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Economic impact of tourism
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thanks for dropping by. some of my slides are also copied from different presentation i downloaded from the net and from my books.

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  1. 1. SOCIO- CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Tourism impacts and sustainability (Pre-Finals) SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  2. 2. SOCIOLOGY OF TOURISM: Defining Society, Culture and Impacts Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism  Sociology is the study of society and is concerned with people in groups, their interaction, their attitudes and their behavior.  Society refers to the patterns of social organization of and within communities.  Culture is about how people interact as observed through social interactions, social relations and material artefacts.
  3. 3. Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism  Social impacts of tourism refers to changes in the lives of people living in destination communities.  Cultural impacts of tourism refers to changes in the arts, artifacts, customs, rituals, and architecture of a people.  The term socio-cultural impactssocio-cultural impacts refers to changes to resident’s everyday experiences, as well as to their values, way of life, and intellectual and artistic products. SOCIOLOGY OF TOURISM: Defining Society, Culture and Impacts
  4. 4. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INTRODUCTION •The socio-cultural impacts of tourism described here are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists, and of interaction with the tourism industry. •The interaction of the two groups will be a major issue in affecting the types of impacts. •“..when there is large contrast between the culture of the receiving society and the origin culture, then it is likely that impacts will be greatest.” Burns and Holden (1995)
  5. 5. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INTRODUCTION •For a variety of reasons, host communities often are the weaker party in interactions with their guests and service providers, leveraging any influence they might have. •These influences are not always apparent, as they are difficult to measure, depend on value judgments and are often indirect or hard to identify.
  6. 6. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INTRODUCTION •Impacts arise when tourism brings changes in value systems / behaviour, threatening indigenous identity. •Changes often occur in community structure, family relationships, collective traditional life styles, ceremonies and morality. •But tourism can also generate positive impacts as it can serve as a supportive force for peace, foster pride in cultural traditions and help avoid urban relocation by creating local jobs. •Socio-cultural impacts are ambiguous: the same objectively described impacts are seen as beneficial by some groups and as negative by others.
  8. 8. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Commodification •Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious rituals, traditional ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity." •Once a destination is sold as a tourism product, and the tourism demand for souvenirs, arts, entertainment and other commodities begins to exert influence, basic changes in human values may occur. •Sacred sites and objects may not be respected when they are perceived as goods to trade.
  9. 9. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Commodification •Keechak Dance, part of the traditional religious ritual, performed originally only on special occasions in Bali’s Agama Hindu culture, has been shortened, taken out of its religious context and performed on a daily basis, to paying tourists groups. •Loss of authenticity. Tourists want souvenirs, arts, crafts, and cultural manifestations, and in many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded to the growing demand, and have made changes in design of their products to bring them more in line with the new customers' tastes. While the interest shown by tourists also contributes to the sense of self-worth of the artists, and helps conserve a cultural tradition, cultural erosion may occur due to the commodification of cultural goods.
  10. 10. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Standardization •Destinations risk standardization in the process of satisfying tourists' desires for familiar facilities. •While landscape, accommodation, food and drinks, etc., must meet the tourists' desire for the new and unfamiliar, they must at the same time not be too new or strange because few tourists are actually looking for completely new things. •Tourists often look for recognizable facilities in an unfamiliar environment, like well-known fast-food restaurants and hotel chains.
  11. 11. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Culture Clashes • Because tourism involves movement of people to different geographical locations, and establishment of social relations between people who would otherwise not meet, cultural clashes can take place as a result of differences in cultures, ethnicity, religion, values, lifestyles, languages, and levels of prosperity. • The result can be an overexploitation of the social carrying capacity (limits of acceptable change in the social system inside or around the destination) and cultural carrying capacity (limits of acceptable change in the culture of the host population) of the local community. • The attitude of local residents towards tourism development may unfold through the stages of euphoria, where visitors are very welcome, through apathy, irritation and potentially antagonism, when anti-tourist attitudes begin growing among local people.
  12. 12. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Cultural clashes may further arise through: Economic inequality • Many tourists come from societies with different consumption patterns and lifestyles than what is current at the destination, seeking pleasure, spending large amounts of money and sometimes behaving in ways that even they would not accept at home. • One effect is that local people that come in contact with these tourists may develop a sort of copying behaviour, as they want to live and behave in the same way (DE). • Especially in less developed countries, there is likely to be a growing distinction between the 'haves' and 'have-nots', which may increase social and sometimes ethnic tensions. • In resorts in destination countries such as Jamaica, Indonesia or Brazil, tourism employees with annual salaries of US$ 1,500 spend their working hours in close contact with guests whose yearly income is well over US$ 80,000.
