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Historical Development of Physical Science

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Behold the long history that science told the generations to come.

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Historical Development of Physical Science

  1. 1. Physical Science: A Brief Historical Background
  2. 2. SCIERE / SCIENTIA  an organized way of knowing or investigating the world (Gutierrez, 1999)  a way to teach how something gets to be known, what is not known, to what extent things are known (for nothing is known absolutely), how to handle doubt and uncertainty, what the rules of evidence are, how to think about things so that judgments can be made, how to distinguish truth from fraud, and from show (Feynman, 1956)
  3. 3. SCIERE / SCIENTIA  a system where we discover and record physical phenomena  a process whereby man seeks to understand the world and the universe through scientific theories proven by practical experiments  the collective findings of human about nature, and a process of gathering and organizing knowledge about nature
  4. 4. Science as Natural Philosophy Science is the present-day equivalent of what used to be called Natural Philosophy.
  5. 5. The Broad Knowledge!
  6. 6. Physical Sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non- living systems, in contrast to life science.
  7. 7. Branches of Physical Sciences I. Physics – study of matter and energy, their relationship, and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as force II. Chemistry – composition, structure, properties and change of matter
  8. 8. Branches of Physical Sciences III.Earth Sciences – study of the Earth, such as but not limited to: a. Geology – study of the Earth, including the materials that it is made of, the physical and chemical processes that occur on its surface and in its interior, and the history of the planet and its life forms b. Meteorology – study of the Earth’s atmosphere and all relevant phenomena c. Hydrology – the study of the Earth’s water, its properties and its characteristics
  9. 9. Branches of Physical Sciences IV.Astronomy – study of celestial objects and processes, the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects and processes, and more generally all phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth
  10. 10. Looking Through the Past • derive from the rationalistic materialism that emerged in classical Greece, itself an outgrowth of magical and mythical views of the world • Greek philosophers of the 6th and 5th centuries BCE abandoned the animism of the poets and explained the world in terms of ordinarily observable natural processes
  11. 11. Looking Through the Past The seemingly unending questions: How did the world order emerge from chaos? What is the origin of multitude and variety in the world? How can motion and change be accounted for? What is the underlying relation between form and matter?
  12. 12. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy Western astronomy had its origins in Egypt and Mesopotamia. • largely concerned with time reckoning • the civil calendar of 365 days, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each and five additional festival days at the end of each year
  13. 13. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy The Babylonian Astronomy (1800 BCE) • constitutes one of the earliest systematic, scientific treatments of the physical world • Unlike Egyptians, the Babylonians were interested in the accurate prediction of astronomical phenomena, especially the first appearance of the new Moon
  14. 14. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy The Babylonian Astronomy Used the zodiac as a reference, by the 4th century BCE, they developed a complex system of arithmetic progressions and methods of approximation by which they were able to predict first appearances
  15. 15. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy The Babylonian Astronomy
  16. 16. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy Greek Astronomy • The Pythagoreans (5th century BCE) were responsible for one of the first Greek astronomical theories • Constructed the first model of the solar system, with a “central fire” about which all the heavenly bodies including Earth and the Sun revolve
  17. 17. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greek Astronomy Greek Astronomy • Aristotle and Euxodos, in formulating their cosmology, adopted the homocentric spheres as the actual machinery of the heavens • The cosmos was like an onion consisting of a series of some 55 spheres nested about Earth, which was fixed at the center
  18. 18. Greek Physics & Chemistry Several kinds of physical theories emerged in ancient Greece about the problem of motion from both metaphysical and mathematical points of view Atomists like Democritus (late 5th century), insisted that nature consists of immutable atoms moving in empty space
  19. 19. Greek Physics Aristotle • primarily concerned with the philosophical question of the nature of motion as one variety of change • assumed that a constant motion requires a constant cause; that is to say, as long as a body remains in motion, a force must be acting on that body
  20. 20. Greek Physics & Chemistry Archimedes (3rd century BCE) • fundamentally applied mathematics to the solution of physical problems and employed physical assumptions and insights leading to mathematical demonstrations, particularly in problems of statics and hydrostatics • derive the law of the lever rigorously and to deal with problems of the equilibrium of floating bodies
