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Security policy

Information Technology & Management Program

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Security policy

  1. 1. TransformingLives. InventingtheFuture. www.iit.edu I ELLINOIS T UINS TI T OF TECHNOLOGY ITM 578 1 Security Policy Ray Trygstad ITM 478/578 Spring 2004 Master of Information Technology & Management Program CenterforProfessional Development Slides based on Whitman, M. and Mattord, H., Principles of InformationSecurity; Thomson Course Technology 2003
  2. 2. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 2 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lesson the student should be able to: – Understand management’s responsibilities and role in the development, maintenance, and enforcement of information security policy, standards, practices, procedures, and guidelines – Understand the differences between the organization’s general information security policy and the requirements and objectives of the various issue-specific and system-specific policies
  3. 3. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 3 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lesson the student should be able to: – Recall what an information security blueprint is and what its major components are – Describe how an organization institutionalizes its policies, standards, and practices using education, training, and awareness programs – Discuss what viable information security architecture is, what it includes, and how it is used
  4. 4. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 4 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Information Security Policy, Standards, and Practices  Management from all communities of interest must consider policies as the basis for all information security efforts  Policies direct how issues should be addressed and technologies used  Security policies are the least expensive control to execute, but the most difficult to implement  Shaping policy is difficult because policies must: – Never conflict with laws – Stand up in court, if challenged – Be properly administered
  5. 5. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 5 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Definitions  A policy is A plan or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters  Policies are organizational laws  Standards are more detailed statements of what must be done to comply with policy  Practices, procedures, and guidelines effectively explain how to comply with policy  For a policy to be effective it must be – Properly disseminated – Read, understood and agreed to by all to whom it applies
  6. 6. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 6 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Types of Policy Management defines three types of security policy: – General or security program policy – Issue-specific security policies – Systems-specific security policies
  7. 7. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 7 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Policies Standards & Practices Policies are sanctioned byPolicies are sanctioned by senior managementsenior management Standards are built on soundStandards are built on sound policy and carry the weightpolicy and carry the weight of policyof policy PoliciesPolicies StandardsStandards Practices, guidelines, andPractices, guidelines, and procedures include detailedprocedures include detailed steps required to meet thesteps required to meet the requirements of standardsrequirements of standards PracticesPractices GuidelinesGuidelines ProceduresProcedures DRIDRI VEVE DRIDRI VEVE FIGURE 6-1 Policies, Standards and Practices
  8. 8. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 8 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Security Program Policy  Security program policy (SPP) also known as – A general security policy – IT security policy – Information security policy  Sets strategic direction, scope, and tone for all security efforts within the organization  An executive-level document – Usually drafted by or with the CIO of the organization – Usually 2 to 10 pages long
  9. 9. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 9 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Issue-Specific Security Policy (ISSP)  As various technologies and processes are implemented, certain guidelines are needed to use them properly  The ISSP: – addresses specific areas of technology – requires frequent updates – contains an issue statement on the organization’s position on an issue  Three approaches: – Create a number of independent ISSP documents – Create a single comprehensive ISSP document – Create a modular ISSP document
  10. 10. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 10 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Example ISSP Structure 1. Statement of Policy 2. Authorized Access and Usage of Equipment 3. Prohibited Usage of Equipment 4. Systems Management 5. Violations of Policy 6. Policy Review and Modification 7. Limitations of Liability
