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Research process quantitative and qualitative

Nursing Research - Steps in Quantitative Research Process and Qualitative Research Process

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Research process quantitative and qualitative

  1. 1. Prof X EMERENSIA HOD CHILD HEALTH NURSING RVS COLLEGE OF NURSING, SULUR, COIMBATORE
  2. 2. 1. Formulation of research problem 2. Determine the study objectives 3. Review of Literature 4. Developing Conceptual frame work 5. Formulating Hypo- thesis/Assumption 6. Selecting Research Approach/Design 7. Specify the Population 8. Developing a Tool 9. Establishing Ethical Consideration 10. Conducting Pilot Study 11. Sample Selection12. Data Collection 13. Preparing Data for Analysis 14. Analysis & Interpretation of Data 15. Disseminating Research findings
  3. 3. 1. Formulation of research problem - Board to Specific - Interesting, Creative, note worthy & indicative research Problem - Originality, Solvability & Feasibility - Dimensions Followed * Substantive Dimension (Clinical/theoretically important) * Methodological Dimension (Best Method) * Practical Dimension (Adequate Resources) * Ethical Dimension (Respect the rights) Eg: Morning Sickness
  4. 4. 2. Determine the study objectives - List down the Objectives (General/Specific) - Operational Definition of Variables - Purpose : Defined Direction of Research Process - Objectives will be S - Specific M - Measurable A - Attainable R - Realistic T - Time Bound
  5. 5. 3. Review of Literature - Previous Knowledge - Previous experiences - Other sources like Books, Research reports, Unpublished thesis, News papers, Magazines & Popular Electronic information
  6. 6. 4. Developing Conceptual frame work A written or Visual presentation that explains either graphically or in narrative form, the main things to be studied- the key factors, concepts or variables and the presumed relationship among them (Miles & Huberman,1994)
  7. 7. 5 . Formulating Hypothesis/Assumption Hypothesis is an assumed statement suggesting an answer to a question , which may or may not be true Eg: A correlational study on alcohol intake and incidence of liver disease among people of an urban community at Ludhiana. Here Hypothesis will be “ alcoholics have higher incidence of liver disease”
  8. 8. 6. Selecting Research Approach/Design • It is a Systematic Plan to obtain answers to research questions • It is a Blue print of research study which enables the researcher to know on whom, what, when, where and how the study will be conducted
  9. 9. 7. Specify the Population • Aggregate of all the subject/objects with specific characteristics 8. Developing a Tool • Is an instrument to measure the research variables objectively and accurately as possible • (Standardized or developed tool can be used) • Structured or semi structured tool. Eg: Prevalence of Hospital Acquired Infection among Patients admitted to ICU
  10. 10. 9. Establishing Ethical Consideration • Taking informed consent from participants • Avoiding errors in data collection • Obtaining permission from authority • Doing justice to participant • Maintaining confidentiality & anonymity
  11. 11. 10. Conducting Pilot Study • Trial run of main study with small sample size 11. Sample Selection • select a representative part of population •(Probability/ non probability sampling technique)
  12. 12. 12. Data collection • Gather information to pertaining to the topic under study • Data to be collected through questioning, interviewing or observation methods 13. Preparing data for analysis • Gather information should be coded manually in a paper or computer grading sheet or directly in statistical software
  13. 13. 14. Analysis & Interpretation of Data • Data may be analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics • Data is presented through tables and graphs / charts to facilitate the interpretation of data 15. Disseminating the research finding • finding may be communicated through writing of research thesis, articles or presenting an oral research report at scientific professional conference
  14. 14. 1. Identifying research problem area 2. Formulating broad study objectives 3. Review of Literature 4. Entry in the Research settings 5. Selecting Research Approach/Design 6. Select small sample 7. Establishing Ethical Consideration 8. Planning a Tool 9. Data Collection 10. Organizing data for Analysis 11. Analysis & Interpretation of Data 12. Disseminating Research findings
  15. 15. 1. Identifying research problem area Broad research area and then focus to narrowed down Less understanding about the phenomenon. Study of Experience of Tsunami survivor living in coastal area
  16. 16. 2. Formulating broad study objectives • Plan broad objectives, later modified based on the need of research 3. Review of Literature • Gain some prior information for effective future planning and execution of research project
  17. 17. 4. Entry in the Research settings • Prior permission from authorities • Contact with key informants, who will share the information about the phenomenon & subjects
  18. 18. 5. Selecting Research Approach/Design •Depends up on the nature of Phenomenon
  19. 19. 6. Selecting small sample • Qualitative studies are in-depth inquiries • Small sample size (10-15 samples) is selected for study • Even a single sample also can choose
  20. 20. 7. Establishing ethical considerations  Taking informed consent from participants  Avoid errors in data collection  Doing justice to participants in analyzing data  Maintaining confidentiality of information & anonymity of subjects
  21. 21. 8. Planning tools for data collection • Semi-structured or unstructured tool can be used • Most of the items included in tool are open ended • Data may be collected through video-taping, tape recording, focus group interviews, photographs, reflective journals, field notes, transcripts, cumulative diaries
  22. 22. 9. Collecting data • Interview & Observation are two common types of data collection methods used in qualitative studies • Rapport building & Confidence establishment are two essential tasks a researcher must accomplished before starting data collection
  23. 23. 10. Organizing data for analysis The techniques used in organizing data are • Listing • Categorizing • Comparing • Laddering
  24. 24. 11. Analysis & Interpretation of data • Here, Analysis is a challenging task • Analysis begins with data collection. • Usually involves an examination of words rather than numbers • No universally accepted rule for analysis • Can be also analysed using descriptive coding, indexing, narrations, integrative diagrams, thematic analysis.
  25. 25. 12. Disseminating the research findings Research finding communicated • by writing research thesis, articles or presenting an oral research report at scientific professional conferences. • In a standardized format according to international, national or institutional guidelines

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Nursing Research - Steps in Quantitative Research Process and Qualitative Research Process

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