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Heat and Thermodynamics
The laws of thermodynamics describe what happens to internal energy (mainly heat) as it is transformed into work and to other forms. First Law:  Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. NO FREE LUNCHES Second Law:   Impossible to take heat from a source and change all of it into useful work; some heat must be wasted. CAN’T BREAK EVEN Laws of Thermodynamics
Work and Heat Temperature of the water rises if either: heat is added work is done The total energy in the water is equal to work done to the a water and the heat added to the water.
The First Law of Thermodynamics The work done on a system plus the heat added to a system must equal the change in total energy of the system W on  + Q to  =   E    represents the “change in” something Q  is the symbol for heat
Example When a cylinder is compressed, work is done  on  the cylinder No heat added ( Q  = 0) W on  + 0 =   E The change in energy is positive and results in an increased temperature ( T 2  > T 1 )
Impossibilities Impossible Event: It is impossible for heat to spontaneously move a block across a table Impossible Machine: It is impossible to convert heat  completely  into useful energy Both do  not  violate the conservation of energy  (1st law)
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics In order to explain why some events are impossible, we need an additional law besides conservation of energy (1st law) The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics:  In an  isolated system , disorder always increases “ You Can’t Break Even” Entropy  is a measure of this disorder
Work and Heat Two kinds of motion (Energy) that the particles of an object can have. A coherent motion where they move together. An incoherent, chaotic motion of individual particles. Work (W) on an object is associated with coherent motion, while heating an object (Q) is associated with its internal incoherent motion (Entropy).
Example of Entropy Ice has low entropy, liquid water has more, steam has a lot Increasing Entropy Ice Liquid Water Water Vapor
Reason for the 2nd Law The number of ways a system can be in an  ordered state  (low entropy) is much smaller than the number of ways a system can be in a  disordered state  (high entropy) Example: There are a vast number of ways to arrange books randomly on a shelf, but only one way to arrange them alphabetically
Heat and Temperature Temperature is a measure of the average internal kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. Heat is a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed or transferred from one body to another. Increasing the internal energy is called heating. Decreasing the internal energy is called cooling.
Sensible Heat Sensible Heat  is heat that we can sense.  A thermometer can be used to measure this form of heat.  Several different scales of measurement exist for measuring sensible heat. The most common are: Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, and the Kelvin scale.  Kelvins are useful to scientists because  no object in nature can ever have a temperature lower than 0 K (absolute zero) 0 K =  -273° C
Some Common Temperatures
Heat The relationship between temperature and heat is: Q = mc  T Q = heat in calories m  is the mass in kilograms  T is the change in Temperature in degrees Celsius c  is the specific heat in  Joules per gram ° Celsius
Units of Heat A  calorie (cal)  is the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1° Celsius A Calorie or  Food Calorie  is 1000 cal (kilocalorie). A  Btu  (British thermal unit) is the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water by 1° Fahrenheit
Specific Heat and Heat Capacity The  specific heat   of a substance is the number of Joules necessary to raise the temperature of one gram by 1° Celsius A material with a high specific heat has a large  heat capacity   (the ability to store thermal energy). An object with a high specific heat/ heat capacity also has a high  thermal inertia  meaning it will heat up and cool down at a slow rate.
Water has the one of the highest specific heat values and therefore has a high heat capacity .
Heat also depends on Mass If both objects were heated for several hours they will have the same temperature. However, the larger array will store nine times more thermal energy than the same one.
Example Energy used to take a bath: How much energy is required to heat 200 kg of water from 20°C to 50°C? Answer:  Q  = (200kg)(4,180)(50-20°C)   25,000,000 J  Note that heat depends upon mass.   The more water (mass), the more energy required to heat the water to a particular temperature.
How Hot is the Pizza?   To better illustrate the idea of heat capacity, consider this scenario: Your pizza has just been taken from the oven and you're hungry. The crust is not too hot to handle when you pick it up. You're confirmed in your belief that it's at the perfect temperature when you touch the crust to your tongue. It feels warm, but not uncomfortably hot. So chomp! and Oww! Your mouth is burned by the pizza sauce. How can this be? Obviously, both the crust and the sauce are at the same temperature ... after all, they were heated together in the same oven.
