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History taking & Examination of an obstetrics case

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History taking & Examination of an obstetrics case

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History taking & Examination of an obstetrics case

  1. 1. EXAMINATION OF AN OBSTETRICS CASE MODERATOR: DR. A.V.RAJESHWAR RAO, H.O.D & ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF DEPARTMENT OF GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. PRESENTER: DR. VAMSHIKRISHNA DUSSA, P.G XVIII BATCH, MD-PART 1 DEPARTMENT OF HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACY. DATE: 27-01-2016
  2. 2. CONTENTS • History taking • Examination Part: 1. Keywords Before Examination 2. General examination 3. Abdominal examination 4. Vaginal examination
  3. 3. History taking Aims & Objective: • To screen the high risk cases. • To treat the complications detected early by examination • To educate mother by demonstrating the labour. • To ensure continued medical surveillance and prophylaxis. • To remove the fear about the delivery and to gain confidence before labour. • To ensure normal pregnancy with delivery of healthy baby. • To motive the couple about to need of family planning • To give appropriate advice to couple seeking MTP.
  4. 4. History taking Vital statistics:  Name:  Date of first examination:  Address:  Age: A woman having her first pregnancy at the age of 30 or above is called elderly primigravida.  Gravida: Gravida denotes a pregnant state both present and past, irrespective of the period of gestation.  Parity: Denotes a state of previous pregnancy beyond the period of viability.
  5. 5. Gravida X, Para (A-B-C-D) X = Total number of pregnancies including this one A = Number of TERM PREGNANCIES ( >37 weeks) B = Number of PRETERM PREGNANCIES ( 28 weeks to 37 weeks) C = Number of ABORTIONS (< 24 weeks) D = Number of BABIES ALIVE at present.
  6. 6.  Duration of marriage: - This is relevant when dealing with pregnancy - Helps in noting fertility or fecundity of a woman. - Pregnancy early after marriage- high fecundity - Pregnancy lately after marriage – low fecundity  Religion:  Occupation : helps dealing occupational hazards.  Occupation of husband : - Gives fair idea about the socio-economic status of the patient. - By this we can know likely complications with her status like anemia, prematurity, preeclampsia.
  7. 7. H/O Present Pregnancy: - Important complications in different trimesters of present pregnancy are to be noted carefully - These are hyperemesis and threatened abortion in first trimester; features of pyelitis in second trimester and anemia, preeclampsia and ante partum hemorrhage in the last trimester. - Number of previous antenatal visits. - Immunisation status has to be noted. - Any medication or radiation exposure in early pregnancy or medical surgical events during pregnancy should be enquired.
  8. 8. Obstetrics history: - Related to Multigravida - Previous obstetrics events are to be recorded chronologically as per the proforma. - Proforma in next slide - To be relevant, enquiry is to be made whether she had antenatal and intranatal care before.
  9. 9. • No. Year & date Pregnancy events Labour events Methods of delivery Puerperium Baby Weight, sex, condition at birth, Duration of Breast feeding Immunization 1 2 3
  10. 10. • Obstetrics H/o can be summed up as: 1. No. of living children 2. Boys: 3. Girls: 4. Health status of the baby: 5. Immunization: 6. Last issue:
  11. 11. • Menstrual history: - Cycle, duration, amount of blood flow and first day of the last normal menstrual period ( L.N.M.P) are to be noted - From the L.N.M.P., the expected date of the delivery (E.D.D) has to be calculated - Calculation of the expected date of delivery ( E.D.D) - THIS IS DONE BY NAEGELE’S FORMULA
  12. 12. • NAEGELE’S FORMULA: - Calculation of the expected date of delivery (EDD): this is done accordingly - Adding 9 months and 7 days to the first day of the last normal (28 day cycle) period. - Alternatively one can count back 3 calendar months from the first day of the last period and then add 7 days to get the expected date of the delivery. - Former method is more commonly employed.