  11. 11. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 11 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Use Policy Considerations for an Effective Telecommunications Use PolicyConsiderations for an Effective Telecommunications Use Policy 1.1. Statement of policyStatement of policy a. Scope and applicabilitya. Scope and applicability b. Definition of technology addressesb. Definition of technology addresses c. Responsibilitiesc. Responsibilities 2.2. Authorized access and usage of equipmentAuthorized access and usage of equipment a. User accessa. User access b. Fair and responsible useb. Fair and responsible use c. Protection of privacyc. Protection of privacy 3.3. Prohibited usage of equipmentProhibited usage of equipment a. Disruptive use or misusea. Disruptive use or misuse b. Criminal useb. Criminal use c. Offensive or harassing materialsc. Offensive or harassing materials d. Copyrighted, licensed, or otherd. Copyrighted, licensed, or other intellectual propertyintellectual property e. Other restrictionse. Other restrictions 4.4. Systems managementSystems management a. Management of stored materialsa. Management of stored materials b. Employer monitoringb. Employer monitoring c. Virus protectionc. Virus protection d. Physical securityd. Physical security e. Encryptione. Encryption 5.5. Violations of policyViolations of policy a. Procedures for reporting violationsa. Procedures for reporting violations b. Penalties for violationsb. Penalties for violations 6.6. Policy review and modificationPolicy review and modification a. Scheduled review of policy anda. Scheduled review of policy and procedures for modificationprocedures for modification 7.7. Limitations of liabilityLimitations of liability a. Statements of liability or disclaimersa. Statements of liability or disclaimers @2003 ACM, Inc., Included here by permission.@2003 ACM, Inc., Included here by permission. FIGURE 6-2 Example of an Issue Specific Policy Statement‑
  12. 12. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 12 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Systems-Specific Policy (SysSP)  While issue-specific policies are formalized as written documents, distributed to users and agreed to in writing, SysSPs are normally codified as standards and procedures used when configuring or maintaining systems  Systems-specific policies fall into two groups: – Access control lists (ACLs) consist of the access control lists, matrices, and capability tables governing the rights and privileges of a particular user to a particular system – Configuration rules comprise the specific configuration codes entered into security systems to guide the execution of the system
  13. 13. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 13 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ACL Policies  Both Microsoft Windows servers and Novell Netware translate ACLs into sets of configurations that administrators use to control access to their respective systems  ACLs allow configuration to restrict access from anyone and anywhere  ACLs regulate: – Who can use the system – What authorized users can access – When authorized users can access the system – Where authorized users can access the system from – How authorized users can access the system
  14. 14. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 14 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Novell Configuration Screens FIGURE 6-3 Novell Configuration Screens
  15. 15. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 15 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Windows 2000 Configuration Screens FIGURE 6-3 Windows 2000 Configuration Screens
  16. 16. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 16 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Rule Policies Rule policies are more specific to the operation of a system than ACLs Many security systems require specific configuration scripts telling the systems what actions to perform on each set of information they process
  17. 17. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 17 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY FIGURE 6-5 Checkpoint VPN-1/Firewall-1 Policy Editor VPN-1/Firewall-1 Policy Editor courtesy of Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. Firewall Policy Editor
  18. 18. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 18 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Policy Management  Policies are living documents that must be managed and nurtured, and are constantly changing and growing – Documents must be properly managed  Special considerations should be made for organizations undergoing mergers, takeovers, and partnerships  In order to remain viable, policies must have: – an individual responsible for reviews – a schedule of reviews – a method for making recommendations for reviews – a specific effective and revision date
  19. 19. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 19 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Information Classification  Classification of information is an important aspect of policy  Same protection scheme created to prevent production data from accidental release to the wrong party should be applied to policies in order to keep them freely available, but only within the organization  In today’s open office environments, it may be beneficial to implement a clean desk policy  A clean desk policy stipulates that at the end of the business day, all classified information must be properly stored and secured
  20. 20. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 20 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Clean Desk Policy? FIGURE 6-7 Michael Whitman’s Desk
  21. 21. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 21 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Systems Design  At this point in the Security SDLC, the analysis phase is complete and the design phase begins – many work products have been created  Designing a plan for security begins by creating or validating a security blueprint  Use the blueprint to plan the tasks to be accomplished and the order in which to proceed  Setting priorities can follow the recommendations of published sources, or from published standards provided by government agencies or private consultants
  22. 22. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 22 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Investigate Design planning for continuity Chapter 7 Maintain Analyze Implement Design blueprint for security Chapter 6 SecSDLC Methodology SecSDLC MethodologyFIGURE 6-8
