end of short stalks as in
32. (ii) ANGIOSPERME
• This group constitutes the largest group of plants.
Seeds are produced inside an ovary which later
becomes the fruit. These are highly evolved group of
plants. The plant body is distinctly differentiated into
roots, stem and leaves.
• Based on the number of cotyledons (seed-leaves)
that form the seed this group is divided into:
• Monocotyledons (One seed leaf)
Example: Rice, Wheat
• Dicotyledons (two seed leaves)
Example: Beans, Mango
Example of Angiosperm, Monocot & Dicot plants on
35. Animalia Kingdom
• Animals are divided into ten groups & they are :-
• This word means organisms with holes.
• These are Non-motile animals attached to some
• There are pores ,all over the body. These lead to
a canal system that helps in circulating water
throughout the body to bring in food and
• The body design involves very minimal
differentiation and division into tissues.
• They are commonly called ‘Sponges’ and mainly
found in marine habitats.
• Two layered body which is radically symmetrical
• Aquatic in habitat which includes both fresh
water and marine
• The outer layer has tentacles armed with
stinging cells cnidoblasts which can release
venom into the victim. The inner layer encloses a
body cavity called gastro vascular cavity
• Animals in this group exist in two types of
individuals called zooids - polyps and medusae.
Polyps are fixed and lead solitary or colonial life,
while medusae are free swimming
40. • Alternation of generation takes place in colonial
forms. Polyps and medusae alternate with each
other during the life cycle
• Reproduction is usually asexual i.e., by budding in
the polyp form and sexual in medusa form
• Exoskeleton made of lime is found in corals
• Simplest triploblastic organisms showing
• Mostly parasites in other animals
• Body in dorsoventrally flat and leaf-like or
ribbon-like with bilateral symmetry
• The body cavity has only one opening which
serves as both the mouth and the anus
• Hermaphrodites i.e, male and female sex
organs present in one individual
Example of Platyhelminthes on next silide-
• Occur in moist soil, fresh water and sea
• Body is soft and segmented, triploblastic with
• First animal with the coelom (body cavity)
• Body is covered by a non-chintinous cuticle
which may have chitinous setae, or parapodia
• Reproduction is generally sexual, but some may
reproduce asexually by rejuvination i.e, by
regrowing broken segments
Example Annelid on next silide-
48. (vi)Arthropoda (Joint legged)
• They have bilaterally symmetrical body.
• The body is segmented.
• They have an open circulatory system
• The body cavity is filled with blood.
• They have jointed legs.
• They have bilateral symmetry.
• The coelomic cavity is reduced.
• There is little segmentation.
• They have open circulatory system and kidney
like organs for excretion.
• They have feet for moving around.
52. (viii)Echinodermata (Spiny skinned)
• They are spiny skinned organisms.
• They are free living marine animals.
• They are triploblastic and have coelomic
• The have water filled tube feet which help in
• They have hard skeleton made of calcium
• They have bilateral symmetry and are
• The have coelomic cavity.
• The have a notochord which is a long rod-like
structure along its back to which muscles are
attached and help in movement.
56. (x)Vertebrata (Vertebrates)
• They have vertebral column and internal skeleton.
• They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic.
• They have coelomic cavity.
• Their body is differentiated into tissues and organs.
• Their body consists of four regions – head, neck,
trunk and tail.
• They have two pairs of fins or limbs.
• The respiration in aquatic forms is by gills and in land
forms respiration is by lungs.
57. • Vertebrates are grouped into five classes.
They are :-
Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammilla
58. (i) Pisces (Fishes)
• They are fishes living in water. Their skin is covered with
scales or plates & they respire using gills.
• They have streamlined body and fins which help them to
move in water.
• They are cold blooded and their heart has only two
• They lay eggs from which the young ones hatch out.
• Some fishes have skeleton made of cartilage like Sharks,
Rays etc. and some have skeleton made of bones and
cartilage like Tuna, Rohu etc.
60. (ii)Amphibia (Amphibians)
• They are found in land and water.
• They do not have scales but have mucous glands on
• They are cold blooded and the heart is three
• Respiration is through gills or lungs.
• They lay eggs in water.
62. (iii) Reptilia (Reptiles)
• They have scales and breathe through lungs.
• They are cold blooded.
• Most of them have three chambered heart
but crocodiles have four chambered heart.
• They lay eggs with hard covering in water.
Example of Reptilia on next slide-
64. (iv) Aves (Birds)
• They are warm blooded animals.
• They have four chambered heart.
• They breathe through lungs.
• They have an outer covering of feathers.
• Their two fore limbs are modified into wings
• They lay eggs.
66. (v) Mammalia (Mammals)
• They are warm blooded animals.
• They have four chambered heart.
• They have mammary glands for production of
milk to nourish their young ones.
• The skin has hairs and sweat glands.
• Most of them give birth to their young ones.
• Some of them lay eggs (like Platypus and