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  1. 1. Chapter 9, part A The Central Nervous System
  2. 2. About this Chapter <ul><li>Emergent properties of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy and functions of the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions of the brain and what each controls </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of complex pathways for behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language, memory and others </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Nerve net – jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Simple brain & nerve cord – flatworm </li></ul><ul><li>Brain & nerve cord with ganglia – earthworm </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing forebrain – fish, bird & human </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory – fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex behavior – birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning & cognition – humans </li></ul></ul>Evolution of the Nervous System
  4. 4. Evolution of the Nervous System Figure 9-1: Evolution of the nervous system
  5. 5. <ul><li>Neural plate to neural tube </li></ul><ul><li>Neural crest–PNS </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior forms brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hollow ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul>Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-2: The embryonic nervous system develops into a hollow tube
  6. 6. Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-3 a-c: The neural tube specializes into the six major regions of the nervous system.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul>Central Nervous System: Overview Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
  8. 8. <ul><li>Hair, skin, cranium </li></ul><ul><li>Venous sinus blood </li></ul><ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drua mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pia mater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul>Protecting the Brain Figure 9-4b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
  9. 9. <ul><li>From coracoid plexus </li></ul><ul><li>Fills ventricles & subarachnoid </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid pillow floats brain </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To brain tissue </li></ul></ul>Cerebrospinal Fluid
  10. 10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 9-5: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  11. 11. <ul><li>Extensive capillaries & sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Tight junctions: limit permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Astrocyte foot processes: secrete paracrines </li></ul><ul><li>Protects brain: hormones & circulating chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Many glucose transporters </li></ul>Blood Brain Barrier Figure 9-6: The blood-brain barrier
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral </li></ul>Spinal Cord Regions Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
  13. 13. <ul><li>Gray matter: mostly cell bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites & terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal reflex integrating center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundles of myelinated axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ascending tracts – sensory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descending tracts – motor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral roots </li></ul></ul>Spinal Cord Organization
  14. 14. Spinal Cord Organization Figure 9-7: Specialization in the spinal cord
  15. 15. <ul><li>Trillion interneurons fill the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 200,000 synapses each </li></ul><ul><li>Brain divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul>Brain Overview
  16. 16. Brain Overview Figure 9-9b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
  17. 17. <ul><li>Many cranial nerves enter </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids – nerve tracts crossover </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain – eye movement control </li></ul><ul><li>Pons – breathing, signal relay </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla – involuntary functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Blood pressure, vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular formation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network in brain stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arousal, sleep, pain, & muscle tone </li></ul></ul>Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla
  18. 18. Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla Figure 9-9d: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
  19. 19. Cranial Nerves Table 9-1: The Cranial Nerves

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