  23. 23. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 23 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Information Security Blueprints  One approach: adapt/adopt a published model or framework for information security  Framework – Basic skeletal structure within which additional detailed planning of the blueprint can be placed as it is developed and refined  Experience teaches us that what works well for one organization may not precisely fit another
  24. 24. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 24 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ISO 17799/BS 7799  Information Technology – Code of Practice for Information Security Management – One of the most widely referenced and often discussed security models – Originally published as British Standard BS 7799  Adopted in 2000 as international standard ISO/IEC 17799 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as a framework for information security
  25. 25. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 25 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Major Process Steps See the textbook page 210
  26. 26. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 26 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ISO 17799 / BS 7799  Several countries have not adopted 17799 claiming there are fundamental problems: – “The global information security community has not defined any justification for a code of practice as identified in the ISO/IEC 17799” – 17799 lacks “the necessary measurement precision of a technical standard” – There is no reason to believe that 17799 is more useful than any other approach currently available – 17799 is not as complete as other frameworks available – 17799 is perceived to have been hurriedly prepared given the tremendous impact its adoption could have on industry information security controls
  27. 27. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 27 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ISO/IEC 17799  Organizational Security Policy is needed to provide management direction and support  Objectives/content: – Operational Security Policy – Organizational Security Infrastructure – Asset Classification and Control – Personnel Security – Physical and Environmental Security – Communications and Operations Management – System Access Control – System Development and Maintenance – Business Continuity Planning – Compliance
  28. 28. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 28 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST Security Models  Another approach available is described in the many documents available from the Computer Security Resource Center of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (csrc.nist.gov) – including: – NIST SP 800-12 - The Computer Security Handbook – NIST SP 800-14 - Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Securing IT Systems – NIST SP 800-18 - Guide for Developing Security Plans for Information Technology Systems  These are among the references cited by the government of the U.S. when deciding not to select the ISO/IEC 17799 standards
  29. 29. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 29 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14  Security Supports the Mission of the Organization  Security is an Integral Element of Sound Management  Security Should Be Cost-Effective  Systems Owners Have Security Responsibilities Outside Their Own Organizations  Security Responsibilities and Accountability Should Be Made Explicit  Security Requires a Comprehensive and Integrated Approach  Security Should Be Periodically Reassessed  Security is Constrained by Societal Factors  33 Principles enumerated
  30. 30. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 30 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 1. Establish a sound security policy as the “foundation” for design. 2. Treat security as an integral part of the overall system design. 3. Clearly delineate the physical and logical security boundaries governed by associated security policies. 4. Reduce risk to an acceptable level. 5. Assume that external systems are insecure. 6. Identify potential trade-offs between reducing risk and increased costs and decrease in other aspects of operational effectiveness.
  31. 31. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 31 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 7. Implement layered security (Ensure no single point of vulnerability). 8. Implement tailored system security measures to meet organizational security goals. 9. Strive for simplicity. 10.Design and operate an IT system to limit vulnerability and to be resilient in response. 11.Minimize the system elements to be trusted. 12.Implement security through a combination of measures distributed physically and logically.
  32. 32. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 32 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 13. Provide assurance that the system is, and continues to be, resilient in the face of expected threats. 14. Limit or contain vulnerabilities. 15. Formulate security measures to address multiple overlapping information domains. 16. Isolate public access systems from mission critical resources (e.g., data, processes, etc.). 17. Use boundary mechanisms to separate computing systems and network infrastructures. 18. Where possible, base security on open standards for portability and interoperability. 19. Use common language in developing security requirements.
  33. 33. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 33 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 20. Design and implement audit mechanisms to detect unauthorized use and to support incident investigations. 21. Design security to allow for regular adoption of new technology, including a secure and logical technology upgrade process. 22. Authenticate users and processes to ensure appropriate access control decisions both within and across domains. 23. Use unique identities to ensure accountability. 24. Implement least privilege. 25. Do not implement unnecessary security mechanisms.