  13. 13. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Irritation due to tourist behaviour •Tourists often, out of ignorance or carelessness, fail to respect local customs and moral values. •When they do, they can bring about irritation and stereotyping. •They take a quick snapshot and are gone, and by so acting invade the local peoples' lives.
  14. 14. • In many Muslim countries, strict standards exist regarding the appearance and behaviour of Muslim women, who must carefully cover themselves in public. • Tourists in these countries often disregard or are unaware of these standards, ignoring the prevalent dress code, appearing half-dressed (by local standards) in revealing shorts, skirts or even bikinis, sunbathing topless at the beach or consuming large quantities of alcohol openly. • Besides creating ill-will, this kind of behavior can be an incentive for locals not to respect their own traditions and religion anymore, leading to tensions within the local community. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  15. 15. Job level friction • In developing countries especially, many jobs occupied by local people in the tourist industry are at a lower level, such as housemaids, waiters, gardeners and other practical work, while higher-paying and more prestigious managerial jobs go to foreigners or "urbanized" nationals. • Due to a lack of professional training, as well as to the influence of hotel or restaurant chains at the destination, people with the know-how needed to perform higher level jobs are often recruited from other countries. • This may cause friction and irritation and increases the gap between the cultures. • Even in cases where tourism "works", in the sense that it improves local economies and the earning power of local individuals, it cannot solve all local social or economic problems. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  16. 16. Ethical issues Crime generation • Crime rates typically increase with the growth and urbanization of an area, and growth of mass tourism is often accompanied by increased crime. • The presence of a large number of tourists with a lot of money to spend, and often carrying valuables such as cameras and jewellery, increases the attraction for criminals and brings with it activities like robbery and drug dealing. • Repression of these phenomena often exacerbates social tension. • In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, tourists staying in beachside five star resorts close to extremely poor communities in hillside "favelas" are at risk of pickpockets and stick-ups. Security agents, often armed with machine guns, stand guard nearby in full sight, and face aggressive reactions from locals who are often their neighbours when they go home. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  17. 17. Child labour • Studies show that many jobs in the tourism sector have working and employment conditions that leave much to be desired: long hours, unstable employment, low pay, little training and poor chances for qualification. • In addition, recent developments in the travel and tourism trade (liberalisation, competition, concentration, drop in travel fares, growth of subcontracting) seem to reinforce the trend towards more precarious, flexible employment conditions. • For many such jobs young children are recruited, as they are cheap and flexible employees. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  18. 18. Prostitution and sex tourism • The commercial sexual exploitation of children and young women has paralleled the growth of tourism in many parts of the world. • Though tourism is not the cause of sexual exploitation, it provides easy access to it. • Tourism also brings consumerism to many parts of the world previously denied access to luxury commodities and services. • The lure of this easy money has caused many young people, including children, to trade their bodies in exchange for T-shirts, personal stereos, bikes and even air tickets out of the country. • In other situations children are trafficked into the brothels on the margins of the tourist areas and sold into sex slavery, very rarely earning enough money to escape. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  19. 19. Prostitution and sex tourism •The UN has defined child sex tourism as "tourism organised with the primary purpose of facilitating the effecting of a commercial sexual relationship with a child". •Certain tourism destinations have become centres for this illegal trade, frequented by paedophiles and supported by networks of pimps, taxi drivers, hotel staff, brothel owners, entertainment establishments, and tour operators who organize package sex tours. •At the international level, there are agents who provide information about particular resorts where such practices are commonplace. •Although sexual exploitation of children is a worldwide phenomenon, it is more prevalent in Asia than elsewhere. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  20. 20. Changes in cultural products and festivals •The production of cultural arts and activities for tourists has often resulted in changes in cultural products, cultural festivals, ceremonies, and dances to make them more palatable to visitors. Negative stereotypes •Int’l tourists and residents often have very different cultural backgrounds and it develops negative stereotypes of tourists from their direct encounters. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  21. 21. DEMONSTRATION EFFECT •Demonstration Effect - different approaches exposed to tourists by the younger and older residents of a community. •It is theorized, that simply observing tourist will lead to behavioral changes in the resident population (Williams, 1998). Under these conditions, local people will note the superior material possessions of the visitors and aspire to these. This may have positive effects; in that it can encourage residents to adopt more productive patterns of behavior. But more frequently it is disruptive in that locals become resentful because they are unable to obtain goods and lifestyle demonstrated by the visitors (Burns and Holden, 1995). •The demonstration effect may also encourage the more able, younger members of the society to migrate from rural areas in search of the “demonstrated” lifestyle in urban areas or even overseas. