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FRUIT AND SEED DISPERSAL
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
http://www.school.net.th/library/create-web
/10000/science/100...
X
INTRODUCTION
 Plants need to find new habitats in
which to grow their new generation, in
order to avoid competition wit...
X
OBJECTIVES
When you finish, you should be able to:
 explain the need for/importance of
seed dispersal.
 list the main ...
X
WHY SHOULD SEEDS BE DISPERSED?
 A seed contains an embryo in which is
all of the genetic information needed
for it to d...
X
THINK AND TELL:
www.tntisland.com/fruits.html
Both fruits have a fleshy, food-storing pericarp that
smells and tastes go...
X
THINK AND TELL:
Talk about these different fruits below. Are their seeds
dispersed in the same way? Why do you say so?
h...
X
FEEDBACK
The seeds from the two different fruits would be
dispersed in different ways. The fruit on the left has
fine ha...
X
THINK AND TELL:
Look at how buoyant in sea water
these seeds of the Asian Coral tree
are! They belong to a group that
we...
X
EXAMPLES OF DISPERSAL METHODS
9
X
DIAGRAM OF THE PARTS OF A ‘TYPICAL’,
SIMPLE FLESHY FRUIT
The wall of various fruits become modified to enable
the fruit ...
X
A. DISPERSED BY ANIMALS
1. Discuss the structural
adaptations for dispersal of
the seed/s shown by the
fruits on the fol...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
1. The outer pericarp (skin) may develop
bright colours (apples, Tomatoes, guava...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
2. The middle fruit-wall layer may become
fleshy with stored foods and changes c...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
Citrus fruits e.g. orange, have juice-filled hairs
http://visual.merriam-webster...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
Some fruits store nutrients other than sugars. Their
seeds are very small and ab...
X
ADAPTATIONS FOR DISPERSAL
Brightly coloured wall of Cherries (Left) attract
animals who eat the fruits and seeds.
Undige...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
17
Birds eat fleshy fruit and distribute
the seeds with their waste. The hard
te...
X
DISPERSED BY ANIMALS
Most herbivores cannot crack
the hard Calabash shell.
But, horses use their mouth
to break them ope...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
Seeds (peanuts (Left), corn grains, sun-flower and
pumpkin) may also store nutri...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
http://www.bulkfoods.com/nuts.asp
Any nuts store fats/oils, starches and protein...
X
A sweet-tasting, fleshy layer may develop around
the seed (L –R pomegranate, guinep) which is
then sucked off and the se...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS
The fleshy Cashew ‘apple’ is the swollen
succulent stalk/pedicel and base. The
‘...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL
 Ripe, food-storing fruits/vegetables with seeds
are eaten by humans, cows, dogs, rats, va...
X
DISPERSED BY ANIMALS
3. Desmodium fruit breaks into little flattened
sections that stick to clothing e.g. socks, or to
a...
X
DISPERSED BY ANIMALS
25
http://mrcsclass.com/mcdougaltext/397_404.pdf
4.The burrs in this
horse’s mane are
dry fruit tha...
X
B. WIND DISPERSAL
Each fruit/seed has been modified in some way.
26
http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/fruit-...
X
STRUCTURAL AIDS TO WIND DISPERSAL
In many fruits, the pericarp becomes dry
and hard and may grow hairs, hooks, wings
(e....
X
DID YOU KNOW?
‘Tumbleweeds’ are blown about by the
wind and scatter seeds as they move!
28
X
C. MECHANICAL DISPERSAL
Dry, dehiscent pod is composed of one
carpel; splits open when mature along
two lines of weaknes...
X
MECHANICAL DISPERSAL
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/fruits/dry-fruits_2.php
30
X
MECHANICAL DISPERSAL
Dry fruit that has two carpels separated
by a seed-bearing septum; splits open
releasing seeds.
31
...
X
MECHANICAL DISPERSAL
Capsule -The carpels
were originally fused
together to form the
gynoecium.
The carpels separate
to ...
X
MECHANICAL DISPERSAL
Sandbox flower (top, red) and exploding fruit.
seeddry fruit wall
33
X
D. WATER DISPERSAL
 Coconut trees and
mangroves have their
natural habitat near
water.
 Their fruits/seeds are
water d...
