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Meristem

  1. 1. Presentation of Plant AnatomyPresentation of Plant Anatomy Presented to;Presented to; Mam TaibaMam Taiba Presented by;Presented by; Farrukh JamilFarrukh Jamil Roll no;Roll no; _001_001
  2. 2. Plant Tissues;Plant Tissues;  Groups or masses of the cells that are alike inGroups or masses of the cells that are alike in region, structure, and function form tissue.region, structure, and function form tissue. From the study point of view, the tissues mayFrom the study point of view, the tissues may be grouped into three principal groups;be grouped into three principal groups;  1-Meristems or meristematic tissues.1-Meristems or meristematic tissues.  2-Permanent tissues.2-Permanent tissues.  3-Secretory tissues.3-Secretory tissues.
  3. 3. MeristemMeristem  Meristem is a ‘Geek word Meristosis”Meristem is a ‘Geek word Meristosis” meaning to divide.meaning to divide.  A meristemic tissue consists of a group ofA meristemic tissue consists of a group of cells which remain in a continuous state ofcells which remain in a continuous state of division or they retain their power of division.division or they retain their power of division.
  4. 4. Meristem
  5. 5. Charectrstics of meristem;Charectrstics of meristem;  Composed of immature cells which are state ofComposed of immature cells which are state of division and growth.division and growth.  Intercellular spaces are absent.Intercellular spaces are absent.  Cells are rounded,oval or polygonal in shape.Cells are rounded,oval or polygonal in shape.  Cells are always living and thin walled.Cells are always living and thin walled.  Each cells has abundant cytoplasm and one orEach cells has abundant cytoplasm and one or more nuclei.more nuclei.  Nuclei are may quite small or absent.Nuclei are may quite small or absent.  The cells are capable of regular,continuousThe cells are capable of regular,continuous mitotic division.mitotic division.
  6. 6. Classification 0f Meristem;Classification 0f Meristem;  The meristematic tissue is classified on the basis ofThe meristematic tissue is classified on the basis of origin, location in the plant body and differentiation.origin, location in the plant body and differentiation.  Based on originBased on origin  Based on locationBased on location  Based on differentiationBased on differentiation
  7. 7. Based on origin;Based on origin; Based on origin, meristem can be classified intoBased on origin, meristem can be classified into the following two types:the following two types: Primary meristemPrimary meristem Secondary meristemSecondary meristem
  8. 8. Primary Meristem;Primary Meristem;  It is the meristem present at right fromIt is the meristem present at right from embryonic stageembryonic stage  Active throughout the life of plantActive throughout the life of plant  Responsible for primary growth in the plantResponsible for primary growth in the plant bodybody  Responsible for primary growth in the plantResponsible for primary growth in the plant bodybody  It gives rise to primary permanent tissue of theIt gives rise to primary permanent tissue of the plant bodyplant body
  9. 9. ExampleExample  Meristem found at the tip of the stem and root.Meristem found at the tip of the stem and root.
  10. 10. Secondary Meristem;Secondary Meristem;  It is the meristem that aears later in the lifeIt is the meristem that aears later in the life cycle of a plantcycle of a plant  . It is responsible for secondary growth in the. It is responsible for secondary growth in the plant bodyplant body  . It gives rise to secondary permanent tissues. It gives rise to secondary permanent tissues such as secondary cortex and secondarysuch as secondary cortex and secondary xylem.xylem.  e.g Cork cambium and vascular cambium.e.g Cork cambium and vascular cambium.
  11. 11. . Based on Location (or Position). Based on Location (or Position) in the Plant Bodyin the Plant Body  Apical meristemApical meristem  Intercalary meristemIntercalary meristem  Lateral meristemLateral meristem
  12. 12. Apical Meristem;Apical Meristem;  It is the meristem present at the tip of the rootIt is the meristem present at the tip of the root and stem, commonly called as root apex andand stem, commonly called as root apex and shoot apex respectively.shoot apex respectively.  Such meristems constitute the activelySuch meristems constitute the actively growing regions in the plant body.growing regions in the plant body.  Due to the activity of apical meristem the plantDue to the activity of apical meristem the plant body keeps increasing in its lengthbody keeps increasing in its length
  13. 13. Root and Apical MeristemRoot and Apical Meristem
  14. 14. Shoot Apical MeristemShoot Apical Meristem
  15. 15. Root Apical MeristemRoot Apical Meristem 1. Root cap initials 2. Protoderm 3. Ground meristem 4. Procambium 5. Root cap
  16. 16. Inercalary Meristem;Inercalary Meristem;  It is the meristem that occurs betweenIt is the meristem that occurs between permanent tissuespermanent tissues  . It may also occur at the base of the leaves. It may also occur at the base of the leaves  It is particularly common at the nodal regions.It is particularly common at the nodal regions.  It is also responsible for the formation ofIt is also responsible for the formation of branches at the nodal regions.branches at the nodal regions.  The apical and intercalary meristems areThe apical and intercalary meristems are examples of primary meristem.examples of primary meristem.
  17. 17. Intercalary MeristemIntercalary Meristem
  18. 18. Lateral meristemLateral meristem  The lateral meristems are composed of suchThe lateral meristems are composed of such initials which divides in mainly in oneinitials which divides in mainly in one plane(periclinally) and increase in the diameterplane(periclinally) and increase in the diameter of an organ.of an organ.  This is responsible for growth in thickness ofThis is responsible for growth in thickness of plant body.plant body.
  19. 19. Based on Differentiation;Based on Differentiation;  There are three typesThere are three types  Protoderm (It is the meristem that alwaysProtoderm (It is the meristem that always differentiates into protective structures likedifferentiates into protective structures like epidermis).epidermis).  Ground meristem(It is the meristem thatGround meristem(It is the meristem that always differentiates into ground tissuealways differentiates into ground tissue components such as cortex, endodermis andcomponents such as cortex, endodermis and pith).pith).
  20. 20. ProcambiumProcambium  It is the meristem that always differentiatesIt is the meristem that always differentiates into theinto the vascular tissuesvascular tissues like xylem andlike xylem and phloem.phloem.
  21. 21. Lateral Meristems – secondaryLateral Meristems – secondary growth in woody plantsgrowth in woody plants This stem has two lateral meristems. They are the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. (This is 1 year)
  22. 22. Lateral Meristems – secondaryLateral Meristems – secondary growth in woody plantsgrowth in woody plants Basswood – root in cross section Basswood – stem in cross section; 1, 2, 3 year old stems
  23. 23. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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