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Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Contents <ul><li>scene setting… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the UK context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM directions </li></ul><...
JISC CETIS <ul><li>represents UK colleges and universities on international learning technology standards initiatives </li...
UK MEG group <ul><li>MEG = Metadata for Education Group </li></ul><ul><li>informal grouping of parties interested in elear...
Higher Education Academy <ul><li>distributed service supporting provision of elearning in UK </li></ul><ul><li>delivered t...
Intute <ul><li>JISC-funded service delivering subject gateways </li></ul><ul><li>4 major subject hubs (portals) </li></ul>...
UK LOM Core <ul><li>UK activity to build an application profile of IEEE LOM </li></ul><ul><li>led by CETIS </li></ul><ul><...
RLLOMAP <ul><li>joint activity between the RDN and the LTSN (RL LOM AP) </li></ul><ul><li>developed an application profile...
RLLOMAP – lesson 1 <ul><li>think about naming! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LTSN became the HEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDN be...
RLLOMAP – lesson 2 <ul><li>don’t fracture the community </li></ul><ul><li>RLLOMAP is (quite widely??) used and cited </li>...
RLLOMAP – lesson 3 <ul><li>ensure sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>need to ensure that RLLOMAP is maintained </li></ul><ul...
Wider environment <ul><li>the wider environment is also changing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE have initiated activity designed t...
DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce <ul><li>aim is to align use of DC in LOM </li></ul><ul><li>currently LOM and DC can’t easily be m...
What is the DCMI Abstract Model? <ul><li>a set of rules defining how DC metadata descriptions are constructed </li></ul><u...
What is the DCMI Abstract Model? (2) <ul><li>independent of particular syntaxes </li></ul><ul><li>but descriptions that co...
Example description Description Set ( Description ( Resource URI ( <http://purl.org/poi/rdn.ac.uk/12345-67890> )  Statemen...
UK Educational Levels <ul><li>developed under MEG </li></ul><ul><li>list of 14 levels covering ‘foundation’ (pre-school) t...
UK Educational Levels <ul><li>usage in LOM/XML… </li></ul><classification> <purpose> <source>LOMv1.0</source> <value>educa...
Assigning URI to vocabulary terms <ul><li>good practice in DC metadata to assign and use URIs to terms (not just strings) ...
But what about maintenance? <ul><li>what does the PURL resolve to? </li></ul><ul><li>who owns it? </li></ul><ul><li>who is...
Using UKEL in tagging systems <ul><li>but what about social tagging systems like Flickr, del.icio.us and Connotea? </li></...
del.icio.us example UKEL-based tag
Flickr example UKEL-based tag
Tagging beyond UKEL… <ul><li>is it possible to go further? </li></ul><ul><li>can we agree how to tag by educational level,...
Features of folksonomies <ul><li>open - no centralised control </li></ul><ul><li>no formal definitions associated with tag...
Summary Formal Informal LOM futures, DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce, UKEL URIs, LO repositroies, etc. tagging systems, Flickr, d...
Lomtologies <ul><li>an informal and potentially fluid vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>that is useful in the context of descri...
Discuss <ul><li>… discuss… </li></ul>
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Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies

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A presentation to the LOM Special Session at the DC-2006 conference, Manzanillo, Mexico in October 2006.