  13. 13. • Ex: The patient had her first day of last menstrual period on 1ST jan. By adding 9 Calendar months it comes to 1st October and then add 7 days i.e. 8th October which becomes the E.D.D • For IVF pregnancy, date of L.M.P IS 14 DAYS PRIOR TO THE DATE OF EMBRYO TRANSFER ( 266 DAYS)
  14. 14. Obstetrics calendar •
  15. 15. Past Medical/ Surgical History • Some medical conditions may have impact on the course of the pregnancy or the pregnancy may have an impact on the medical condition examples: • Heart disease • Hypertension • Dm • Epilepsy • Thyroid disease • B asthma • Any previous surgery.
  16. 16. • Kidney disease • UTI • Autoimmune disease • Psychiatric disorders • Hepatitis • Venereal diseases • Blood transfusion
  17. 17. • 7- Drug history and allergy. • 8- Social History → Cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, domestic violence, psychiatric illness specially in postnatal period. • 9- Family History - Hereditary illness → DM., HTN., thalassemia, sickle cell disease, hemophilia - Congenital defects eg. neural tube defects, Down syndrome - Twins
  18. 18. Keywords Before Examination • Before examination, explain to the patient the need and the nature of the proposed examination. • Obtain a verbal consent. • The examiner (either male or female) should be accompanied by another female. • Respect her privacy and examine in a private room. • Expose only relevant parts of her anatomy for examination . • Ensure the patient is comfortable and warm.
  19. 19. Keywords Before Examination • Ask patient to empty the bladder . • Patient should lie in the dorsal position with thighs slightly flexed. • She is slightly rolled to the left side to prevent compression of the inferior vena cava by the enlarged uterus (inferior venacaval syndrome or supine hypotensive syndrome). • Ask for any tender area before palpating the abdomen. • Stand right to her.
  20. 20. Dorsal position/Supine position with thighs slightly flexed
  21. 21. General Examination • VITAL DATA • NUTRITIONAL STATUS • HEIGHT • FACIAL FEATURE/EXPRESSION • SKIN • ICTERUS • LEGS • NECK • BREAST
  22. 22. General Examination • VITAL DATA: 1. Blood pressure : • Record while she is in sitting and Semi-Recumbent ( 45 degrees) posture. • Record in every visit.
  23. 23. • Usually unaffected or Slightly lower than normal due to SVR ( SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE). If BP > 140/90 mm Hg on 2 separate occasions 6 Hrs apart: • Chronic Hypertension: if recorded before 20 weeks of pregnancy or may be persisted before pregnancy. With + family history. • Gestational Hypertension : if recorded after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
  24. 24. 2. Pulse rate: slightly increased 3. Heart rate : Increased. Murmurs heard- normal- continuous hissing murmur- systolic type-also called mammary murmur- over tricuspid area at left 2nd and 3rd intercostal spaces. 4. Respiratory rate: usually unaffected. feels shortness of breath with slight exertion due to elevated diaphragm.
  25. 25. 5- Temperature: may rise by 0.4 ºF • i.e..98.6 ºF to 99 ºF • Due to increased metabolic rate
  26. 26. • NUTRITIONAL STATUS: • Nails- white spots in zinc deficiency, brittle nails in magnesium deficiency. • Tongue- May be Large in iodine or niacin deficiency. May be pallor in Fe++ deficiency. Cyanotic in CHD. Brown in CKD. site- dorsum of tongue. • Weight- The abnormal nutritional status can be described as obesity and emaciation. • Check weight in every visit. • Parameter- Body mass index (BMI)
  27. 27. • Weight gain for a woman with normal BMI ( 20-26) is 11-16 kgs. • Weight gain for a obese woman ( BMI > 29 ) should be less than 7kgs. • Weight gain for a under weight woman ( BMI < 19 ) is 18 kgs. • Parameters helps in early intervention of preeclampsia ( in obese ) and IUGR of fetus ( in under weight ).
  28. 28. • HEIGHT • Short stature women are mostly to suffer with small pelvis. • May cause IUGR OF FETUS.