How Hot is the Pizza? Even though they were both at the same temperature, the sauce (because it contains more water) contains more thermal energy.  Because of this, more thermal energy is required to raise the sauce to the same temperature as the crust. When you put the pizza in your mouth, both the sauce and crust lose heat until they reach the same temperature as your mouth. The (water containing) sauce has much more heat to surrender and that's why it burns so much.
Thermal Inertia of the Oceans Due to the large mass and high heat capacity, the earth’s oceans have considerable thermal inertia.
Thermal Inertia of the Oceans The  good news  is that because the oceans are so large, and take so much time to absorb the thermal energy, we are warming more slowly than would otherwise occur. The  bad news  is that the oceans not only take up heat slowly, the also dissipate heat slowly. So even if we are able to reduce the greenhouse gases in the earth atmosphere to reasonable levels, the thermal inertial of the oceans will still take quite some time to respond and cooling down the earth will take considerable time.
Latent Heat Sometimes, adding heat to a system  does not  result in an increase in temperature When a substance changes from one state to another (solid to liquid, liquid to gas, etc), the transition is called a phase change. A phase change always absorbs or releases thermal energy.  The a quantity of heat that is not associated with a temperature change is called  Latent Heat. Latent Heat is "hidden heat" because it cannot be detected with a thermometer.
Latent Heat of Water The diagram below describes the various exchanges of heat involved with 1 gram of water as it changes states.
Latent Heat of Water The temperature of water does not change during melting, evaporation, condensation or freezing, even though energy is still being transferred.
Latent Heat and Sweating On a hot and dry day, sweating will cool the body, because when the sweat evaporates, it absorbs "latent heat of evaporation" from it's surroundings, mostly your skin.  So, in a real sense, heat is removed from your skin to change the sweat from liguid to vapor.  Conversely, if steam hits your skin and condenses into water, it would release the latent heat, thus heating your skin even more than boiling water.
Latent Heat and Climate While the planet is warming, the polar regions are cooled by the latent heat removed from the climatic system due to the ice melting. This gives the polar ice the well deserved title of the "air conditioner of the planet".  But the capacity of this air conditioner diminishes the less there is left of the sea ice.
Latent Heat and Storms Storm clouds form when water evaporates from the oceans and then condenses in the sky releasing latent heat obtained from the oceans.  An average thunderstorm containing around 1500 tons of water will release 3.45 billion Joules of energy While the planet is warming, more water evaporates from the oceans so storms will become stronger and more frequent.
Principles of Heat Transfer Heat transfer is one way of transferring energy to a body (work is the other) Occurs only when there is a  temperature difference  between the two bodies (heat flows from hot to cold) Occurs through three processes: Conduction Convection Radiation
From Hot to Cold Heat energy is transferred when there is a difference in temperature In an  isolated system  heat flows from  hot to cold  until both bodies are at the  same temperature
The Three Types of Heat Transfer Conduction:  Heat is transferred through a material (e.g. insulation or glass) Convection:  Heat is transferred by air or water currents (e.g. ocean currents) Radiation:  Heat is transferred when a hot body emits radiation (e.g. infrared radiation given off by a fire)
Conduction Conduction depends on the following: Type of Material:  thermal conductivity  (e.g. metal spoons transfer heat better than plastic) Temperature Difference Area (e.g. a thin stirring stick transfers less heat than a thick spoon) Thickness (the distance heat has to travel)
Heat Conduction Equation Q C /t  =  heat transferred per unit of time k = thermal conductivity A = area T 2  - T 1  = temperature difference    = thickness
Examples of Conduction Why does crushed ice melt faster than ice cubes? Answer: Because the exposed area is larger Why do you save money by turning down the thermostat in cold weather? Answer: Because the temperature difference (between inside and outside) is smaller
Convection Warm air (water) rises and cool air (water) sinks Why? Because warm air (water) is less dense and “floats” on cooler air (water) The rising of warm air (water) creates circulating  convection currents Convection can occur in any gas or fluid.
