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Power Transmission & Distribution in India

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Power Transmission & Distribution in India

  1. 1. Power Transmission & Distribution in India Industry Information Insights 2014
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction Regional and National Grid Market Structure Evolution of Transmission Sector T&D Lines Length Transmission Capacity Substation Capacity Distribution System Competitive Bidding
  3. 3. Introduction Thehugeamountofpowergeneratedinapowerstationistobetransportedoveralongdistancetoloadcenterstocaterpowertoconsumerswiththehelpoftransmissionlineandtransmissiontowers. Forinstance,forapowerstationgenerating120MWpowerat10kVlinetolinevoltage, currentinthetransmissionlinewillbe8660A.Insteadofchoosing10kVtransmissionvoltage,iftransmissionvoltagewerechosentobe400kV,currentvalueinthelinewouldhavebeenonly261.5A. So,thesectionalareaofthetransmissionline(copperconductor)willnowbemuchsmallercomparedto10kVtransmissionvoltage.Thecostofconductorwillbegreatlyreducedifpoweristransmittedathigherandhighertransmissionvoltage. Thecostofconductorwillbegreatlyreducedifpoweristransmittedathigherandhighertransmissionvoltage.
  4. 4. Theuseofhighervoltage(hencelowercurrentintheline)reducesvoltagedropinthelineresistanceandreactance.Alsotransmissionlossesarereduced. Standardtransmissionvoltagesusedare132kVor220kVor400kVor765kVdependinguponhowlongthetransmissionlinesare. Afterthegenerator,thereisastepuptransformertochangethegeneratedvoltage(say10kV) todesiredtransmissionvoltage(say400kV)beforetransmittingitoveralongdistancewiththehelpoftransmissionlinessupportedatregularintervalsbytransmissiontowers. Whilemagnitudeofcurrentdecidesthecostofcopper,levelofvoltagedecidesthecostofinsulators.Theideais,inaspreetoreducethecostofcopperonecannotindefinitelyincreasetheleveloftransmissionvoltageascostofinsulatorswilloffsetthereductioncoppercost.
  5. 5. Attheloadcentersvoltagelevelshouldbebroughtdownatsuitablevaluesforsupplyingdifferenttypesofconsumers. Consumerscanbecategorizedas: •bigindustriessuchassteelplants •mediumandsmallindustries •officesanddomesticconsumers Electricityispurchasedbydifferentconsumersatdifferentvoltagelevel.Forexample,bigindustriesmaypurchasepowerat132kV,mediumandbigindustriespurchasepowerat33kVor11kVanddomesticconsumersatratherlowvoltageof230V,singlephase. Thus,400kVtransmissionvoltageistobebroughtdowntodifferentvoltagelevelsbeforefinallydeliveringpowertodifferentconsumers.Thisisdonebystepdowntransformers.
  6. 6. Substations Substationsaretheplaceswherethelevelofvoltageundergoeschangewiththehelpoftransformers.Apartfromtransformersasubstationhousesswitches(calledcircuitbreakers), meters,relaysforprotectionandothercontrolequipment. Abigsubstationreceivespowerthroughincominglinesatsomevoltage(say400kV)changeslevelofvoltage(sayto132kV)usingatransformerandthendirectsitoutwardsthroughoutgoinglines. Atthelowestvoltagelevelof400V,generally3-phase,4-wiresystemisadoptedfordomesticconnections.Thefourthwireiscalledtheneutralwire(N)whichistakenoutfromthecommonpointofthestarconnectedsecondaryofthe6kV/400Vdistributiontransformer.
  7. 7. Regional and National Grid Transmissionformsacriticallinkinthepowersectorvaluechain.India'spowergenerationcapacitiesareunevenlydispersedacrossthecountrycreatinganimbalancebetweenthedistributionofpowerdemandandsupplycentres. ThecountryhasbeendemarcatedintofiveelectricalRegions: 1.Northern(NR) 2.Eastern(ER) 3.Western(WR) 4.Southern(SR) 5.NorthEastern(NER) AlltheregionalgridsaresynchronouslyinterconnectedandoperatingassinglegridknownasCentralGridorNationalGrid.
  8. 8. Market Structure BothcentralandstategovernmentsareresponsibleforthedevelopmentofpowersectorinIndia. POWERGRIDistheCentralTransmissionUtility(CTU)andisresponsibleforwheelingofpowergeneratedbyCentralGeneratingUtilities(CGUs)andinter-stateMegaIndependentPowerProducers. EachofthefiveregionshasaRegionalLoadDespatchCentre(RLDC),whichistheapexbody,aspertheElectricityAct2003,toensureintegratedoperationofthepowersystemintheconcernedregion. Additionally,thereisanapexbodyatthenationallevelcalledtheNationalLoadDespatchCentre(NLDC)toensureintegratedpowersystemoperationinthecountry. TheNLDCandRLDCstogetherformapartofthePowerSystemOperationCorporationLimited(POSOCO),whichisawhollyownedsubsidiaryofPowerGridCorporationofIndiaLimited(PGCIL).