X
WATER DISPERSAL
35
http://www2.estrellamount
ain.edu/faculty/farabee/bi
obk/BioBookflowersII.html
#Double Fertilization
...
X
WATER DISPERSAL
Viviparous seedling of the red mangrove – has
germinated while still in the fruit that is
attached to th...
X
DID YOU KNOW?
This map shows the distances over which
water-dispersed ‘drift seeds’ can travel!
http://waynesword.paloma...
X
WATER DISPERSAL
38
Drift fruits and seeds of Beach bean
X
DID YOU KNOW?
Many plants are killed off when a fire
becomes extremely fierce and hot (
high intensity), but some plants...
X
SUMMARY
1. Wind Dispersal
-- Small, light seeds with wings/hairs for mobility.
2. Animal Dispersal
 Fruit stores food s...
X
SUMMARY
1. All structural modifications of the fruit
wall and of physiological processes
are developed to ensure that th...
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Biology M4 Fruit and Seed Dispersal

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Fruits and seed Dispersal

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  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
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Biology M4 Fruit and Seed Dispersal

  1. 1. FRUIT AND SEED DISPERSAL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit http://www.school.net.th/library/create-web /10000/science/10000-6605/pic1.jpeg http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plfeb99 .htm#parachutes http://wildlifeofhawaii.com/flowers/category/view- plants/hawaiian-fruit-or-cones/ INTRODUCTION ANIMAL DISPERSAL WIND DISPERSAL MECHANICAL DISPERSAL WATER DISPERSAL SUMMARY MODULE 4 UNIT 13 LESSON 5 MENU
  2. 2. X INTRODUCTION  Plants need to find new habitats in which to grow their new generation, in order to avoid competition with each other, especially between parents and offspring, for all the necessities of life. In this way, the new generation is able to continue the life cycle of the plant that produced it/them. Dispersal enables this to happen! 2
  3. 3. X OBJECTIVES When you finish, you should be able to:  explain the need for/importance of seed dispersal.  list the main agents of dispersal.  describe the structural modifications of fruits to facilitate various methods of seed dispersal. (Source of pictures >> http://waynesword.palomar.edu/index.htm ) 3
  4. 4. X WHY SHOULD SEEDS BE DISPERSED?  A seed contains an embryo in which is all of the genetic information needed for it to develop into an entire plant.  If it is to give rise to the next generation of its species, it must somehow get out of the protective casing – the fruit – and find a suitable habitat, e.g. away from its parent plants, in which to grow and develop. Each fruit is structured to ensure dispersal of its seed/s. 4
  5. 5. X THINK AND TELL: www.tntisland.com/fruits.html Both fruits have a fleshy, food-storing pericarp that smells and tastes good and is attractive to animals as food, so they eat the fruit wall and discard the seed, thus helping with its dispersal. CHECK A mango and an avocado pear have a similar structure that adapts them to disperse their seed in a similar way. What is this similarity? 5
  6. 6. X THINK AND TELL: Talk about these different fruits below. Are their seeds dispersed in the same way? Why do you say so? http://lh4.ggpht.com/_6LWjP0sZ22w?SXig-27Qbvl/AAAAAAAADGE/nPr1YccAPo8/S CHECK 6
  7. 7. X FEEDBACK The seeds from the two different fruits would be dispersed in different ways. The fruit on the left has fine hairs, so is likely to be blown from place to place by wind. The other fruits (right) have bright red, food-storing walls, likely to attract birds and other animals who would eat them and either discard the seeds or pass them out unharmed in their faeces. 7
  8. 8. X THINK AND TELL: Look at how buoyant in sea water these seeds of the Asian Coral tree are! They belong to a group that we call ‘drift seeds’. How do you think they are dispersed? By water. The chart (next slide) shows various seed dispersal methods. Discuss it with your teacher. CHECK 8
  9. 9. X EXAMPLES OF DISPERSAL METHODS 9
  10. 10. X DIAGRAM OF THE PARTS OF A ‘TYPICAL’, SIMPLE FLESHY FRUIT The wall of various fruits become modified to enable the fruit to carry out seed dispersal. Pericarp or fruit wall http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio111/seeds_fruits_flowers.htm 10