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Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies

  1. 1. Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>scene setting… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the UK context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM directions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK elearning vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>where formal meets informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using formal vocabularies to improve social tagging systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR using informal systems to improve the maintenance of vocabularies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. JISC CETIS <ul><li>represents UK colleges and universities on international learning technology standards initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>principle channel between the UK community and IMS and IEEE LOM </li></ul><ul><li>wide range of other elearning related activities </li></ul><ul><li>range of community-based ‘Special Interest Group’ activities – e.g. CETIS Metadata and Repository SIG </li></ul>http://www.cetis.ac.uk/
  4. 4. UK MEG group <ul><li>MEG = Metadata for Education Group </li></ul><ul><li>informal grouping of parties interested in elearning issues </li></ul><ul><li>across school, college and university sectors in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>potentially useful home for UK vocabulary development </li></ul><ul><li>but no funding </li></ul><ul><li>now largely defunct </li></ul>http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/education/
  5. 5. Higher Education Academy <ul><li>distributed service supporting provision of elearning in UK </li></ul><ul><li>delivered thru range of subject centres </li></ul><ul><li>focussing on needs of elearning practioners in UK universities </li></ul><ul><li>previously known as the LTSN (Learning and Teaching Support Network) </li></ul>http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/
  6. 6. Intute <ul><li>JISC-funded service delivering subject gateways </li></ul><ul><li>4 major subject hubs (portals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>science, engineering and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arts and humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health and life sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>joint catalogue of approx 120,000 high-quality Internet resources (using DC) </li></ul><ul><li>about 80 subject-based Internet tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>previously known as the RDN (Resource Discovery Network) </li></ul>http://www.intute.ac.uk/
  7. 7. UK LOM Core <ul><li>UK activity to build an application profile of IEEE LOM </li></ul><ul><li>led by CETIS </li></ul><ul><li>intended to meet UK requirements </li></ul><ul><li>using UK-specific vocabularies where necessary </li></ul><ul><li>activity never formally signed-off, but standardised enough to allow implementation </li></ul>
  8. 8. RLLOMAP <ul><li>joint activity between the RDN and the LTSN (RL LOM AP) </li></ul><ul><li>developed an application profile of LOM – similar to UK LOM Core though slightly different </li></ul><ul><li>developed or made use of vocabularies in the areas of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resource types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK educational levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK educational contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK policy themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogic terms </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RLLOMAP – lesson 1 <ul><li>think about naming! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LTSN became the HEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDN became Intute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which yields HILOMAP rather than RLLOMAP??! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>more seriously, there’s a danger of names getting built into URIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. in the rdn_dc OAI-PMH format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the http://purl.org/rdn/terms/annotation property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>note: I don’t think that ‘rllomap’ is built into any namespace URIs – but it could have been! </li></ul>
  10. 10. RLLOMAP – lesson 2 <ul><li>don’t fracture the community </li></ul><ul><li>RLLOMAP is (quite widely??) used and cited </li></ul><ul><li>but everyone really wants to talk about and use UK LOM Core (or even just LOM) </li></ul><ul><li>by developing RLLOMAP we helped the community move forward but ultimately left a division </li></ul><ul><li>not drastic for interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>but potentially divisive for the community </li></ul>there’s a long term interoperability cost each time a new application profile is created?
  11. 11. RLLOMAP – lesson 3 <ul><li>ensure sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>need to ensure that RLLOMAP is maintained </li></ul><ul><li>particularly important for the vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>policy themes vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogic terms vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK Educational Contexts (UKEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK Educational Levels (UKEL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. regular (twice-yearly) meetings to check/update? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wider environment <ul><li>the wider environment is also changing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE have initiated activity designed to lead towards next-generation LOM </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE and DCMI have jointly created a DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce </li></ul><ul><li>note: these activities likely to change the syntax we’re used to </li></ul><ul><li>but (broadly speaking) the semantics being encoded will remain much the same </li></ul>