Examples of Convection The sea breeze is caused by differences in temperature between the ocean and the shore In fact,  all weather and ocean currents  are caused by convection A draft in a cold room is caused by convection currents from air leaking through a window or door A “rolling boil” in a pot is the result of convection
Radiation Radiation results in heat being emitted “at the speed of light” Radiated heat requires no medium (e.g. air) and can propagate through empty space Heat is emitted as type of  electromagnetic radiation Here, radiation does not refer to the emissions of radioactive substances
Types of Electromagnetic Radiation
The Wave Nature of Light Wavelength is the distance from one crest to the next The Frequency   (f) of a wave is the number of complete waves that pass a point  in a given time. Hertz is the unit of frequency. The Velocity is always the speed of light.
Frequency and Wave Length Relationship between frequency and wave length c =   f c  = The speed of light = 3.0 X 108  m s-1  = The wavelength of the radiation (m) f  = The frequency of the radiation (Hz or s-1) **** The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy.
Temperature and Radiation The Higher the Temperature, the  Greater amount of radiation being emitted. Lower the Wavelength of Radiation being emitted. Higher the Frequency of Radiation being emitted.
Temperature and Radiation Hot objects emit radiation over a wide range of wavelengths  Object hotter than ~1000° C begin to emit visible light in addition to infrared radiation. Incandescent lights have heated filaments that emit visible light when the temperature get to 2500 °C
Temperature and Radiation The temperature of the surface of the sun is about 6000° C. At this temperature, the sun emits visible light (43%), UV (7%) and Infrared Radiation (49%). Note:  Visible light is the most intense radiation.
Temperature and Radiation A hot burner on a stove or a fire emits large amounts of infrared and a smaller amount of visible radiation Which is warmer, a blue flame or a red flame? Why? Mammals including you (~40° C) emit mostly infrared radiation.  That’s why infrared “night goggles” work.
An Example of Heat Transfer A radiator works by circulating steam through a series of pipes, where it condenses and releases heat Heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation
The Campfire If you hold one end of a burning stick (not the burning end!) you will eventually feel it getting hotter. This is heat transfer by conduction.  If you hold your hand above the fire (but not too close!), it will be warmed by convected air.  If you are somewhere in the vicinity, you will feel the side toward the fire getting warmer due to infrared radiation.

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Heat Lecture Slides

  • 2. The laws of thermodynamics describe what happens to internal energy (mainly heat) as it is transformed into work and to other forms. First Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. NO FREE LUNCHES Second Law: Impossible to take heat from a source and change all of it into useful work; some heat must be wasted. CAN’T BREAK EVEN Laws of Thermodynamics
  • 3. Work and Heat Temperature of the water rises if either: heat is added work is done The total energy in the water is equal to work done to the a water and the heat added to the water.
  • 4. The First Law of Thermodynamics The work done on a system plus the heat added to a system must equal the change in total energy of the system W on + Q to =  E  represents the “change in” something Q is the symbol for heat
  • 5. Example When a cylinder is compressed, work is done on the cylinder No heat added ( Q = 0) W on + 0 =  E The change in energy is positive and results in an increased temperature ( T 2 > T 1 )
  • 6. Impossibilities Impossible Event: It is impossible for heat to spontaneously move a block across a table Impossible Machine: It is impossible to convert heat completely into useful energy Both do not violate the conservation of energy (1st law)
  • 7. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics In order to explain why some events are impossible, we need an additional law besides conservation of energy (1st law) The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: In an isolated system , disorder always increases “ You Can’t Break Even” Entropy is a measure of this disorder
  • 8. Work and Heat Two kinds of motion (Energy) that the particles of an object can have. A coherent motion where they move together. An incoherent, chaotic motion of individual particles. Work (W) on an object is associated with coherent motion, while heating an object (Q) is associated with its internal incoherent motion (Entropy).
  • 9. Example of Entropy Ice has low entropy, liquid water has more, steam has a lot Increasing Entropy Ice Liquid Water Water Vapor
  • 10. Reason for the 2nd Law The number of ways a system can be in an ordered state (low entropy) is much smaller than the number of ways a system can be in a disordered state (high entropy) Example: There are a vast number of ways to arrange books randomly on a shelf, but only one way to arrange them alphabetically
  • 11. Heat and Temperature Temperature is a measure of the average internal kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. Heat is a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed or transferred from one body to another. Increasing the internal energy is called heating. Decreasing the internal energy is called cooling.
