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Cover PageCorey Benson – Nonverbal use of clothingCraig Brown – Gender Roles (male, other)Kasandra Baldwin – RitualsMilissa Bruton-Morales – Transition Slides, PPT, etc.Teresa Alderson – Gender Roles (female, neutral)
Nonverbal Use of Clothing (formal and informal) – Intro Page
Nonverbal Use of Clothing
Nonverbal Use of Clothing
Nonverbal Use of Clothing
Nonverbal Use of Clothing – Transition Page
Rituals (verbal and nonverbal traditions) – Intro Page
Rituals – Transition Page
Gender Roles – Intro Page
Gender Roles (male)
Gender Roles (male)
Gender Roles (female)
Gender Roles (female)
Gender Roles (women)
Gender Roles (neutral)
Gender Roles – Transition Page
3-5 Open Ended Questions
NorwayGroup 1: Corey Benson, Craig Brown, Kasandra Baldwin, Milissa Bruton- Morales, & Teresa Alderson CMST 101 Intro to Communication
NorwayThe following quote encompasses everythingwe will cover in this slideshow from non-verbalcommunication through clothing, rituals, andgender roles: “If one were to sum up the Norwegian communication style it would be informal, transactional and direct.” (http://kwintessential.co.uk)
ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities were divided up by the amount of slides each person would research. Doing less research, M was responsible for more slides:Corey Benson – Nonverbal use of clothingCraig Brown – Gender Roles (male, other)Kasandra Baldwin – RitualsMilissa Bruton-Morales – Transition Slides, PPT, etc.Teresa Alderson – Gender Roles (female, neutral)
Nonverbal Use of Clothing Yet in every culture, clothing is one of the most powerful and ubiquitous forms of visual communication. By using visual clues provided by clothing, people quickly place each other, making guesses about the gender, social status, occupation, ethnic ornational identity, and so on of those they encounter. By manipulating the same sets of signals, people can declare their individuality, indicate their beliefs, or signify their membership within various groups through how they dress. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/clothing/clotweb.htmNorwegians effectively use non-verbal communication (TacomaCommunity College, 2011. pp 20-21.) through the use of their formalattire: a Bunad.
Nonverbal Use of Clothing FormalMost Norwegians, and those of Norwegian decent, wear a bunad with which they have ageographical association. “It is part of Norways culture to wear the Bunad as the Norwegianfolk dress for folk dancing, at official celebrations, weddings, and especially on May 17 whichis Constitution Day in Norway (Gourley, 2002).” Most cities and counties select and strictlyadhere to specific designs based on historical information from their area. Norwegians do notwear outfits from areas other than where their families originate (a woman may adopt theoutfit of her husbands district or area). .The type of material used in a Bunad depends on the period from which the Bunad dates andon the particular fabrics that were used at the time. “Ancestral heritage can be identified bythe bunad worn. Costume differences are found mostly in the cut and ornamentation of theclothes (Gourley, 2002).” MATERIALS DEPENDS ON THE PERIOD FROM WHICH THE BUNAD DATES:
Nonverbal Use of Clothing Formal• The embroidery on Norwegian bunads reflects a strong tradition of which the Norwegians can be proud. , the bunad is the official formal dress of the Norwegian people. Its a complete attire from head to toe, it includes a head-dress and shoes. “An authentic Vintage Silver bunad is very expensive, ranges in price from about $1,500 to Filigree $5,000. In Norway, many teenagers start receiving their authentic bunad at confirmation (Moore, 2004).” Traditional Brooch Pin• Silver was very important to Norwegian culture. Considered magical, silver was used to protect against the evil forces and also used to show prosperity. It was aslo credited with healing both the people and the animals. “In Norway, silver had its roots with the farmers, as it was their only status symbol: (Moore, 2004).• Everyone wore some amount of silver to be protected from the huldrefolk. Mothers pinned silver on their newborn babys clothes to prevent the huldrefolk from swapping huldre babies for human babies. Today, silver is worn as a symbol of ones ethnic ancestry. Vintage Silver Solje Necklace and Earrings
Nonverbal Use of Clothing Informal• Norwegians generally dont dress very formal instead they prefer casual and comfortable clothes. Blue denims are used everywhere. If you somebody with a fashionable suit and tie (in the middle of the day), it is probably a real estate or stock broker.• Norwegians are notoriously informal, particularly in clothing. Norwegians dont usually dress smart for work and rather casually most of the time. Although some may dress up for a restaurant visit, casual dress is fully acceptable virtually everywhere. On Friday or Saturday people rarely dress up.• Today Norwegians wear modern Western-style clothes for casual, business, and formal wear.• “When the Norwegian immigrants changed from their native dress to American clothing, only the use of the jewelry was retained. The silver brooches were turned into breastpins. . Today, silver is worn as a symbol of ones ethnic ancestry (Moore, 2004).”
Nonverbal Use of ClothingThe Bunad represents the Norwegianpeople – just as the Kimono representsJapan, the Cheongsam represents China,and the Salwar Kameez represents India.Norwegians found a way to balance oldtraditions and modern personal comfortand style – not just in their clothes, buttheir rituals as well.