  29. 29. • FACIAL FEATURE/EXPRESSION • Some facial appearances are pathognomonic of disease. • Here the patient may be having thyrotoxicosis. • The appearance of the patient’s face may also provide information regarding psychological makeup: is the person happy, sad, angry or anxious
  30. 30. • SKIN : Extreme pigmentation around neck, face, forehead. Common in pregnancy • Palmar erythema – due to high estrogen • Hirsutism – mild common, if more – Cushing syndrome . • ICTERUS- Bulbar Conjunctiva, under surface of Tongue, Hard Palate- to rule out any LIVER pathology • LEGS-EDEMA – common- physiological • other causes- preeclampsia, anemia, cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome
  31. 31. Pigmentation of Neck, cheeks edema of feet
  32. 32. • NECK- Neck veins, thyroid gland ( diffuse enlargement common in pregnancy-50 % of cases), lymph gland enlargement ( any H/o of Kochs/ other pathologies of lymph nodes). • BREAST- Examination of breast is mandatory not only to note presence of pregnancy changes ,but also to note the nipples/skin around areola. **Purpose is to correct the abnormalities(cracks/fissures) early so that to make easy breast feeding more safely too infant after delivery.
  33. 33. Neck - Diffuse swelling - common- 50 % cases of pregnancy Abnormal swelling
  34. 34. BREAST Normal in pregnancy Abnormal in pregnancy
  35. 35. ABDOMINAL EXAMINATION • Can be examined in three parts • 1- INSPECTION • 2- PALPATION • 3- AUSCULTATION
  36. 36. INSPECTION • Size of the uterus: • If the length & breadth are both increased  multiple pregnancies, polyhydramnios • If the length is increased only  large baby • Shape of the uterus: • Length should be larger than broad this indicates longitudinal lie. But if the uterus is low and broad indicates transverse fetus lie. • Look for fetal movements. - Look for scars. - Herniations.
  37. 37. INSPECTION - CUTANEOUS SIGNS - Linea nigra, Striae gravidarum, Striae albicans, Umbilicus flat or everted, Superficial veins. - SKIN CONDITIONS- Ringworm/Scabies LINEA NIGRA EVERTED UMBILICUS FETAL PARTS
  38. 38. STRIAE ALBICANS
  39. 39. PALPATION Aim to assess the: • Height of the uterus ( symphysis-fundal height) • Gestational age • Foetal poles • Foetal lie • Presentation part- cephalic(head), breech,etc • Attitude
  40. 40. • Level of engagement of presenting part • Estimate fetal weight • Amniotic fluid Of the above parameters • To assess FETAL POLE, FETAL LIE, FETAL PRESENTING PART, ATTITUDE AND ENGAGEMENT OF FETAL HEAD- LEOPOLD’S MANOUEVRE IS FOLLOWED
  41. 41. Following techniques employed during palpation to assess the above parameters 1) Height of the uterus (Symphysis-Fundal Height): • The distance from the symphysis pubis to the uterine fundus (top of the uterus)- size of the uterus directly related to the size of the fetus. Technique: • Place ulnar border of the left hand on the highest part of the uterus (fundus). • Mark this point with a pen after obtaining her permission. • The distance between the upper border of the symphysis pubis upto the marked point is measured by tape. • This corresponds to gestational age
  42. 42. FUNDAL REGION SYMPHYSEAL REGION TAPE
  43. 43. 2) Gestational age : • The distance from the symphysis pubis to the uterine fundus (top of the uterus) corresponds to the gestational age/ duration of pregnancy. • After 24 weeks of pregnancy, the distance measured in cm normally corresponds to the period of gestation in weeks.
  44. 44. 3) Fetal Pole, Lie , Presenting Part , Engagement And Attitude Of Fetal Head are assessed by LEOPOLD’S MANOUEVRE. LEOPOLD’S MANOUEVRE : Done by four obstetric grips • 1- Fundal grip - To assess fetal pole • 2- Lateral grip - To assess fetal lie • 3- Pawliks grip - To assess presenting part • 4- Deep pelvic grip – To assess engagement and attitude of fetal head.
