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Invertrebrates anilmals(Non-Fish Aquatic Organisms)

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Invertrebrates anilmals(Non-Fish Aquatic Organisms)

  1. 1. Non-Fish Aquatic Resources (Invertebrates Animals)
  2. 2. Aquatic animals are presented by the following phylum: Phylum Porifera Phylum Coelenterata Phylum Mollusca Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Reptilia
  4. 4. Classes of Porifera Class Calcarea (Syphas) Class Hexactinellida ( Glass Sponges) Class Demospongia (Neptune’s Goblets and Bath Sponges) Class Sclerospongia (Coralline Sponges)
  5. 5. Poriferans are non-fish aquatic resources represented by sponges. Sponges •Are the simplest many celled animals with two cell layers usually supported by calcareous or siliceous spicules. •They hermaphroditic animals and multiply by fertilizing their own eggs.
  6. 6. • The eggs develops into minute larvae capable of swimming for a short period of time. Later, the larvae attach themselves to submerged rocks, stones, shells and seaweeds. • They grow together with neighboring sponges of the same species and reproduce by generation.
  7. 7. •They vary in color from orange, brown, purple, ivory white, yellow to black or red. •The skeleton of commercial sponges species are composed of sponging tissue and contains no siliceous spicules. •There are five species of commercially useful sponges found in the Philippines waters.
  8. 8. •These are the following commercially useful sponges. 1.Wool Sponge 2.Bath Sponge 3.Grass Sponge 4.Yellow Sponge 5.Velvet Sponge
  9. 9. Wool Sponge looks like an inverted pineapple, but has a regular outline and is voluminous in form. It is soft and absorbent and grows to a size of 18 inches in diameter or more.
  10. 10. Wool Sponge ( Hippospongia lachne )
  11. 11. Bath Sponge relatively large and cake shaped. It is less durable, less resilient and easily loses elasticity.
  12. 12. Bath Sponge ( Spongia officinalis )
  13. 13. Grass Sponge grows to a size as large as that of the wool sponge and bath sponge. It is a dirty brown in color, highly resilient, elastic and softer in texture.
  14. 14. Grass Sponge ( Spongia graminea )
  15. 15. Yellow Sponge is attractive in appearance due to its yellow or yellowish-brown color. It has most elastic and resilient body among the five sponges of commercial value.
  16. 16. Yellow Sponge ( Aplysina fisturalis )
  17. 17. Velvet Sponge is a spherical in shape, smooth, soft to touch fine and durable. This sponge can absorb and retain a large volume of water in its body.
  18. 18. Velvet Sponge ( Spongia Velveta )
  19. 19. Sponges are easy to collect either by dredging, diving, harpooning, hooking, trawling or by wading. Uses of Sponges  bath and toilet purposes  cleaning  decoration  furniture purposes  industrial purposes mattress
  20. 20.  padding dresses  pillow  washing dishes  washing vehicles Likewise bank tellers, jewelers and leather workers use sponges for a specific purposes.
  21. 21. Parts of a Sponge and their functions
  22. 22. Choanocytes - are specialized cell that use flagella to move a steady current of water through the sponge. Osculum - a large hole at the top of the sponge where the water pass through. Spicules - a spike-shaped structure made of chalklike calcium carbonate or glasslike silica. Archaeocytes - specialized cells that move around within the walls of the sponge.
  24. 24. Coelenterates sometimes referred to as (cnidarians) are non-fish aquatic marine resources represented by coral, sea anemone, jelly fish and hydra. •Cnidarians belong to three classes namely: 1.Hydrozoa 2.Anthozoa 3.Scyphozoa
  25. 25. • Generally, coelenterates have no anus to discharges waste matter from the digestive system. Instead, the waste matter are excreted through their mouth.
  26. 26. Parts of Cnidarians and their Examples
  27. 27. Corals are classified as cnidarians under class anthozoa and are predominantly colonial marine organisms. •Aside from being substrates of mirco-algae, which serve as food to young animals, coral have no known food use to man. However, coral reefs serve as habitat for young fishes and sanctuary to various fish species.
  28. 28. •Corals are among the slow growing organisms, only accumulating a few millimeters in length annually. •Among the corals found in the Philippine marine water are the brain coral (maendra cerebrum), mushroom coral (fungia), star coral (astrea), staghorn coral, rock coral, oragan pipe and black corals (branches and unbranched).
  29. 29. Pillar Coral ( Dendrogyra cylindricus )
  30. 30. Uses of Corals 1.Decorations 2.Reefs, atolls and island formation 3.Personal adornment 4.Jewelry 5.Medicine
  31. 31. Sea Anemone belong to class anthozoa. The animal flower like polyps which are cylindrical In form with the mouth and surrounding tentacles located at one end. •They are attached to rocks, piles, or shells of hermit crabs. Many species grow large, reaching 36 inches in diameter. •Sea anemone are widely distributed in the waters of Visayas and Sulu where they are made into decorative items and jewelry.