  • 12. Sensible Heat Sensible Heat is heat that we can sense. A thermometer can be used to measure this form of heat. Several different scales of measurement exist for measuring sensible heat. The most common are: Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, and the Kelvin scale. Kelvins are useful to scientists because no object in nature can ever have a temperature lower than 0 K (absolute zero) 0 K = -273° C
  • 14. Heat The relationship between temperature and heat is: Q = mc  T Q = heat in calories m is the mass in kilograms  T is the change in Temperature in degrees Celsius c is the specific heat in Joules per gram ° Celsius
  • 15. Units of Heat A calorie (cal) is the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1° Celsius A Calorie or Food Calorie is 1000 cal (kilocalorie). A Btu (British thermal unit) is the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water by 1° Fahrenheit
  • 16. Specific Heat and Heat Capacity The specific heat of a substance is the number of Joules necessary to raise the temperature of one gram by 1° Celsius A material with a high specific heat has a large heat capacity (the ability to store thermal energy). An object with a high specific heat/ heat capacity also has a high thermal inertia meaning it will heat up and cool down at a slow rate.
  • 17. Water has the one of the highest specific heat values and therefore has a high heat capacity .
  • 18. Heat also depends on Mass If both objects were heated for several hours they will have the same temperature. However, the larger array will store nine times more thermal energy than the same one.
  • 19. Example Energy used to take a bath: How much energy is required to heat 200 kg of water from 20°C to 50°C? Answer: Q = (200kg)(4,180)(50-20°C)  25,000,000 J Note that heat depends upon mass. The more water (mass), the more energy required to heat the water to a particular temperature.
  • 20. How Hot is the Pizza? To better illustrate the idea of heat capacity, consider this scenario: Your pizza has just been taken from the oven and you're hungry. The crust is not too hot to handle when you pick it up. You're confirmed in your belief that it's at the perfect temperature when you touch the crust to your tongue. It feels warm, but not uncomfortably hot. So chomp! and Oww! Your mouth is burned by the pizza sauce. How can this be? Obviously, both the crust and the sauce are at the same temperature ... after all, they were heated together in the same oven.
  • 21. How Hot is the Pizza? Even though they were both at the same temperature, the sauce (because it contains more water) contains more thermal energy. Because of this, more thermal energy is required to raise the sauce to the same temperature as the crust. When you put the pizza in your mouth, both the sauce and crust lose heat until they reach the same temperature as your mouth. The (water containing) sauce has much more heat to surrender and that's why it burns so much.
  • 22. Thermal Inertia of the Oceans Due to the large mass and high heat capacity, the earth’s oceans have considerable thermal inertia.
  • 23. Thermal Inertia of the Oceans The good news is that because the oceans are so large, and take so much time to absorb the thermal energy, we are warming more slowly than would otherwise occur. The bad news is that the oceans not only take up heat slowly, the also dissipate heat slowly. So even if we are able to reduce the greenhouse gases in the earth atmosphere to reasonable levels, the thermal inertial of the oceans will still take quite some time to respond and cooling down the earth will take considerable time.
  • 24. Latent Heat Sometimes, adding heat to a system does not result in an increase in temperature When a substance changes from one state to another (solid to liquid, liquid to gas, etc), the transition is called a phase change. A phase change always absorbs or releases thermal energy. The a quantity of heat that is not associated with a temperature change is called Latent Heat. Latent Heat is "hidden heat" because it cannot be detected with a thermometer.
  • 25. Latent Heat of Water The diagram below describes the various exchanges of heat involved with 1 gram of water as it changes states.
  • 26. Latent Heat of Water The temperature of water does not change during melting, evaporation, condensation or freezing, even though energy is still being transferred.
  • 27. Latent Heat and Sweating On a hot and dry day, sweating will cool the body, because when the sweat evaporates, it absorbs "latent heat of evaporation" from it's surroundings, mostly your skin. So, in a real sense, heat is removed from your skin to change the sweat from liguid to vapor. Conversely, if steam hits your skin and condenses into water, it would release the latent heat, thus heating your skin even more than boiling water.
  • 28. Latent Heat and Climate While the planet is warming, the polar regions are cooled by the latent heat removed from the climatic system due to the ice melting. This gives the polar ice the well deserved title of the "air conditioner of the planet". But the capacity of this air conditioner diminishes the less there is left of the sea ice.