  45. 45. 1) Fundal grip: • Both hands placed over the fundus and the contents of the fundus determined. • A hard smooth, round pole indicates a fetal head. • Broad, soft and irregular mass suggestive of breech. • In transverse lie no parts are palpated.
  46. 46. 2) Lateral Grip or umbilical grip: • Move both hands in a downward direction from the fundus along the sides of the uterus to determine the "lie" of the fetus. • "Lie" is the relationship btw the longitudinal axis of the fetus and the longitudinal axis of the mother. • The "lie" is usually longitudinal, hence baby is lying length- wise in the same direction as mother's longitudinal axis. • Other "lies" are transverse lie (fetus lies across the long. axis of mother) and oblique lie (fetus lies at an oblique angle to the mother's long. axis). • Can also determine which side the foetal back is situated by feeling the firm regular surface of the foetal back on one side and the irregular, lumpy surface as the foetal limbs on the other side.
  47. 47. Lateral Grip
  48. 48. Longitudinal Lie Transverse Lie
  49. 49. 3) Pawliks grip: (second pelvic grip ) • The thumb and four fingers of the right hand are placed over the lower pole of uterus keeping the ulnar border of palm on the upper border of the suprapubic area to determine the presenting part. • Presenting part of fetus is the lowest most part of the fetus at the inlet of the pelvis. • In transverse lie, pawliks grip is empty. • If not engaged the presenting part can be grasped and moved side to side. Presenting Part- cephalic Presenting Part- breech
  50. 50. Pawliks grip:
  51. 51. Presentation: presenting part of fetus occupying the lower pole of uterus i.e. cephalic(vertex), breech, face, brow or shoulder.
  52. 52. 4) Deep pelvic grip: ( first pelvic grip ) • Determines two points about the fetus 1) The attitude of the fetal head 2) Engagement of the fetal head 1) The attitude of the fetal head : The examiner turns around to face patients feet. • Each hand placed on either side of the fetal trunk lower down. • The hands moved downwards towards the fetal head. • Note made as to which hand first touches the fetal head (This point called cephalic prominence- may be sinsipital or occipital poles). • Cephalic prominence helps determine the attitude (i.e. flexion, deflexed or extended) of fetal head.
  53. 53. • If cephalic prominence is on the opposite side of fetal back, fetal head is well flexed (normal position). (here cephalic prominence is sinsiput) • If cephalic prominence on the same side as fetal back, fetal head is extended (abnormal position). (here cephalic prominence is occipital pole) • If examiners hands reach the fetal head equally on both sides ( both sincipital & occipital poles), fetal head is deflexed ('Military position, indicating mal-position)
  54. 54. 2)Engagement of the fetal head: - Engagement of the fetal head defined as having occurred once the widest transverse diameter of the fetal head (bi-parietal diameter) has passed through the pelvic inlet into the true pelvis. - Procedure: Continue moving both hands down around the fetal head, determine how far around the head you can get. - Examiner should be able to palpate part of fetal head still in the lower abdomen (also called the 'false' pelvis but cannot palpate the part of fetal head in the true pelvis).
  55. 55. Abdominal palpation to determine engagement of the head A- Divergence of fingers- engaged head B- Convergence of fingers- not engaged
  56. 56. - If you divide the fetal head into five-fifths, you estimate how many fifths of the fetal head can be felt. - If 5,4 or 3 fifths can still be palpated, most of the head is still up, hence the widest part of the head has not engaged into the pelvis. - If only 2,1 or 0 fifths of fetal head felt, the widest part of the head has engaged into the pelvis.
  57. 57. • Diagrammatic representation showing the difference between an engaged and a fixed head by use of egg cups and eggs.
  58. 58. • Amniotic fluid : - Useful in assessing the well being and maturity of fetus - Excess or less volume of liquor amnii is assessed by AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX (AFI) - AFI: Maternal abdomen is divided into 4 quadrants taking the umbilicus, symphysis pubis and the fundus as the reference points. - With ultrasound, the largest vertical pocket in each quadrant is measured. - The sum of the four measurements(cm) is AFI.
