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Reflective Learning at Work – MIRROR Model, Apps and Serious Games
This report discusses the initial results of a 4-year FP7 research project that developed a theoretical model and worked on the creation and evaluation of a range of ‘Mirror’ apps based on our Mirror reflection model. The findings divulge how the apps and serious games can facilitate reflectionº at work, by empowering employees to learn by reflection on their work practice and on their personal learning experiences.
Reflective Learning at Work – MIRROR Model, Apps and Serious Games
From the field Reflective Learning at Work – MIRROR Model, Apps and Serious GamesAuthor This report discusses the initial results of a 4-year FP7 research project that developed a theoretical model and worked on the creation and evaluation of a range of ‘Mirror’Ellen Leenarts, Learningconsultant at BT Learning apps based on our Mirror reflection model. The findings divulge how the apps andSolutions serious games can facilitate reflectionº at work, by empowering employees to learn email@example.com reflection on their work practice and on their personal learning experiences.Tags 1. Backgroundprofessional development, In 2010 a 4-year research project called ‘Mirror – Reflective learning at work’ started. It ispersonal learningenvironment, reflection, co-funded by the EU in the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technologicaleducational technologies Development (FP7). The MIRROR consortium brings together 15 partners across Europe’s TEL industry, with high-quality research and testbeds. In some 12 streams of activity, the consortium has developed a theoretical model and worked on the creation and evaluation of a range of ‘Mirror’ apps based on our Mirror reflection model. The project is now in its third year and we are ready to share our vision, our first findings, our experiences in the testbeds, and tell you more about the apps and serious games that can facilitate reflection at work. The vision of MIRROR is to empower employees to learn by reflection on their work practice and on their very personal learning experiences. MIRROR aims at assisting employees in cap- turing experiences and in developing creative solutions for problems that need to be solved. This will be achieved by personal MIRROR apps for learning through reflection. These can be individual, collaborative, creativity-based, game-based, or for the organisation. MIRROR provides new learning technologies for ’learning on the job’, ’learning by doing’, ’learning from peers’ and ’experiential learning’. With MIRROR applications, the effectiveness of learn- ing can be increased significantly in situations where no teachers, no formal content, and no explicit knowledge are available. Specifically the MIRROR project has promised to provide the following output: 1. Conceptual model of holistic learning by reflection, which incorporates the essential ingredients of training critical thinking, awareness of emotions, (collaborative) knowl- edge construction, creative problem solving and innovation. 2. A bundle of learning applications (the ‘Mirror Apps’) that can be used within the col- laborative and social work environment of the employees. 3. Proof of learning effectiveness, through evaluation within five testbeds across Eu- rope, in sectors as diverse as health and social care, civil emergency planning, and IT consultancy The preliminary results of the project are described in the following two sections. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 31 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 31 • November 2012Pap www 1
From the field2. Using the MIRROR Computer elements from which the relevant ones can be chosen in a spe- Supported Reflective Learning (CSRL) cific case. The rounded rectangles in the middle of the figure model in analysis and design (by Birgit represent the steps in a reflective learning cycle. The more de- tailed steps have been derived from theories of reflective learn- R. Krogstie) ing as well as empirical findings on reflection practices in theDuring 2012 we refined the MIRROR CSRL model (version 1.0) MIRROR testbeds. The top-down sequence of the steps in theby applying it to the MIRROR testbed cases. Based on our expe- diagram fits many cases of reflective learning. The Mirror appsriences we developed a general procedure for applying the CSRL are designed to support these process steps. In the diagram,model to a case of computer-supported reflective learning for this is shown by the left and right columns of rectangles, whichthe purposes of analysis or design, i.e. to model the ‘as-is’ situ- represents categories of tool use.ation and/or the ‘to-be’ situation in which new reflection toolsare adopted in the organization. In May 2012 the CSRL model and the procedure for applying it were evaluated within the project by groups of developers andThe figure below shows the CSRL process steps reference model, testbed partners. The results are promising, showing that use ofwhich is the starting point for creating a process steps diagram. the model helped refine understanding of our cases of comput-We call it a reference model because it contains a large set of er-supported reflective learning and helped generate new ideasFigure 1: MIRROR CSRL model: Reference model for process steps in a reflective learning cycle, with associated categories of tool use. Published in (Krogstie et al.: Computer support for reflective learning in the workplace: A model, ICALT 2012) ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 31 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 31 • November 2012 Pap www 2
From the fieldFigure 2: Mirror Talk Reflect appabout the design of the MIRROR apps. The evaluation also apps and management have already provided enthusiastic feed-brought about many useful ideas for the further refinement of back1.the MIRROR CSRL model into its version 2.0 (to be completed For an overview of our apps that facilitate reflection at work,in June 2014). For more information about the MIRROR CSRL please have a look at our website.model contact Birgit R. Krogstie (firstname.lastname@example.org). To get an idea of the very different types of apps we are creat-3. Mirror apps and serious games ing, we mention a few examples here:Reflection is an important starting point for learning. Reflection The Talk Reflection App focusses on support for articulation andcan be triggered by games, apps or real-life situations. After re- collaborative reflection for physicians. As a part of their dailyflection, creative thinking enables the MIRROR user to find al- work physicians at one of the testbeds have to inform patientsternatives. Using this approach we believe we can enable work- and their relatives about the current health status and possibili-ers to quickly adjust to fast changing circumstances and learn in ties for therapies of patients after they suffered from a stroke.real-time and improve their performance. This are often challenging conversations since telling “bad news” produces emotional stress on both sides. The Talk Reflec-The MIRROR project contains a balance of research and practi-cal implementation. The five testbeds demonstrate how reflec- 1 More on the evaluation framework can be found in our deliverable D1.5tion can enable learning in hospitals, sales organisations, HR, Specification of Evaluation Methodology and Research Tooling (Editor: Birgitand care homes, and after our first round of testing users of the R. Krogstie, NTNU) http://www.mirror-project.eu/work-packages/reflection- model-a-user-studies ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 31 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 31 • November 2012 Pap www 3
From the fieldtion app allows physicians to articulate and share their experi-ences with colleagues to discuss and reflect on them and find away to deal with more difficult situations.Capture and share your mood with the MoodMap App. Captur-ing your mood during work, important meetings or interestingdiscussions helps you to become aware of your personal moodas well as the collaborative mood of your team.CLinIC-The Virtual Tutor and Think better CARE-The Virtual Tutorare two twin 3D serious games focused on difficult communica-tion between nursing/carer staff and patients/residents. Thesetools aim to foster reflection around difficult dialogues and sit-uations, and to maximize the learners’ ability to self-regulatetheir training with the support of a ‘Virtual Tutor’ inside thegame.The Carer App is a mobile creativity support app to assist staff inthe care for people with dementia. Care staff can use it to createnew solutions to challenging behaviours through systems withcase-based and analogical reasoning, and with recorded goodcare practices.If you are interested in the Mirror Project and our apps andwould like to test them, please contact BT Learning Solutions,email@example.com.You can stay informed and become a member of our LinkedIngroup: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=3357670,or follow us on Twitter @MirrorIP. Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers Copyrights ISSN: 1887-1542 The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject Publisher: elearningeuropa.info to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. 3.0 Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast pro- Postal address: c/Muntaner 262, 3r, 08021 Barcelona (Spain) vided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Phone: +34 933 670 400 Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licens- Internet: www.elearningpapers.eu es/by-nc-nd/3.0/ ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 31 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 31 • November 2012 Pap www 4