  32. 32. Sea Anemone
  33. 33. Jelly fish is a scyphozoan, it is free swimming with a transparent, bell shaped, watery body that bears tentacles. •It is treated as apart of the floating plankton simply because it swims slowly, dictated by its rhythmical muscular contractions. •It feeds on zooplanktons which are taken in through a mouth opening on the lower side of the body.
  34. 34. • Jellyfish is dried, flavored and used for food. In parts of Mindanao, such as Dipolog City and Zamboanga del Norte, fisherfolks eat jellyfish in pickled form in Catbalogan and Western Samar. Jellyfish is salted in concrete tanks and sold as food items in local markets.
  35. 35. Purple striped jelly ( Pelagia panopyra )
  37. 37. In the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific, Mollusks are easily abundant, colorful, beautiful, expensive (e.g. Conus Gloria Maris) and varied among the marine animals. The seashells, the more popular representative of mollusks, are often gathered along beaches cast ashore following a strong water movement. Mollusks are classified into three types: 1.Gastrropods 2.Cephalopods 3.Pelecypods
  38. 38. • are invertebrates animals with a soft, unsegment body usually enclosed in a calcareous shell. • they includes the most and conspicuous and familiar animals such as clams, oysters, squids, octopus and snails. • they constitute the second largest phylum (next to arthropods) with over 50,000 known living species. • their most distinctive features include a muscular foot, a calcareous shell and a feeding organ (radula).
  39. 39. Parts of a Mollusca and their functions
  40. 40. • body bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented and coelomate differentiated into a head- foot and a visceral mass • visceral mass covered by mantle that secretes a calcareous or sometimes chitinous shell • mantle cavity functions in excretion, gas exchange, elimination of feces and release of gametes • coelom reduced to cavities containing the heart, nephridia and gonads
  41. 41. • blood-vascular system commonly a hemocoel (open type), closed type in one class (Cephalopoda) • radula usually present and used in scraping food (absent in one class, the Bivalvia) • respiratory organs are gills (termed ctenidia) in aquatic forms, lung in terrestrial forms • sense organs typically tentacles, eyes, statocysts and one or two osphradia in the mantle cavity
  42. 42. Gastropods are univalves shellfish. They are found inhabiting all the ocean of the world. Their ability to swim or crawl is due to the well developed muscular foot. •They feed on algae and other microscopic animals/zooplanktons. Their simple eyes barely help in identifying light from the dark colors and are unable to distinguish sizes and shapes. The shell is composed of lime materials secreted by the mantle.
  43. 43. • Univalve shellfish are gathered mostly by dredging. Theirs shells are made into variety of beautiful items from necklace, earrings, bar pins/brooch, ash tray, flower vase, picture frame, key holder, button, wall décor to curtain drapery and others. • Somes examples of gastropods are triton, conch, snail, cowrie etc.
  44. 44. Common Snail ( Cornu aspersum )
  45. 45. Cephalopods are represented by squid, cuttlefish and octopus. These are the most developed mollusks with a head partly surrounded by prehensile tentacles and with highly developed camera types eyes. Squid and cuttlefish have 10 tentacles and a shell inside.
  46. 46. European Squids ( Loligo vulgaris )
  47. 47. Cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis )
  48. 48. Giant Squid ( Architeuthis physeteris )
  49. 49. Octopus ( Octopus vulgaris )
  50. 50. Octupos, a mollusks under class cephalopoda, has no shell. It has eight tentacles, from which its generic nomenclature is derived. It moves by swimming, made possible by jet propulsion process or by its fleshy fins on the sides of its body. •It is highly carnivorous, feeding mostly on crustaceans, small fish and other mollusks species.
  51. 51. •Commercial fisherman in the Philippines use bagnet, beach seine, purse seine, otter trawl and round haul seine to catch squid. •Meanwhie, substance fisherman use jiggers (shrimp-type, mold-type and cylindrical type) in catching squids.
  52. 52. Pelecypods or bivalve ( two shelled). They have two calcareous shells that are held tightly together by strong adductor muscles that produce scars on the interior surfaces. •If the two shells are similar with each other, the valve is said to be equivalve ; otherwise, it is inequivalve. •Examples of equivalve are mussels and pens and inequivalve are oysters and window pane shells or kapis.
  53. 53. • The bivalve shellfish burrows in the sea bottom and feeds on phytoplankton and zoo planktons organisms. The shellfish is harvested by dredging and digging. • The shells are also made into different shell craft items like lampshades, chandelier, wind chimes, plate saucer, ash tray, picture frame, figurine and many other products.