  11. 11. X A. DISPERSED BY ANIMALS 1. Discuss the structural adaptations for dispersal of the seed/s shown by the fruits on the following slides. 2. Examine actual samples similar to those in the slides and discuss the adaptations with your teacher. http://www.picturesof.net/pages/100313-133371-955053.html 11
  12. 12. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS 1. The outer pericarp (skin) may develop bright colours (apples, Tomatoes, guavas) and distinct odours, both of which serve to attract various animals looking for food. http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/guava.htm 12
  13. 13. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS 2. The middle fruit-wall layer may become fleshy with stored foods and changes colour when ripe. For more information, click open this site: http://jbworld.jbs.st- louis.mo.us/science/resources/flower/fruit1.html www.tntisland.com/fruits.html Paw-paw has a sweet (sugars), succulent, edible pericarp with small seeds in the centre. 13
  14. 14. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS Citrus fruits e.g. orange, have juice-filled hairs http://visual.merriam-webster.com/food-kitchen/food/fruits/citrus-fruits_1.php 14
  15. 15. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS Some fruits store nutrients other than sugars. Their seeds are very small and abundant. The whole fruit with its seeds are often eaten as ‘vegetables’ and seeds defaecated. L – R: Egg plant, Tomato, Pepper http://www.fotosearch.com/goodsh oot/fruits-vegetables/GSH126/2/ http://www.freeclipartpictures.com/clipart/ food77.htm http://www.fotosearch.com/GSH126/gs016078/ 15
  16. 16. X ADAPTATIONS FOR DISPERSAL Brightly coloured wall of Cherries (Left) attract animals who eat the fruits and seeds. Undigested Cherry ‘pits’ (seeds with hard testa) pass out in animal droppings (Right). 16
  17. 17. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS 17 Birds eat fleshy fruit and distribute the seeds with their waste. The hard testa protects the embryo in the seed while it is inside the animal. Cerasee fruit – bitter- sweet, seedy pulp is eaten by birds when the ripe fruit splits open. http://mrcsclass.com/mcdougaltext/397_404.pdf
  18. 18. X DISPERSED BY ANIMALS Most herbivores cannot crack the hard Calabash shell. But, horses use their mouth to break them open, then they eat the sweet, pulpy mass of seeds and disperse seeds in their dung. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0503.htm 18
  19. 19. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS Seeds (peanuts (Left), corn grains, sun-flower and pumpkin) may also store nutrients in their cotyledons or endosperm which attract animals as a food source. 19 http://waynesword.palomar.edu/termfr1.htm#baobab http://www.featurepics.com/photos-images/corn+grains.htm
  20. 20. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS http://www.bulkfoods.com/nuts.asp Any nuts store fats/oils, starches and proteins and attract not just humans but many insects and rodents who eat them and help disperse them. (L – R Cashew, pecans, almonds, brazil nuts) ( Peas/beans store protein and can be dispersed by humans. http://visual.merriam-webster.com/food-kitchen/food/legumes/peas.php 20
  21. 21. X A sweet-tasting, fleshy layer may develop around the seed (L –R pomegranate, guinep) which is then sucked off and the seeds discarded elsewhere. http://jugalbandi.info/2009/07/mamoncillo-guinep-chenet/http://waynesword.palomar.edu/termfr4.htm STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS 21
  22. 22. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS The fleshy Cashew ‘apple’ is the swollen succulent stalk/pedicel and base. The ‘nut’ is a dry fruit. Both parts can be eaten. 22www.fao.org/.../vlibrary/ac306e/ac306e04.htm slog.thestranger.com/2008/04/new_fruit
  23. 23. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO DISPERSAL  Ripe, food-storing fruits/vegetables with seeds are eaten by humans, cows, dogs, rats, various insects, also birds, etc. The fruit wall or else the seeds have a hard layer that protects the seeds inside so that they are not damaged as they pass through the animal’s gut.  The seeds are passed out in faeces, often at some distance from the plant from which the ripe fruit came. See the next two slides for other means of animal dispersal of seeds. 23
  24. 24. X DISPERSED BY ANIMALS 3. Desmodium fruit breaks into little flattened sections that stick to clothing e.g. socks, or to an animal’s fur. 24
  25. 25. X DISPERSED BY ANIMALS 25 http://mrcsclass.com/mcdougaltext/397_404.pdf 4.The burrs in this horse’s mane are dry fruit that contain seeds.