  9. 9. Evolution of Transmission Sector Indianpowersectorremainedclosedtoprivateinvestmentstill1991.Powergenerationwasopenedupforprivateparticipationin1991. TheElectricity(Amendment)Act,1998,definedtransmissionasaseparateactivityandledtothecreationoftheCTU(currentlyPGCIL)andSTUs. TheRegulatoryCommissionAct,1998,mandatedthesettingupofanindependentregulatorymechanismatthecentral(CERC)andstatelevel(SERCs). NationalTariffPolicy2006introducedmandatoryTariffBasedCompetitiveBidding(TBCB) foralltransmissionprojectswiththeobjectiveofpromotingcompetitiveprocurementoftransmissionservices,encouraginggreaterinvestmentbyprivateplayersinthetransmissionsectorandincreasingtransparency&fairnessintheprocess.
  10. 10. T&D Lines Length 6,939,529 7,287,413 7,487,977 7,801,098 7,951,486 8,726,092 8,970,112 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 ckm Year Insixyearsfrom2007to2013,thepowertransmissionsectorregisteredagrowthof4.37%CAGR.
  11. 11. Transmission Capacity Type Central State JV/Private Total (ckm) 500 kV HVDC 5,948 1,504 1,980 9,432 765 KV 9,898 837 361 11,096 400 kV 79,612 36,179 10,166 125,957 220 kV 10,489 133,484 878 144,851 Total 291,336 As on 31 March, 2014, transmission capacity is given in the following table:
  12. 12. Substation Capacity As on 31 March, 2014, substation capacity is given in the following table: Type Central State JV/Private Total (MVA) 765 kV 78,000 2,000 3,000 83,000 400 kV 91,775 85,047 630 177,452 220 kV 7,716 247,311 1,567 256,594 500 kV HVDC 9,500 1,500 2,500 13,500
  13. 13. Distribution System Powerreceivedata33kVsubstationisfirststeppeddownto6kVandwiththehelpofundergroundcables(calledfeederlines),powerflowisdirectedtodifferentdirections. Atthelastlevel,stepdowntransformersareusedtostepdownthevoltageform6kVto400V.Thesetransformersarecalleddistributiontransformerswith400V,starconnectedsecondary.Suchtransformersaregenerallymountedonpolesincitiesbesidetheroads.Thesearecalledpolemountedsubstations. Fromthesecondaryofthesetransformers4terminals(R,Y,BandN)comeout.Niscalledtheneutralandtakenoutfromthecommonpointofstarconnectedsecondary.Voltagebetweenanytwophases(i.e.,R-Y,Y-BandB-R)is400Vandbetweenanyphaseandneutralis230V. Residentialconsumersaresuppliedwithsinglephase230V,50Hz.Soindividualaretobesuppliedwithanyoneofthephasesandneutral.
  14. 14. Distributioncompaniestrytomakesurethattheloadsremainevenlybalancedamongthephasesasfaraspossible.Roughlyone-thirdoftheconsumersaresuppliedfromR-N,nextonethirdfromY-NandtheremainingonethirdfromB-N.
  15. 15. Competitive Bidding TheMinistryofPowerhasmandatedthatprocurementoftransmissionservicesinnewprojectsonthebasisoftariff-basedcompetitivebidding. Thisisdonetoencourageprivatesectorparticipationinthedevelopmentofelectricityinfrastructureandtomovetowardstariffbasedcompetitiveregimefromtheearliercost-plussystem. Inordertobringinprivatesectorparticipation,theMinistryofPowerhasappointedPFCasBidProcessCoordinator,fortwoprojectsandPFCCL(whollyownedsubsidiaryofPFC)fornineprojects.Outoftheseelevenprojects,fourhavealreadybeentransferredtothesuccessfulbiddersandtheremainingareunderprocess. Inter-StateTransmissionProjects Sofar,8inter-statetransmissionprojectshavebeenallottedonthebasisofcompetitivebiddinginvolvinganestimatedcostofaboutINR14,000crores.
  16. 16. Projects SystemstrengtheninginNorthern&WesternRegionsforimportofpowerfromNorthKaranpuraoutsideNR&WRandalsoforpowerevacuationfromprojectswithinWR. AugmentationofTalcher-IITransmissionsystem TransmissionschemeforenablingimportofNER-ERsurpluspowerbyNR TransmissionschemeforKrishnapatnamUMPP-SynchronousinterconnectionbetweenSR&WR(Part-B) TransmissionProject“SystemstrengtheningcommonforWR&NR” TransmissionProject“SystemstrengtheningforWR” TransmissionSystemassociatedwithIPPsofNagapattinam/CuddaloreArea–Package-A
  17. 17. Digital Marketing Research & Consulting Industry Insights Information Advantage Our Services http://www.energysector.in/services
  18. 18. Information is the key to success! E-Mail: mail@energysector.in Energy Sector Information Services 2A/3, Third Floor, AsafAli Road Delhi –110 002 (India) Contact us http://www.energysector.in/contact-us

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