3. Introduction to the 8 stages:
• 1. Erikson’s “Psychological” term
– Psycho = mind, brain, personality
– Social =external relationships and environment
2. Influenced by Sigmund Freud.
-incorporated cultural and social aspects.
3. His ideas were developed overtime, aided by his
own journey through the “psychological crisis”
4. 4. Simple and well designed
5. Powerful model, very accessible and
relevant to modern life.
-useful for teaching
-managing and coaching
-dealing with conflict
-understanding self and others.
5. 6. Various terms used to describe Erikson’s
- Erikson’s bio-psycho-social theory
- Erikson’s human development cycle
or life cycle
7. The epigenetic principle.
8. Each stages involves a psychosocial
crisis of two opposing emotional crisis.
9. Healthy ratio or balance
10. Maladaptation and malignancies
6. 11. The crisis stages are not sharply
12. Erikson was keen to point out that the
transition between stages is overlapping.
13. Erikson also emphasized the
significance of “mutuality” and “generativity”
In his theory.
15. Psychosocial Crisis:
Initiative vs. Guilt
Issues: exploration and discovery,
adventure and play
Basic Virtue: Purpose and Direction
18. Stage 4. School Age (6 to 11 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority
Relationships: school, teachers,
Issues: achievement and
Basic Virtue: Competence and
Maladaptation: Narrow Virtuosity
24. Psychosocial Crisis:
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Relationships: lovers, friends, work
Issues: intimate relationships,
work and social life
Basic Virtue: Love and Affiliation
27. Psychosocial Crisis:
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Relationships: children, community
Issues: 'giving back', helping,
Basic Virtue: Care and Production
30. Psychosocial Crisis:
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Relationships: society, the world
Issues: meaning and purpose, life
Basic Virtue: Wisdom and