  34. 34. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 34 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 26. Protect information while being processed, in transit, and in storage. 27. Strive for operational ease of use. 28. Develop and exercise contingency or disaster recovery procedures to ensure appropriate availability. 29. Consider custom products to achieve adequate security. 30. Ensure proper security in the shutdown or disposal of a system.
  35. 35. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 35 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-14 Principles for Securing IT Systems 31. Protect against all likely classes of “attacks.” 32. Identify and prevent common errors and vulnerabilities. 33. Ensure that developers are trained in how to develop secure software.
  36. 36. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 36 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ISO/IEC Standard Versus NIST Major difference: – ISO/IEC 17799 must be purchased before use – NIST standards were paid for by the American taxpayer and are provided free of charge U.S. Federal Government does not support ISO/IEC 17799 or view it as adequate for its purpose
  37. 37. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 37 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY IETF Security Architecture  The Security Area Working Group acts as an advisory board for the protocols and areas developed and promoted through the Internet Society – No specific architecture is promoted through IETF  RFC 2196: Site Security Handbook provides an overview of five basic areas of security  Topics include: – security policies – security technical architecture – security services – security incident handling
  38. 38. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 38 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VISA Model  VISA International promotes strong security measures and has security guidelines  Developed two important documents that improve and regulate its information systems – “Security Assessment Process” – “Agreed Upon Procedures”  Using the two documents, a security team can develop a sound strategy for the design of good security architecture  The only down side to this approach is the very specific focus on systems that can or do integrate with VISA’s systems
  39. 39. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 39 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Baselining and Best Practices  Baselining and best practices are solid methods for collecting security practices, but they can have the drawback of providing less detail than would a complete methodology  It is possible to gain information by baselining and using best practices and thus work backwards to an effective design  The Federal Agency Security Practices Site ( csrc.nist.gov/fasp/) is designed to provide best practices for public agencies
  40. 40. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 40 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Professional Membership  Probably worth an information security professional’s time and money to join professional societies with information on best practices for its members  Many organizations have seminars and classes on best practices for implementing security  Finding information on security design is the easy part, sorting through the collected mass of information, documents, and publications can take a substantial investment in time and human resources
  41. 41. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 41 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIST SP 800-26 Management Controls – Risk Management – Review of Security Controls – Life Cycle Maintenance – Authorization of Processing (Certification and Accreditation) – System Security Plan Operational Controls – Personnel Security – Physical Security – Production, Input/Output Controls – Contingency Planning – Hardware and Systems Software – Data Integrity – Documentation – Security Awareness, Training, and Education – Incident Response Capability Technical Controls – Identification and Authentication – Logical Access Controls – Audit Trails
  42. 42. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 42 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Spheres of Security
  43. 43. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 43 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sphere of Use  Generally speaking, the concept of the sphere is to represent the 360 degrees of security necessary to protect information at all times  The first component is the “sphere of use”  Information, at the core of the sphere, is available for access by members of the organization and other computer-based systems: – To gain access to the computer systems, one must either directly access the computer systems or go through a network connection – To gain access to the network, one must either directly access the network or go through an Internet connection
  44. 44. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 44 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sphere of Protection  The “sphere of protection” overlays each of the levels of the “sphere of use” with a layer of security, protecting that layer from direct or indirect use through the next layer  The people must become a layer of security, a human firewall that protects the information from unauthorized access and use  Information security is therefore designed and implemented in three layers – policies – people (education, training, and awareness programs) – technology
  45. 45. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 45 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Controls  Management controls cover security processes that functionality of security in the organization  Operational controls are designed by the strategic planners and performed by security administration of the organization  Operational controls deal with the operational also address personnel security, physical security, and the protection of production inputs and outputs  Technical controls address those tactical and technical issues related to designing and implementing security in the organization