  13. 13. DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce <ul><li>aim is to align use of DC in LOM </li></ul><ul><li>currently LOM and DC can’t easily be mixed in XML </li></ul><ul><li>why? because they don’t currently shared a common underlying model </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. nesting in LOM/XML doesn’t carry the same semantics as nesting in DC/XML </li></ul><ul><li>intention is to use the DCMI Abstract Model </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. interpreting the semantics of LOM in terms of the DCMI Abstract Model </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is the DCMI Abstract Model? <ul><li>a set of rules defining how DC metadata descriptions are constructed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description is made up of one or more statements … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each statement instantiates a property/value pair and is made up of … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each value string is a simple, human-readable string … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a set of human-readable statements (as per above) </li></ul><ul><li>also formalised using UML </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is the DCMI Abstract Model? (2) <ul><li>independent of particular syntaxes </li></ul><ul><li>but descriptions that comply with the model can be encoded using any of the recognised DCMI encodings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. XHTML, XML and RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>simple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largely based on resource, property, value triple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be mapped to the RDF model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>highly extensible </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example description Description Set ( Description ( Resource URI ( <http://purl.org/poi/rdn.ac.uk/12345-67890> ) Statement ( Property URI ( dc:title ) Value String ( &quot;Wilfred Owen and Realism&quot; Language ( en-GB ) ) ) Statement ( Property URI ( dc:language ) Value String (&quot;en-GB&quot; ) Syntax Encoding Scheme URI ( dcterms:RFC3066 ) ) Statement ( Property URI ( lom:keyword ) Vocabulary Encoding Scheme URI ( a:NLS ) Value String ( &quot;Owen, Wilfred&quot; ) ) ) )
  17. 17. UK Educational Levels <ul><li>developed under MEG </li></ul><ul><li>list of 14 levels covering ‘foundation’ (pre-school) thru to post-doctoral levels </li></ul><ul><li>largely specified in terms of typical age, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>UK Educational Level 9 Definition: Undergraduate degree level. Typical age range: 18+ </li></ul><ul><li>started life as a 12-level list </li></ul>
  18. 18. UK Educational Levels <ul><li>usage in LOM/XML… </li></ul><classification> <purpose> <source>LOMv1.0</source> <value>educational level</value> </purpose> <taxonPath> <source> <string language=&quot;x-none&quot;>UKEL</string> </source> <taxon> <entry> <string language=&quot;x-none&quot;>UK Educational Level 5</string> </entry> </taxon> </taxonPath> </classification> just strings…
  19. 19. Assigning URI to vocabulary terms <ul><li>good practice in DC metadata to assign and use URIs to terms (not just strings) </li></ul><ul><li>so that each term in vocabulary is globally and uniquely identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>value URI vs. value string in DCAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>therefore need to assign a URI to each term in UKEL and other vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>and declare using RDFS/SKOS </li></ul><ul><li>have assigned a PURL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK Educational Level 4 = http://purl.org/meg/UKEL/level9 </li></ul></ul>note that this URI is still under discussion…
  20. 20. But what about maintenance? <ul><li>what does the PURL resolve to? </li></ul><ul><li>who owns it? </li></ul><ul><li>who is responsible for maintaining and serving the SKOS declaration? </li></ul><ul><li>who is responsible for updates? </li></ul><ul><li>need body with interest and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>… the interested parties in the UK are relatively short term </li></ul>
  21. 21. Using UKEL in tagging systems <ul><li>but what about social tagging systems like Flickr, del.icio.us and Connotea? </li></ul><ul><li>these systems allow end-user to assign simple ‘tags’ to resources </li></ul><ul><li>wouldn’t it be neat if we reached agreement about how to tag by educational level and other key ‘educational’ terms? </li></ul><ul><li>in UK, why not simply agree to all use ‘ukel4’ as tag for ‘UK Educational Level 4’… </li></ul><ul><li>or better, reach global agreement as to what ‘el4’ means – it can’t be that hard can it?!? </li></ul>
  22. 22. del.icio.us example UKEL-based tag
  23. 23. Flickr example UKEL-based tag
  24. 24. Tagging beyond UKEL… <ul><li>is it possible to go further? </li></ul><ul><li>can we agree how to tag by educational level, pedagogy (instructionalMethod), high-level subject and resource type </li></ul><ul><li>most tagging systems have simple APIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowing services to be built across systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on common set of tags… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… but where ‘our’ tags are related to an educational requirement </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Features of folksonomies <ul><li>open - no centralised control </li></ul><ul><li>no formal definitions associated with tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of meaning comes from common usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>URIs not assigned to tags </li></ul><ul><li>no simple mapping to commonly used metadata properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. tags not necessarily appropriate values for dc:subject </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Summary Formal Informal LOM futures, DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce, UKEL URIs, LO repositroies, etc. tagging systems, Flickr, del.icio.us, Connotea, folksonomies lomtologies as glue
  27. 27. Lomtologies <ul><li>an informal and potentially fluid vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>that is useful in the context of describing learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>and that is maintained by the community thru social tagging systems </li></ul><ul><li>without central control </li></ul><ul><li>where each term comprises a ‘tag’ and a URI </li></ul>Do lomtologies help to give the community ownership of the maintenance problem? Does the use of existing vocabularies as lomtologies improve the use of tagging systems?
  28. 28. Discuss <ul><li>… discuss… </li></ul>

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