RitualsVarious cultures live in Norway much like the US. Rituals in Norway vary based onreligious beliefs and cultural differences.You will get to take a look at a native Norwegians ritual – both the verbal andnonverbal aspects of it. Also you will get to take a look at a comparison of aritual based on old traditions and new traditions in their culture – “a learnedsystem of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, rules, and norms thatis shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next”.(Tacoma Community College, 2011. pp. 65, 150.)
Rituals • THE GROOM • - The groom wears a hand-made, woolen suit known as a "bunad." It has a white silk shirt, short pants, and stockings that come up to their calves. Also included is a vest and topcoat. Colorful designs are unique, based on where the groom was born or where his family came from. • THE BRIDE • - Her dress is usually black, with rows of red (usually) braids round the bottom, with a silver/silver and gold crown. Around the crown, there are small, spoon-like bangles that produce a soothing music when she moves. It is designed to ward off evil spirits and insure that she will be happy through the whole wedding. • THE RINGS • -The wedding bands promote the circle of everlasting love throughout the relationship.
Rituals The ReceptionToasting is a big part of the wedding reception. Toast may be givenby many of guest throughout the wedding meal. The traditional orderof these speeches are as follows: 1. Father of the bride 2. The Groom 3. The Bride 4. Maid of Honour 5. Best Man 6. Groom’s father 7. Bride’s mother 8. Groom’s mother 9. Grandparents/Godparents 10. Friends and Finally 11. “Takk for Maten-tale” (thank you for the meal). This speech compliments the food thanks the chef and waiting staff.
Rituals Old Norwegian Traditions New Norwegian Traditions• The dead were laid out to be seen by friends • In 1960-1980 privatization of funerals was and family before they left the house. popular, where only close family members• A bed was made of straw or feathers and two participated in funeral rituals. sawhorses by a couple of women from the • In recent years, the old ways are being brought neighborhood. back. Where friends and distant family now join• A psalms book was placed on the chest of the in the ritual. This comes from the need for new corpse and then the body was covered with a expression and inspiration. sheet. Then was moved to an appropriate room • A practice borrowed from the Catholics has in one of the out buildings. become more common in Norway and that’s the lighting of candles at the scene of an accident.
Rituals• In older traditions, in the time of the Vikings, they would say a prayer for their dead. “Lo, there do I see my Father.. Lo, there do I see my Mother And my Sisters and my Brothers.. Lo, there do I see the line Of my people back to the beginning.. They do bid me to take my place among them.. In the Halls of Valhalla, Where the Brave may live forever.”• In later years along with other traditions the dead were “sung out of the house” A psalms was sung, a speech was given, and another psalms was sung before they put the top of the casket on and had it nailed or screwed shut.
RitualsThere are many parts to play in a ritual. Some even bycertain genders. For the next few slides we will coversome different types of gender roles.
Gender Roles Norway supports equal rights. Differences in gender does not makeanyone superior over another. (Tacoma Community College, 2011. pp 78-79.)
Gender Roles: Men• Social and health statistics show that life in Western society exacts a high price from men. (Affairs)• Males are overrepresented among drug abusers and prison inmates. (Affairs)• The life expectancy of men is shorter compared to women (Affairs)• Boys exhibit more problematic behavior patterns in school than girls, and constitute a larger proportion of the pupils requiring compensatory measures at the primary school level. (Affairs)• The drop-out rate for boys is considerably higher than for girls. (Affairs)• One of the areas in which male gender roles have changed the most in Norway involves men’s role as fathers. (Affairs)
Gender Roles: Men• Research indicates that fatherhood leads men make the most explicit break with traditional forms of masculinity. (Affairs)• The paternity leave quota for new fathers, introduced in 1993, is designed to strengthen the father’s relationship with the child, and signals the need for fathers to participate actively in the care of their children. (Affairs)• The changes in male gender roles not only involve men’s relationships with women, but also the manner in which they relate to other men, to new tasks and to important social institutions run by men. In 2002, a government-funded resource center for men, REFORM, was established to work towards gender equality by helping to improve men’s living conditions and by mobilizing men’s resources for development in areas not traditionally associated with male gender roles. (Affairs)
Family Life for Women in Norway• Marriage is not a prerequisite to start a family.• Norway has been voted as the best country to be a mother in for the third consecutive year, according to an international Save the Children report. (Gender in Norway, 2012)• The average women has her first child at 26.• If a working mother breast feeds her child she is entitled to one hour leave per day for that purpose and 95% of Norway’s babies are breast fed.• Norways female workforce are allowed to take maternity leave at 100% pay for 46 weeks or 80% pay for56 weeks.• Single mothers are allowed 20 days of paid sick leave for each child they raise and married women 10 days paid leave per year. (http://www.norway.org/ARCHIVE/News/archive/1996/199603c hild)
Gender Roles Second Best Country in the World!According to the World Economic Forum, Norway isranked the second best country for women.This report measures women and men in four Key areas:• Economic participation and opportunity• Educational attainment• Health and survival• Political empowerment(http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf )
Women In Norway• 1854 Norwegian women acquired inheritance rights• 1882 women were given access to higher education• 1890 married women gained the right to control their own wealth• 1903 the first Norwegian woman received a doctorate at the University of Oslo• 1912 the first female professor came on the scene• 1913 Norwegian women have the right to vote• 1978 Norway was the first country in the world to appoint a special Gender Equality Ombud• 1993 Norways first woman bishop was Installed: Rosemarie Köhn. (http://explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa053101a.htm)
Gender Roles: Neutral• Norwegians view themselves as egalitarian people whose culture is based on democratic principles of respect and interdependence• Jante Law conveys an important element of Norwegian culture . You shall not think you are special . You shall not believe you are smarter than others . You shall not believe you are wiser than others . You shall not behave as if you are better than others . You shall not believe that you know more than others . You shall not believe that you can fix things better than others . You shall not laugh at others . You shall not believe that others care about you . You shall not believe that you can teach others anything• Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (http://www.norway.org/ARCHIVE/policy/gender/womensrights)
Gender RolesThough a country determined to haveequal rights for all, we could find nopublished information about third genderand only a couple blogs about the oneGender Identity Disorder (GID) clinic inOslo. Equal rights are divided betweenmen and women – regardless of theirorientation.