  46. 46. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 46 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY The Framework  Management Controls – Program Management – System Security Plan – Life Cycle Maintenance – Risk Management – Review of Security Controls – Legal Compliance  Operational Controls – Contingency Planning – Security ETA – Personnel Security – Physical Security – Production Inputs and Outputs – Hardware & Software Systems Maintenance – Data Integrity  Technical Controls – Logical Access Controls – Identification, Authentication, Authorization, and Accountability – Audit Trails – Asset Classification and Control – Cryptography
  47. 47. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 47 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SETA  As soon as the policies exist, policies to implement security education, training, and awareness (SETA) should follow  SETA is a control measure designed to reduce accidental security breaches  Supplement the general education and training programs in place to educate staff on information security  Security education and training builds on the general knowledge the employees must possess to do their jobs, familiarizing them with the way to do their jobs securely
  48. 48. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 48 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SETA Elements The SETA program consists of three elements – security education – security training – security awareness The organization may not be capable or willing to undertake all three of these elements but may outsource them
  49. 49. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 49 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Purpose of SETA The purpose of SETA is to enhance security by: – Improving awareness of the need to protect system resources – Developing skills and knowledge so computer users can perform their jobs more securely – Building in-depth knowledge, as needed, to design, implement, or operate security programs for organizations and systems
  50. 50. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 50 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Comparative Framework of SETA Education Training Awareness AttributeAttribute WhyWhy HowHow WhatWhat LevelLevel InsightInsight KnowledgeKnowledge InformationInformation ObjectiveObjective UnderstandingUnderstanding SkillSkill Teaching methodTeaching method Theoretical instructionTheoretical instruction •• Discussion seminarDiscussion seminar •• Background readingBackground reading Practical instructionPractical instruction •• LectureLecture •• Case study workshopCase study workshop •• Hands on practice‑Hands on practice‑ MediaMedia •• VideosVideos •• NewslettersNewsletters •• PostersPosters •• True or falseTrue or false Test measureTest measure EssayEssay (interpret learning)(interpret learning) Problem solvingProblem solving (apply learning)(apply learning) Multiple choiceMultiple choice (identify learning)(identify learning) Impact timeframeImpact timeframe Long term‑Long term‑ IntermediateIntermediate Short term‑Short term‑ TABLE 6-1 Comparative Framework of SETA: NIST SP800 12‑
  51. 51. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 51 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Security Education  Everyone in an organization needs to be trained and aware of information security, but not every member of the organization needs a formal degree or certificate in information security  When formal education for appropriate individuals in security is needed an employee can identify curriculum available from local institutions of higher learning or continuing education  A number of universities have formal coursework in information security
  52. 52. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 52 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Security Training Security training involves providing members of the organization with detailed information and hands-on instruction designed to prepare them to perform their duties securely Management of information security can develop customized in-house training or outsource the training program
  53. 53. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 53 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Security Awareness  One of the least frequently implemented, but the most beneficial programs is the security awareness program  Designed to keep information security at the forefront of the users’ minds  Need not be complicated or expensive  If the program is not actively implemented, employees begin to ‘tune out’, and the risk of employee accidents and failures increases
  54. 54. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 54 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY InfoSec Awareness at KSU InfoSec Awareness at KSU FIGURE 6-17
  55. 55. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 55 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Comments  Defense in Depth – One of the foundations of security architectures is the requirement to implement security in layers – Defense in depth requires that the organization establish sufficient security controls and safeguards, so that an intruder faces multiple layers of controls  Security Perimeter – The point at which an organization’s security protection ends, and the outside world begins – Referred to as the security perimeter – Unfortunately the perimeter does not apply to internal attacks from employee threats, or on-site physical threats
  56. 56. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 56 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Defense in Depth
  57. 57. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 57 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Security Perimeters & Domains
  58. 58. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 58 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Key Technology Components  Other key technology components – A firewall is a device that selectively discriminates against information flowing into or out of the organization – The DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a no-man’s land, between the inside and outside networks, where some organizations place Web servers – In an effort to detect unauthorized activity within the inner network, or on individual machines, an organization may wish to implement Intrusion Detection Systems or IDS
  59. 59. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 59 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Firewalls, Proxies & DMZ
  60. 60. Transfo rm ing Live s. Inve nting the Future . www.iit.edu ITM 578 60 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY The End… Questions?

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