  59. 59. • AFI helps to diagnose the clinical conditions called oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. • Normal level of amniotic fluid at term-40 weeks is 600-800 ml. • Other values: at 12 weeks: 50 ml, at 20 weeks: 400 ml, at 36-38 weeks: 1 liter. • There is gradual decrease in levels after 38 weeks
  60. 60. Estimate foetal weight: • Difficult and requires practice. • Approximate prediction of the fetal weight is more important than the mere estimation of the uterine size • This is more important prior to induction of labour or elective caesarian section. • Following methods are useful : 1- Fetal Growth Velocity : 2- Johnsons Formula:
  61. 61. 1- Fetal Growth Velocity : • Normal growth-26.9 gm/ day • More during 32-36 weeks • Declines by 24 gm/day after 36 weeks • ** individual fetal growth varies.
  62. 62. 2- Johnson's formula: • Applicable only in vertex presentation • Fundal height (cm) noted above the pubic symphysis • Fundal height ( cm)- 12 (if Vertex above Ischial Spine ) × 155 = weight • Fundal height ( cm)- 11 (if vertex below Ischial Spine) × 155 = weight This will be fetal weight in grams. • • e.g., 32 (Fundal height)-12(constant) x155( constant) => 20 x 155=3100gms.
  63. 63. AUSCULTATION • Importance: for monitoring FETAL HEART SOUNDS • Helps in diagnosis of live baby but its location of maximum intensity can resolve doubt about the presentation of the fetus. • FHS are best audible through back in vertex and breech presentation where the convex portion of back the back is in contact with the uterine wall. • How ever in face presentation, FHS are heard through fetal chest.
  64. 64. • FHS is maximum below the umbilicus in cephalic presentation and • FHS is maximum around the umbilicus in breech. • Location of FHS depends on the position of the head and degree of decent of the head even in cephalic presentation. • In Occipito anterior position, FHS is heard in middle of the spino-umbilical line. • In occipito-posterior –> towards the mother flank on same side • In occipito-lateral -> towards laterally . • In left occipito-posterior position –> FHS is most difficult to locate.
  65. 65. AUSCULTATION Types of monitoring: Pinnard stethoscope :The heartbeat of the baby may be checked by a simple instrument which looks like a short trumpet that is held against the pregnant tummy. This is called a Pinnard stethoscope (or fetoscope) and can be used by a midwife or doctor to listen to the heartbeat periodically. • A fetoscope can detect and transmit fetal heart sounds at 18 to 20 weeks and beyond. Regular stethoscope : useful in monitoring heart beat after 18 to 20 weeks( same as pinnards fetoscope)
  66. 66. Pinnard's Foetal Stethoscope
  67. 67. Ultrasound fetoscope: • Toward the end of the first trimester, usually around the 10th or 11th week of gestation, it is possible to hear fetal heart tones. It is possible only by ultrasound fetoscope.
  68. 68. Doppler: Doptone machine • Doppler machines may be very simple and report only the rate and rhythm of the beat, but more sophisticated models will provide additional information about blood flow in the umbilical artery.
  69. 69. Vaginal Examination • A vaginal examination (speculum or digital examination) is not part of a routine obstetric examination but may be indicated to diagnose rupture of membranes or onset of labour. • Can be done bimanually by hands and by speculum.
  70. 70. Bimanual examination
  71. 71. Speculum Examination
  72. 72. • Technique of vaginal examination:  Mother supine, hips flexed and abducted, knees flexed  Aseptic technique as much as possible.  Determine:  Cervix  Dilatation, effacement, position, consistency  Membranes  Intact/ ruptured  Liquor  Presenting part  Nature, station, position, caput, moulding
  73. 73. Negatives for vaginal examination: warning signs
  74. 74. • References: • Text book of obstetrics- D.C DUTTA • MUDALIAR AND MENONS CLINICAL OBSTETRICS- 9TH edition • CLAYTON FRASER LEWIS-OBSTETRICS • GOOGLE IMAGES

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