3. Scots-Irish Colonists
• Scots-Irish-Settlers who
came from Ireland, where
Scottish Presbyterians had
been sent by England.
They were from the high
country in Scotland. They
stubborn and liked to live
out in the western part of
• “Official Bulldozers” of the
colonies. Largest group of
non English settlers.
4. Pennsylvania Dutch
• Settlers in
actually came from
• They were not from
Holland, they were
from Germany and
were the second
largest group of non-
5. Triangular Trade
• Colonial trade on the high seas involving three
countries and multiple commodities.
• Mostly, slaves traveled from Africa to the
Americas; sugar and raw materials would be
shipped to England; tobacco, timber, and
foodstuffs would be shipped from North America
to the West Indies.
• New England colonies profited most because
they are the primary shipping giants of the New
World. Another development that would aid the
North during the Civil War.
9. The French in
• In the 1530’s French Sailor
Jacques Cartier established
France’s claim to present-day
Canada through his
explorations of the Gulf of St.
Lawrence and the St.
• He later sailed down the
Mississippi River to the
Central U.S. The majority of
the French were Catholic and
single men, not families, so
there was sparse population
in those areas.
10. Jacques Cartier
• Cartier, despite his contributions to a
better understanding of North American
geography, was regarded as a failure. No
gold was discovered and no lasting
settlements were created. The areas he
explored would remain largely untouched
by Europeans until the early years of the
11. Cardinal Richelieu
• Under Louis XIII he
had great power.
• Made famous by
Alexandre Dumas in
the Three Musketeers
• Appointed Samuel de
Champlain's to his
post in the new world.
12. THE FRENCH IN
• It is Samuel de Champlain's
determination to succeed in
establishing a French colony
in America that earned him
the title, "The Father of New
France". He was also
integral in opening North
America to French trade,
especially the fur trade and
the French colonization on
the shores of the St.
• Fur made the French colonies successful.
• French fur trappers lived in the north where it
was very cold. Furs there were very heavy and
thick and therefore very valuable.
• The trappers went alone to hunt. They were cold
and lonely. Two bad things.
• The French developed friendships and
assimilated with Indian tribes. This bond led to
their alliance in the French & Indian War.
• Life was dangerous and deadly peril could
lie behind any rock or tree.
• The next slide shows a dangerous polar
• While polar bears did not come this far
South, it is an example of the animal
savagery that these early pioneers faced.
• Early French
settlement in 17th
• Became British
• Renamed area
• Great expulsion
• Acadia was the first
settlement in North
at Port-Royal in 1604.
18. Robert de LaSalle
• The Original French
Texan, in 1682 he canoed
down the Mississippi
River and claimed
Louisiana for France,
reversed his journey and
returned to France.
• When he later returned via
the Gulf of Mexico he
missed the delta and
settled in the area now
known as Corpus Christi.
19. Pennsylvania Long Rifle
• A deadly necessity
• Either plain or with
ornate design, the
demand for a
quickly as settlers
pushed west in the
20. The Enlightenment
• Thinkers and writers, mostly in London
and Paris, believed that they were more
enlightened than their compatriots and set
out to enlighten them.
They believed that human reason could
be used to combat ignorance, superstition,
and tyranny and to build a better world.
Their principal targets were religion
(embodied in France in the Catholic
Church) and the domination of society by
a hereditary aristocracy.
21. • Many of the most distinguished leaders of
the American revolution--Jefferson,
Washington, Franklin, Paine--were
powerfully influenced by English and--to a
lesser extent--French Enlightenment
• The God who underwrites the concept of
equality in the Declaration of
Independence is the same deist God
Rousseau worshipped, not that venerated
in the traditional churches which still
supported and defended monarchies all
22. • Jefferson and Franklin both spent time in
France--a natural ally because it was a
traditional enemy of England--absorbing
the influence of the French Enlightenment.
• The language of natural law, of inherent
freedoms, of self-determination which
seeped so deeply into the American grain
was the language of the Enlightenment,
though often coated with a light glaze of
traditional religion, what has been called
our "civil religion.“
23. • This is one reason that Americans should
study the Enlightenment. It is in their
bones. It has defined part of what they
have dreamed of, what they aim to
• Separated geographically from most of the
aristocrats against whom they were
rebelling, their revolution was to be far
less corrosive--and at first less influential--
than that in France.
• René Descartes, in the
17th century, attempted
to use reason as the
schoolmen had, to shore
up his faith; but much
more rigorously than had
been attempted before.
He tried to begin with a
blank slate, with the bare
minimum of knowledge:
the knowledge of his own
existence ("I think,
therefore I am").
• Isaac Newton, (1642-
1727), had published his
theory of gravitation,
which laid the foundation
for a scientific vision of
the universe and argued
that events occur in
accordance with natural
and physicist, one of the
intellects of all time.