  • 29. Latent Heat and Storms Storm clouds form when water evaporates from the oceans and then condenses in the sky releasing latent heat obtained from the oceans. An average thunderstorm containing around 1500 tons of water will release 3.45 billion Joules of energy While the planet is warming, more water evaporates from the oceans so storms will become stronger and more frequent.
  • 30. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat transfer is one way of transferring energy to a body (work is the other) Occurs only when there is a temperature difference between the two bodies (heat flows from hot to cold) Occurs through three processes: Conduction Convection Radiation
  • 31. From Hot to Cold Heat energy is transferred when there is a difference in temperature In an isolated system heat flows from hot to cold until both bodies are at the same temperature
  • 32. The Three Types of Heat Transfer Conduction: Heat is transferred through a material (e.g. insulation or glass) Convection: Heat is transferred by air or water currents (e.g. ocean currents) Radiation: Heat is transferred when a hot body emits radiation (e.g. infrared radiation given off by a fire)
  • 33. Conduction Conduction depends on the following: Type of Material: thermal conductivity (e.g. metal spoons transfer heat better than plastic) Temperature Difference Area (e.g. a thin stirring stick transfers less heat than a thick spoon) Thickness (the distance heat has to travel)
  • 34. Heat Conduction Equation Q C /t = heat transferred per unit of time k = thermal conductivity A = area T 2 - T 1 = temperature difference  = thickness
  • 35. Examples of Conduction Why does crushed ice melt faster than ice cubes? Answer: Because the exposed area is larger Why do you save money by turning down the thermostat in cold weather? Answer: Because the temperature difference (between inside and outside) is smaller
  • 36. Convection Warm air (water) rises and cool air (water) sinks Why? Because warm air (water) is less dense and “floats” on cooler air (water) The rising of warm air (water) creates circulating convection currents Convection can occur in any gas or fluid.
  • 37. Examples of Convection The sea breeze is caused by differences in temperature between the ocean and the shore In fact, all weather and ocean currents are caused by convection A draft in a cold room is caused by convection currents from air leaking through a window or door A “rolling boil” in a pot is the result of convection
  • 38. Radiation Radiation results in heat being emitted “at the speed of light” Radiated heat requires no medium (e.g. air) and can propagate through empty space Heat is emitted as type of electromagnetic radiation Here, radiation does not refer to the emissions of radioactive substances
  • 40. The Wave Nature of Light Wavelength is the distance from one crest to the next The Frequency (f) of a wave is the number of complete waves that pass a point in a given time. Hertz is the unit of frequency. The Velocity is always the speed of light.
  • 41. Frequency and Wave Length Relationship between frequency and wave length c =  f c = The speed of light = 3.0 X 108 m s-1  = The wavelength of the radiation (m) f = The frequency of the radiation (Hz or s-1) **** The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy.
  • 42. Temperature and Radiation The Higher the Temperature, the Greater amount of radiation being emitted. Lower the Wavelength of Radiation being emitted. Higher the Frequency of Radiation being emitted.
  • 43. Temperature and Radiation Hot objects emit radiation over a wide range of wavelengths Object hotter than ~1000° C begin to emit visible light in addition to infrared radiation. Incandescent lights have heated filaments that emit visible light when the temperature get to 2500 °C
  • 44. Temperature and Radiation The temperature of the surface of the sun is about 6000° C. At this temperature, the sun emits visible light (43%), UV (7%) and Infrared Radiation (49%). Note: Visible light is the most intense radiation.
  • 45. Temperature and Radiation A hot burner on a stove or a fire emits large amounts of infrared and a smaller amount of visible radiation Which is warmer, a blue flame or a red flame? Why? Mammals including you (~40° C) emit mostly infrared radiation. That’s why infrared “night goggles” work.
  • 46. An Example of Heat Transfer A radiator works by circulating steam through a series of pipes, where it condenses and releases heat Heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation
  • 47. The Campfire If you hold one end of a burning stick (not the burning end!) you will eventually feel it getting hotter. This is heat transfer by conduction. If you hold your hand above the fire (but not too close!), it will be warmed by convected air. If you are somewhere in the vicinity, you will feel the side toward the fire getting warmer due to infrared radiation.