  54. 54. •Some common bivalves found in the Philippines marine water are mussel, scallop, telling clam, lucine, cockle, pen pearl oyster, jack knife calm, surf clam, bittersweet, ark shell, venus clam, thorny oyster and paddock.
  55. 55. Parts of Bivalve
  56. 56. Clams
  57. 57. Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha
  58. 58. Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis )
  59. 59. Pacific Oyster ( Crassostrea gigas )
  60. 60. Phylum Arthropoda
  61. 61. Arthropods •hard exoskeleton, segmented bodies, jointed appendages •arthropods are the most successful of all animal phyla based on diversity, distribution, and numbers •nearly one million species identified so far, mostly insects. •the exoskeleton, or cuticle, is composed of protein and chitin.
  62. 62. •molting of the cuticle is called ecdysis •open circulatory systems in which a heart pumps hemolymph through short arteries and into open spaces (sinuses) •aquatic members- gills for gas exchange; terrestrial members- tracheal system of branched tubes leading from surface throughout body.
  63. 63. Four evolutionary arthropod lineages a. Trilobites – extinct b. Chelicerates – horseshoe crabs, spiders c. Uniramians – centipedes, millipedes, insects d. Crustaceans – crabs, lobsters, barnacles From these lineages arose five major classes of arthropods.
  64. 64. Crustaceans •get their name from “crusty” exoskeleton •are represented by shrimps, prawns, crabs and lobster. •they belong to the principal group of Decapods, meaning “ having 10 feet “. •they have compound eyes and their bodies are joined to the thoracic segment •Shrimps and prawns have long abdomen and their bodies are compressed from side to side
  65. 65. • These are important components of food webs and serve a s human food also. • Their body is divided into about twenty segments each of which bears paired specialized appendages including antennae, mandibles, maxillae, grasping claws and legs • The segmentation may be partially hidden in some segments because of a smooth covering carapace
  66. 66. Crab ( Carcinus maenas )
  67. 67. Mudcrab ( Sylla Serrta )
  68. 68. Mudcrab ( Sylla tranquebarica )
  69. 69. Mudcrab ( Sylla olivacea )
  70. 70. Lobster ( Homarus gammarus )
  71. 71. Prawn ( Peneaus monodon )
  72. 72. Brown Shrimp ( Litopeneaus setiferus )
  73. 73. Crayfish ( Orconectus rusticus )
  75. 75. Echinoderms, considered among the country’s valuable marine products, grow abundantly in the marine water. •Some of the echinoderms found in the Philippines are holothurians or ( se urchins, starfishes, seacucumber and brittle star. •The seacucumbers are most commercially valuable and the brittle stars have the least use to man.
  76. 76. •Spiny-skinned animals •Biradial, but apparently radial symmetry as adult (the larval stage having bilateral symmetry) •An endoskeleton of mesodermal origin •A unique water vascular system that functions as an accessory to locomotion, feeding and excretion
  77. 77. •Echinoderms have well developed alimentary canal which has both mouth and anus. •Their combined respiratory and locomotory systems form a complex structure called water vascular system •This consists of a ring vessels about the mouth, where a number of tubes radiate to what after known as amubulacral areas in each ray
  78. 78. Classes of Echinoderms Class Asteroidea (Sea Stars) Class Echinoidea (Sea Urchins, Hearts Urchins and Sand Dollars) Class Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers )
  79. 79. Living Echinoderms exist in four basic forms: starlike (sea stars, brittle stars, crinoids) spherical (sea urchins, heart urchins) cylindrical (sea cucumbers)
  80. 80. Starfish ( Asterias rubeus )
  81. 81. Sea Star •Formerly known as “starfishes”, are members of the class Asteroidae, forms having five arms arranged in a vaguely central disk •Aboral Aspect: has five strong, triangular arms and a few thick spines or tubercles, the numbers and form of which vary considerably; the mandreporite, a calcareous porous plate situated between the two rays or arms.
  82. 82. • The madreporite serves as a pressures equalizers in the water vascular system • Oral Aspect: the mouth lies at the center of the disk, from which radiate the five ambulacral grooves, each grove contain two rows of tube feet or podia; the podia are the main parts of the water-vascular system
  83. 83. (Brittle star Ophilithrix fragilis )
  84. 84. Sea Urchins ( Echinus esculentus )
  85. 85. Sea Urchin •Are members of the class Echinodea, animals with globose or subglobose body form •Their body form is defined by an skeleton called test •One side of the test has a large opening which is termed as the oral pole; the intact side is termed as the aboral pole
  86. 86. •The skeleton consists of a number of plates of which there are two types : the rows that contain tiny double holes are the ambulacral plates and the alternating rows are the interambulacral plates •The madreporite can be recognized as an array of tiny perforations in one of the genital plates •Alternating with the genital plates and in line with the ambulacra are the smaller ocular plates
  87. 87. • The tuberculus are bumps found in some plates,the tubercles form ball and socket joints with the spines • The mouth is an opening that is encircled by the peristomial membrane; the mouth contains five teeth which are parts of the Aristotle lantern within.
