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MENTAL MODELSLessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith                        ...
It’s easy to recognize miscommunication, but more difficult to     identify why it       happens.
SH ORT T ER M                                         PE RC E PT ION SMental Modelsare the images, assumptions, andstories...
Our FilterMental Models help us sift throughand process huge amounts of datadaily. Without them, we’d beoverwhelmed by exi...
Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over...
Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over...
Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over...
Like computer models or architectural models, mental models offer an imperfect butuseful representation of reality.
Mental Models are tacitunderstood or implied without being stated©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N...
Mental Models are tacitExercise:There is a list of words on the next page.Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize asmany...
Mental Models are tacitLook at the list for 10 seconds, memorize asmany as you can, and then move on to thenext slide.    ...
Mental Models are tacitHow many did you remember? Write thema$ down.©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I D...
Mental Models are tacitWas sleep in there? We thought so.This is one of your many mentalmodels playing tricks on you.     ...
In addition to being tacit...Mental Models are flawed
Mental Models are flawedExercise:Match the images below with a job title.                                           DO G S...
Mental Models are flawedMaking choices like this reveals a uniqueunderlying %amework for decision making:a$ of our past ex...
These exercises helped us reflecton our own models momentarily. True exploration, though, is onlyfound through continuous ...
So, how are mental models built?
Your Social Life                       SH ORT T ER M                                      PE RC E PT ION Smatters more tha...
I T AK E ACT I ON                                        B A SE D ON                                          BE L I E F S...
I T AK E ACT I ON                                 B A SE D ON                                   BE L I E F S              ...
The “Expert Problem”Specialists fall into Mental Models’ trapseasily, because we tend to work withthose who share a common...
User ExperienceThose who design for others, specificallydigital user experience, should be very awareof Mental Models. Eac...
Your ColleaguesEveryone wants to work in a harmonious,tolerant work environment. Thinking aboutyour colleagues’ Mental Mod...
Mental Models in BusinessWhy corporations should (and do) care.
Shell: A Realization That Ushered In A New World ViewB Y D I S COV E R IN G AND ACKNOWLEDGING MENTAL MODELS, SHELL C O M P...
NASA: The Perils of Mental ModelsT WO DI S A S TER S THAT WERE NOT A FAULT OF ENGINEERING BUT C AUS E D B Y N A S A’ S M E...
“Creativity is mixing and matching patterns ofeverything youve ever experienced or come to knowin your lifetime. Its sayin...
E X P L IC IT                            K N OW L E D G E                                      TAC IT                     ...
Special thanks to our mentors and friends at
MENTAL MODELSLessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith                        ...
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MENTAL MODELS: Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith

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MENTAL MODELS: Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith

  1. 1. MENTAL MODELSLessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska
  2. 2. It’s easy to recognize miscommunication, but more difficult to identify why it happens.
  3. 3. SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION SMental Modelsare the images, assumptions, andstories which we carry in our minds ofourselves, other people, institutions,and every aspect of the world. Theycan help us understand whymiscommunications happen. SE M I -PERMANENT M A PS
  4. 4. Our FilterMental Models help us sift throughand process huge amounts of datadaily. Without them, we’d beoverwhelmed by existence.
  5. 5. Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over time.
  6. 6. Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over time. Joe
  7. 7. Unique PerceptionThey profoundly influence our liveson an individual level, like acolored lens becoming moresaturated over time. Jim Joe
  8. 8. Like computer models or architectural models, mental models offer an imperfect butuseful representation of reality.
  9. 9. Mental Models are tacitunderstood or implied without being stated©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 7
  10. 10. Mental Models are tacitExercise:There is a list of words on the next page.Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize asmany as you can, and then move on to thenext slide.©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 8
  11. 11. Mental Models are tacitLook at the list for 10 seconds, memorize asmany as you can, and then move on to thenext slide. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 9
  12. 12. Mental Models are tacitHow many did you remember? Write thema$ down.©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 10
  13. 13. Mental Models are tacitWas sleep in there? We thought so.This is one of your many mentalmodels playing tricks on you. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 11
  14. 14. In addition to being tacit...Mental Models are flawed
  15. 15. Mental Models are flawedExercise:Match the images below with a job title. DO G S I TTER M CD ON A L D’ S E MP LOY E E A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  16. 16. Mental Models are flawedMaking choices like this reveals a uniqueunderlying %amework for decision making:a$ of our past experiences. In moments likethis, assumptions run rampant. M CDO NA L D’ S D OGSI TTE R E MPL OY EE A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  17. 17. These exercises helped us reflecton our own models momentarily. True exploration, though, is onlyfound through continuous inquiry and deep reflection over time.
  18. 18. So, how are mental models built?
  19. 19. Your Social Life SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION Smatters more than you think. Eachinteraction creates neurologicalpathways, like ruts and grooves inyour brain. The more we think,behave, and interact in a certainway, the deeper ruts and grooves SE M I -PERMANENTbecome. Ultimately, these are our M A PSneural networks: the science behindmental models.
  20. 20. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONSLadder of Inference I MAK E AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HEHow Mental Models are Formed “ DAT A” I A DDE D I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  21. 21. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONSThe more frequent the I MAK Eclimb, the easier it AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HE “ DAT A” I A DDE Dbecomes. I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  22. 22. The “Expert Problem”Specialists fall into Mental Models’ trapseasily, because we tend to work withthose who share a common worldview.This can get us into trouble when trying tocommunicate with others who do notshare our expertise.
  23. 23. User ExperienceThose who design for others, specificallydigital user experience, should be very awareof Mental Models. Each design mustaccount for individuals’ unique knowledgeand expectations.
  24. 24. Your ColleaguesEveryone wants to work in a harmonious,tolerant work environment. Thinking aboutyour colleagues’ Mental Models beforejumping to conclusions will yield more hugsand better work. We promise. ES AT VERY TOLERANT COLLEAGU D UNDERCURRENT: @TAFTCAR AND @MATTHEWCA RLIN
  25. 25. Mental Models in BusinessWhy corporations should (and do) care.
  26. 26. Shell: A Realization That Ushered In A New World ViewB Y D I S COV E R IN G AND ACKNOWLEDGING MENTAL MODELS, SHELL C O M P L E T E LY T R A N S F O R M E D T H E I R B U S I N E S S★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODELThe oil industry is stable and predictable.Managers failed to take predicted scenariosseriously.★ MODEL OF INQUIRYScenario planning★ SUGGESTED ACTIONScenario forecasting for managers★ OUTCOME1970: The weakest big oil company1979: The strongest big oil company
  27. 27. NASA: The Perils of Mental ModelsT WO DI S A S TER S THAT WERE NOT A FAULT OF ENGINEERING BUT C AUS E D B Y N A S A’ S M E N TA L M O D E L S★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODELNASA is flawless. Successful outcomescaused people to ignore disconfirminginformation, out of spec performance anddysfunctional decision processes.★ MODEL OF INQUIRYInvestigative report post Columbiaaccident★ SUGGESTED ACTIONUnknown★ OUTCOMEHalted replacement of orbiter
  28. 28. “Creativity is mixing and matching patterns ofeverything youve ever experienced or come to knowin your lifetime. Its saying "this is kinda like that." Theneural mechanism for doing this is everywhere in thecortex.” - On Intelligence, Jeff Hawkins
  29. 29. E X P L IC IT K N OW L E D G E TAC IT KNO WLE DGE When interacting with others, never forget toappreciate the vast amount of lived experience and knowledge below the surface.
  30. 30. Special thanks to our mentors and friends at
  31. 31. MENTAL MODELSLessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska

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