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  22. 22. ACCULTURATION •Acculturation theory states that when two cultures come into contact for any length of time, an exchange of ideas and products will take place that, through time, produce varying levels of convergence between the cultures; that is they become similar. Acculturation may occur when the contact is for a longer period and is deeper. (Williams, 1998) •However, this process will not necessarily be balanced, as one culture is likely to be stronger than the other. •One of the perceived negative effects of this acculturation process is the reduction in the diversity of global cultures. Ex: ‘McDonaldization’, ‘Coca-Colaization’ NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  23. 23. HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSERVATION • Tourism can contribute to positive developments, not just negative impacts. • It has the potential to promote social development through employment creation, income redistribution and poverty alleviation. • Other potential positive impacts of tourism include: – Tourism as a force for peace – Strengthening communities – Facilities developed for tourism can benefit residents – Revaluation of culture and traditions – Encourages civic involvement and pride
  24. 24. Tourism as a force for peace • Travelling brings people into contact with each other and, as tourism has an educational element, it can foster understanding between peoples and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. • Because of this, the chances increase for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce their prejudices. • For example, jobs provided by tourism in Belfast, Northern Ireland, are expected to help demobilize paramilitary groups as the peace process is put in place. • In the end, sympathy and understanding can lead to a decrease of tension in the world and thus contribute to peace. HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO- CULTURAL CONSERVATION
  25. 25. Strengthening communities • Tourism can add to the vitality of communities in many ways. • One example is that events and festivals of which local residents have been the primary participants and spectators are often rejuvenated and developed in response to tourist interest. • The jobs created by tourism can act as a vital incentive to reduce emigration from rural areas. • Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development, as well as improve their job and earnings prospects, through tourism-related professional training and development of business and organizational skills. HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO- CULTURAL CONSERVATION
  26. 26. • The San of Namibia and southern Africa and the aboriginal peoples of Australia have recently regained management or ownership of traditional national park lands and conservancies, operating eco-lodges and serving as guides and rangers while maintaining their heritage. • E.g. Gudigwa Camp, Botswana HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO- CULTURAL CONSERVATION
  27. 27. Facilities developed for tourism can benefit residents • As tourism supports the creation of community facilities and services that otherwise might not have been developed, it can bring higher living standards to a destination. • Benefits can include upgraded infrastructure, health and transport improvements, new sport and recreational facilities, restaurants, and public spaces as well as an influx of better-quality commodities and food. Revaluation of culture and traditions • Tourism can boost the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions, which often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts. . HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO- CULTURAL CONSERVATION
  28. 28. Tourism encourages civic involvement and pride • Tourism also helps raise local awareness of the financial value of natural and cultural sites and can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation. • More broadly, the involvement of local communities in tourism development and operation appears to be an important condition for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIO- CULTURAL CONSERVATION
  29. 29. Factors Related to Individual Perceptions of Tourism  Residents who are likely to benefit from tourism are more likely to support tourism.  People with greater of involvement in and knowledge of tourism tend to support the industry.  Communities which have had little contact with outsiders have greater difficulty dealing with tourism than those with a longer history of dealing with other cultures.  Media portrayals of tourism can influence host perceptions by providing information which is used in the social construction of reality and which influence public opinion.
  30. 30.  Cultural shock refers to the totality of reactions to new people and settings which result in ineffective behaviors. Cultural shock may be experienced by either visitors or their hosts.  Cultural arrogance is defined as the continued practice of following one’s own cultural rules while disregarding the feelings and perspectives of the host community.  Tourist behaviors that breaking known morale, religious or social codes are example of continuing arrogance on the part of the visitors. Obstacles to Socio-cultural Understanding
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thanks for dropping by. some of my slides are also copied from different presentation i downloaded from the net and from my books.


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