ConclusionThough Norwegians express a relaxed way of living,dressing, and speaking, they do not lack in manners,professionalism, or equal rights for genders (Craig,Teresa). Whether it is jeans at a business meeting orequality for all – Norwegians take pride in theirmanner of communicating to the world – verbal andnon-verbal (Corey) and the rituals performed(Kasandra). Pulling everything together andcompleting this presentation together took the skill ofall parties involved (including Milissa).
BibliographyAffairs, By the Norwegian Ministry of Children and Family. Norway the Official Site in South Africa. 09 03 2009. 21 05 2012 http://www.norway.org.za/aboutnorway/society/Equal-Opportunities/gender/male/.Gender In Norway. (2012, 9 5). Retrieved May 9, 2012, from gender.no: http://www.gender.no/News/8918Gourley, D. N. (2002, May 13). Fillmore County Journal. Retrieved May 17, 2012, from Norwegian National Costume: http://www.fillmorecountyjournal.com/mainKari. (2011, December 21). Norwegian Language Blog. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from Norwegian Wedding Preparation: http://blogs.transparent.com/norwegian/how- do-norwegians-tie-the-knot/Mapes, T. (n.d.). Norway Culture 101 - The Culture of Norway Illustrated. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from The Traditional Dress of Norway: Bunad: http://goscandinavia.about.com/od/scandinavianculture/ss/norwayculture_5.htmMørkhagen, P. L. (n.d.). ExploreNorth. Retrieved May 9, 2012, from Explorenorth.com: http://explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa053101a.htmMoore, P. (2004). Norwegian Bunads. Retrieved May 17, 2012, from Husfliden Web Site: http://www.patmoore.org/Bunads.htm(n.d.). Retrieved from bryllupsdagen.no: http://www.bryllupsdagen.no/(n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2012, from Google: http://www.google.com/search?q=norse+funeral+prayers&hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=4Vy&rls=org.mozilla:en- US:official&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=U9m6T9yKEcqZiALS4JicDA&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&ved=0CEYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1440 &bih=754Tacoma Community College. (2011). Present Yourself as Equal Rather Than Superior. In S. Beebe, S. Beebe, D. Ivy, S. Lane, & M. Redmond, The Blue Book of Communication (pp. 78-79). Boston, MA, USA: Pearson Learning Solutions.The Old Ways - Norse Prayer. (2004, May 26). Retrieved May 15, 2012, from The Old Ways: http://www.angelfire.com/folk/oldways/norseprayer.htmlNorway – Norwegian Culture and Etiquette. (2012, May 22). Retrieved May 17, 2012, from kwintessential.co.uk: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global- etiquette/norway/norway-country-profile.htmlNorway the Officail Site in the United States. (1993). Retrieved May 9, 2012, from Norway.org: http://www.norway.org/ARCHIVE/News/archive/1996/199603childNorway the Official Site in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2012, from norway.org: http://www.norway.org/ARCHIVE/policy/gender/womensrightsNorwegian National Costume. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2012, from norway-hei.com: http://www.norway-hei.com/norwegian-national-costumes.htmlOld Norwegian traditions: Farewell - Death and bereavement in multi-cultural Norway. (2000, November 14). Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.khm.uio.no/utstillinger/farvel/oldnorwegian.htmlThe Old Ways - Norse Prayer. (2004, May 26). Retrieved May 15, 2012, from The Old Ways: http://www.angelfire.com/folk/oldways/norseprayer.htmlWorld Economic Forum. (2011). Retrieved May 9, 2012, from weforum.org: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf
Questions to Ponder1. How do you think the U.S workforce would be affected if we had a supportive maternity and baby friendly work force as they do in Norway?2. As a child of a single mother in Norway, you were once very sick and hospitalized. Looking back as an adult, reflect on how mom’s work benefits benefited you.3. Norway’s Bunad is a significant part of their past and present. What similar traditional garments have been passed down in your family? Why was this done?4. What traditions and songs were passed on from one generation to the next in your family?