26. The Enlightenment
• Aristocracy in France embraced the new
thoughts simply because they were new
thoughts, not once considering the logical
extension of these ideas that years later
contributed to the French Revolution.
• Many of the most distinguished leaders of the
American revolution--Jefferson, Washington,
Franklin, Paine--were powerfully influenced by
English and--to a lesser extent--French
27. John Locke
• John Locke applied the
understandings of the
world to the study of
society and government.
Locke came up with an
idea he called the Theory
of Contract under Natural
Law, in which he argued
that kings and queens did
not hold their positions
because of God’s divine
will but because of an
accident of birth. In other
words, kings had simply
28. John Locke
Locke further explained that all
humans had certain natural rights such
as the rights to life, liberty, and
property, and that no government
could deny its constituents these
29. • Locke’s theory on government had an enormous
influence on American political thought. Locke
argued that the people “contracted” with the
government to protect their interests. If the
government failed to do so, then the government
had broken the contract and should be
disbanded. Colonists quickly picked up on this
idea, eventually using it to justify the American
Revolution against England. In fact, Thomas
Jefferson used very similar language in the
Declaration of Independence when he wrote that
everyone had the right to “life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness.”
30. Ben Franklin
• Benjamin Franklin,
one of the “founding
fathers” of the country,
personified the ideas of
Franklin owned his own
print shop, published
his own newspaper,
and had published his
Almanac all by the time
he had turned twenty-six.
31. Great Awakening (1730’s)
• With the Great Enlightenment many
people in American turned away from
• As Puritan influence decreased, a new
spirit of Evangelism featuring pastors who
were dynamic and dramatic appealed very
strongly to colonists’ emotions.
32. Jonathan Edwards
who wrote SINNERS IN
THE HANDS OF AN
ANGRY GOD. Not
theatrical, he inspired
people to religious action
through the use of fear. He
would fill his sermons with
vivid descriptions of the
torments of hell and the
pleasures of heaven.
33. John and Charles Wesley
Brothers in the Faith
• Developed a college
club that met regularly
with a specific
method of Bible
study, prayer, and
• John is known as the
Father of the
• Inspired with camp
34. George Whitefield
Stirring Evangelist of the Great
Awakening. Perhaps on a par
with Billy Graham. Spoke
before huge crowds of people
all across the colonies. Very
dramatic in his presentations,
which was seen by some as
criticism. Started an orphanage
35. Whitefield’s Legacy
New Light Presbyterianism
spread in the 1750’s and
then the Baptists really
experienced growth in the
Renouncing finery and
ostentatious display and
addressing each other as
“brother” and “sister” the
Baptists reached out to
thousands of unchurched
people. They focused on a
36. Legacy of the Awakening
• Created Religious pluralism-nourished the
idea that all religions were legitimate.
• With pluralism came the decline of the
state supported church which further
fueled the idea of the separation of church
• Made community diversity acceptable
37. NEW COLLEGES
• Before 1740 there existed only Harvard,
Yale and William and Mary.
• Between 1746 and 1769 six new colleges
were added: Dartmouth, Brown, Princeton,
and what are now Columbia, Rutgers and
the University of Pennsylvania. None was
controlled by an established church.
38. Legislatures Challenge for Power
• Over time, colonial 18th century legislatures
grew to the point where they disbursed
• They won the power of the purse. The
authority to initiate money bills, specifying
how much money should be raised by
taxes and how it should be spent.
• They became governing bodies reflecting
the wishes of the electorate.
39. John Peter Zenger
• No case of law in American
history stands as a greater
landmark on the road to
protection for freedom of the
press than the trial of a German
immigrant printer named John
• Zenger published a newspaper called the
New York Weekly Journal.
• He wrote an article about the Governor of
the New York Province, William Cosby. He
was indeed a corrupt politician who had
many of the rich and powerful in his
• Zenger was arrested, and jailed on a
charge of "seditious libels.”
• His bail was set at
turned out to be a
real plus because it
raised a lot of
interest and public
opinion to his side.
• The two judges had been handpicked by
Cosby for the case. Those in power
thought that the jury had been hand
picked as well.
• Zenger’s two attorneys were disbarred
when court opened for challenging the
• Things looked very, very bad for Mr.
• But losing his two attorneys
turned out to be a good thing,
because he got a new one.
• In spite of the fact that the truth was no
defense, Hamilton began his arguments.
• In spite of the fact that the judges gave a
clear direction to the jury that they were to
find Zenger guilty,
46. John Peter Zenger
– On August 5, 1735, twelve New York
jurors, inspired by the eloquence of
Hamilton, ignored the instructions of the
Governor's hand-picked judges and
returned a verdict of "Not Guilty" on the
charge of publishing "seditious libels."
The Zenger trial is a remarkable story of a
divided Colony, of a free press the
beginnings, and the stubborn
independence of American jurors.