  21. 21. Islamic & Medieval Science The Decline in Greek Science • Greek science reached a zenith with the work of Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE • The lack of interest in theoretical questions in the Roman world reduced science in the Latin West to the level of predigested handbooks and encyclopedias that had been distilled many times • Social pressures, political persecution, and the anti- intellectual bias of some of the early Church Fathers drove the few remaining Greek scientists and philosophers to the East
  22. 22. Islamic Science & the Middle Age The Middle Ages • Avicenna is a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age • He criticized Aristotle's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are also self-luminous
  23. 23. Islamic Science & the Middle Age The Middle Ages • Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (9th Century) was a Persian mathematician, geographer and astronomer • Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. • He is often considered one of the fathers of algebra.
  24. 24. Scientific Revolution During the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, scientific thought underwent a revolution. A new view of nature emerged, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for almost 2,000 years. Science became an autonomous discipline, distinct from both philosophy and technology, and it came to be regarded as having utilitarian goals.
  25. 25. Scientific Revolution Scientific Transformations • the reeducation of common sense in favor of abstract reasoning • the substitution of a quantitative for a qualitative view of nature • the view of nature as a machine rather than as an organism • the development of an experimental method that sought definite answers to certain limited questions couched in the framework of specific theories • the acceptance of new criteria for explanation, stressing the “how” rather than the “why”
  26. 26. Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) • the first to propound a comprehensive heliocentric theory equal in scope and predictive capability to Ptolemy’s geocentric system • Copernican astronomy lay in Copernicus’s attitude toward the reality of his theory
  27. 27. Astronomy Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • Alchemist, astrologer, astronomer, supporter of the geocentric (Earth-centered) theory of the Solar System made important contributions by devising the most precise instruments available before the invention of the telescope for observing the heavens
  28. 28. Astronomy Johannes Kepler (1609) • placed the Copernican hypothesis on firm astronomical footing (1) the planets travel around the Sun in elliptical orbits, one focus of the ellipse being occupied by the Sun; and (2) a planet moves in its orbit in such a manner that a line drawn from the planet to the Sun always sweeps out equal areas in equal times
  29. 29. Astronomy & Physics Galileo Galilei (17th Century) • used the telescope, to look toward the heavens • observed that the Moon is not a smooth, polished surface, as Aristotle had claimed, but that it is jagged and mountainous
  30. 30. Astronomy & Physics Galileo Galilei (17th Century) • derive the law of free fall (the distance, s, varies as the square of the time, t2). • derive the parabolic path of projectile motion • his principle of inertia enabled him to meet the traditional physical objections to Earth’s motion
  31. 31. Physics Rene Descartes (17th Century) • widely regarded as the father of modern philosophy, broke with the Aristotelian tradition, helping establish modern rationalism • argued for a mechanistic universe in opposition to Aristotle's views on causality • made important contributions to mathematics and physics.
  32. 32. Physics Sir Isaac Newton The work Newton represents the culmination of the scientific revolution at the end of the 17th century. His monumental Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) solved the major problems posed by the scientific revolution in mechanics and in cosmology.
  33. 33. Chemistry Robert Boyle The thrust of his work was to understand the chemical properties of matter, to provide experimental evidence for the mechanical philosophy, and to demonstrate that all chemical properties can be explained in mechanical terms.
  34. 34. Contemporary Science • Marie Curie • Nikola Tesla • Niels Bohr • Max Planck • Albert Einstein
  35. 35. The Modern Day Science • Stephen Hawking worked on ground-breaking theorems regarding singularities within the framework of general relativity, and made the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation (known today as Hawking radiation)
  36. 36. The Modern Day • James Hansen best known for his research in climatology, his 1988 Congressional testimony on climate change that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his advocacy of action to avoid dangerous climate change
  37. 37. The Modern Day • Michio Kaku is a physicist, studied at Harvard University and later the University of California, Berkeley, before starting his long teaching tenure at the City College of New York. • The co-founder of string field theory, Kaku is the author of several popular books and has appeared on numerous television programs. • “In science, nothing is ever 100 percent proven.” —Michio Kaku.

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