  88. 88. • The lantern is a chewing apparatus that can be proctated form the mouth,it consist of about 35 ossicles and attached muscles • Oral tube feet or buccal podia surrounding the mouth manipulate food • The peristomial gills are small frilly structures that are outpockets of the body wall lined with ciliated epithelium
  89. 89. Sea cucumber ( Holuthoria atra )
  90. 90. Sea Cucumber •Sea cucumber is a sausage like holothurians that has a rubbery body without bony skeleton and contains a few scattered and calcareous supporting elements called Ossicles. •Sea cucumber or holothuroids have departed considerably from the typical echinoderms body form,yet their internal structures reveals the echinoderms body plan.
  91. 91. • Sea cucumber have elongated,worm shaped bodies having a symmetry that is distincly biradial • Sea cucumbers lack arms,the body is oriented longitudinally against the subtrate with the mouth at the anterior end and the anus at the opposite or posterior end
  92. 92. • The tube feet are sometimes confined only to a permanent ventral side which is then termed the sole. • Some species of sea cucumber have Cuvierian tubules structures with strongly adhesive properties that are shot out through the anus when the animal is distributed, they serve as defense mechanism.
  93. 93. • The french serve them as “ beches-de- mer” (meaning ,sea spades on account of their habit of swallowing sediments. • The malays call them “trepang” which the chinese add in some of their dishes.
  94. 94. Uses of Echinoderms Food Decorations Medicines •As stated earlier, among the echinoderms representative, sea cucumbers have the highest commercial values.
  96. 96. Animals under this Phylum have dry skin with scales. They breathe through their lungs. The eggs are enclosed in a shell and are fertilized internally. Some species of reptiles are viviparous ( live-bearing) , which means that the embryo is protected and nourished within the uterus.
  97. 97. • Exotic foods are prepared out of turtles and snake meats, but it is leathery skin or hide sea snakes that are made into belts, wallets and other accessories. • Turtle carapace are shelacked and sold as decor. • Sea snakes inhabiting mangrove or brakish habitats are in demand for their striped skin which is used for leather products.
  98. 98. • Gall bladder or spleen of certain snake species are believed medicinal and its meat is considered an aphrosdisiac. • In the Philippines, marine reptiles include turtles, crocodile and snake. • Reptiles are among the endangered animals in our country.
  99. 99. Turtles ( Order Chelonia ) •The five living genera of marine turtles inhabiting the warm seas of the worlds are well represented in the Philippines. •They lay eggs in sandy shores and after the young's hatched, they find their way to the sea. •Those that survive from predators grow and develop into matured animals by adapting to marine condition.
  100. 100. • Turtles, both marine and fresh water species, are among the threatened animals in the Philippines. • These are the following genera: 1.Leatherback Turtle ( omnivorous ) 2.Green Turtle ( herbivorous ) 3.Hawskbill Turtle (omnivorous ) 4.Laggerhead Turtle ( carnivorous ) 5.Ridley Turtle ( carnivorous and feeds on crabs and mollusks )
  101. 101. Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )
  102. 102. Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )
  103. 103. Hawksbill Turtle ( Erythromochelys imbricate )
  104. 104. Laggerhead Turtle ( Caultta caretta )
  105. 105. Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )
  106. 106. Crocodile ( Order Crocodylia ) •This animal has one marine species (Crocodylus porosus) that lives in the Indo- Pacific waters. •Its body is six meters long on average. One of the longest crocodiles with a recorded length of nine meters was reported in the Philippines.
  107. 107. • Adults of about three meters long are already considered dangerous and can feed on mammals. • Female crocodiles crawl out from the sea and lay 25-60 eggs on land. • Once hatched, young crocodile feed on water beetles and fish, but later make their way to the aquatic habitat.
  108. 108. Common Crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus )
  109. 109. Sea Snake ( Order Squamata ) •These approximately 16 genera of Sea Snake in the Indo-Pacific Region. •Pelanus platurus, supporting a yellow-belly is considered widely distributed because of its ability to cross oceans. •In the Philippines, black and white striped or banded Sea Snake (Lapicauda sp.), live in estaurine, brackish water and mangrove swamps.
  110. 110. • They are attracted by light at night and pose a danger to fisherfolks catching fish using light. Also, incidence of deaths due to snakebites have been reported among the fisherman catching fish using hand-driven nets at night in brackish water.
  111. 111. Sea Snake ( Enhydrina schistosa )