  26. 26. X B. WIND DISPERSAL Each fruit/seed has been modified in some way. 26 http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/fruit- seed-dispersal.htm Papery-thin winged seeds (Jacaranda) flutter and spin as wind currents carry them away. Silky hairs on fruits help them to be blown in the wind. Winged seeds spin like helicopter blades.
  27. 27. X STRUCTURAL AIDS TO WIND DISPERSAL In many fruits, the pericarp becomes dry and hard and may grow hairs, hooks, wings (e.g. Jacaranda, Left), prickles or other extensions which aid dispersal or else provide protection for the seeds while the fruit is being dispersed. http://jbworld.jbs.st-louis.mo.us/science/resources/flower/fruit3.html http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_share/vis_ sim/dltm05_pg112_seed/dltm05_pg112_seed.html 27
  28. 28. X DID YOU KNOW? ‘Tumbleweeds’ are blown about by the wind and scatter seeds as they move! 28
  29. 29. X C. MECHANICAL DISPERSAL Dry, dehiscent pod is composed of one carpel; splits open when mature along two lines of weakness. Then the two halves curl back, flicking out the seeds that are inside in an explosive manner, scattering them away from he plant. 29
  30. 30. X MECHANICAL DISPERSAL http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/fruits/dry-fruits_2.php 30
  31. 31. X MECHANICAL DISPERSAL Dry fruit that has two carpels separated by a seed-bearing septum; splits open releasing seeds. 31 http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/fruits/dry-fruits_2.php
  32. 32. X MECHANICAL DISPERSAL Capsule -The carpels were originally fused together to form the gynoecium. The carpels separate to expose the seeds which can be flung out of the capsule. An example is ackee. Flesh is eaten, seed discarded, and so is dispersed. www.jamaica-beach-villa.com/ackee.htm 32
  33. 33. X MECHANICAL DISPERSAL Sandbox flower (top, red) and exploding fruit. seeddry fruit wall 33
  34. 34. X D. WATER DISPERSAL  Coconut trees and mangroves have their natural habitat near water.  Their fruits/seeds are water dispersed. To do so, the fruits and seeds must be adapted to be light and buoyant and must be able to drift in water currents. 34
  35. 35. X WATER DISPERSAL 35 http://www2.estrellamount ain.edu/faculty/farabee/bi obk/BioBookflowersII.html #Double Fertilization Air is trapped between the fibrous coir and causes the fruit to be bouyant, so it can float in water for long distances. The hard endocarp/shell protects the seed with its embryo inside.
  36. 36. X WATER DISPERSAL Viviparous seedling of the red mangrove – has germinated while still in the fruit that is attached to the parent. Note the elongated hypocotyl or embryonic root. When the seedling drops into water, it floats with the root still pointed downward. If it hits soft mud, the tap root grows in the soft mud and quickly establishes the plant. 36
  37. 37. X DID YOU KNOW? This map shows the distances over which water-dispersed ‘drift seeds’ can travel! http://waynesword.palomar.edu/pldec398.htm 37
  38. 38. X WATER DISPERSAL 38 Drift fruits and seeds of Beach bean
  39. 39. X DID YOU KNOW? Many plants are killed off when a fire becomes extremely fierce and hot ( high intensity), but some plants in the Australian bush are very reliant on fire for their seed to be dispersed. An example is a plant called ‘Old Man Baksia’. This plant is killed by fire but uses the fire to trigger the seed dispersal mechanism. 39 http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/firedispersal.html
  40. 40. X SUMMARY 1. Wind Dispersal -- Small, light seeds with wings/hairs for mobility. 2. Animal Dispersal  Fruit stores food so is eaten; seeds pass through digestive tract unharmed or are seed/s discarded.  Fruits and seeds have hooks that in catch in fur/hair, or clothing. 3. Water Dispersal  Some fruits have trapped air so can float. 4. Mechanical Ejection of Seeds as fruit dries and explodes open. 40 http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/seeddispersal1.html
  41. 41. X SUMMARY 1. All structural modifications of the fruit wall and of physiological processes are developed to ensure that the seed/s are dispersed away from the parent plant, to ensure survival of that plant species. 2. Do the quiz at this website: http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_share/ vis_sim/dltm05_pg112_seed/dltm05_pg112_seed.html 41

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