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China is a country in East Asia bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
and South China Sea. Neighboring countries include Afghanistan, Bhutan,
Burma, Hong Kong, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Macau, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam. The
PRC also claims Taiwan – which is controlled by the Republic of China
(ROC), a separate political entity – as its 23rd province, a claim which is
controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan. China has a
diverse terrain with mostly mountains, deserts in the west and plains in the
east. Principal rivers flow west to east including the Yangtze and Huang
He rivers. China is divided into 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4
central administrative authorities and 2 special administrative areas. China
is the world's second-largest country by land area.
It is the fourth largest in area with territory that extends over 9.6 million square
kilometers. China has a land border 22,000 kilometers long and a sea border of
18,000 meters. China has over 6,500 islands. Water is 0.28%.
It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.35 billion. Those
under the age of 14 represent some 12% of the population while 7% are over the age
Under the communist system, religion has been officially discouraged in China.
Actual suppression has varied from one religion to another, and from year to year.
Buddhism is practiced by between 10.85% and 18% of the Chinese.Christianity is
practiced by 3.2%, 4% to 5% of the population, while Islam by 2% of the population.
The renminbi is the official currency of the People’s Republic of China. The Yuan
is the basic unit of the renminbi.
The official language of the PRC is Mandarin, a tonal language in the Sino-Tibetan
family. Within China, however, only about 53 per cent of the population can
communicate in Standard Mandarin. English is also spoken by some Chinese,
particularly the young, many of whom have a good command of the English
After the founding of the PRC, four Constitutions have been formulated
successively in 1954, 1975, 1978 and 1982. The first Constitution was adopted by
the First Session of the First National People's Congress, the chief legislative
branch, on September 20, 1954. The present Constitution was promulgated in 1982
and amended several times thereafter, in 1988, 1993 and 1999.
History of China:
Chinese historical records reach back into the realm of legend, 5,000
years ago. It is impossible to cover even the major events of this ancient
culture in a short space, but here are some highlights
The first non-mythical dynasty to rule China was the Xia (2200- 1700
BCE), founded by Emperor Yu, Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE), then
the Zhou Dynasty (1122-256 BCE).
In 1271, the Mongolian ruler Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis)
established the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the Ming (1368-1644),
creating great art and exploring as far as Africa.
The final Chinese dynasty, the Qing, ruled from 1644 to 1911,
when the Last Emperor was overthrown. Power struggles between
warlords such as Sun Yat-Sen touched off the Chinese Civil War.
Although the war was interrupted for a decade by the Japanese invasion
and World War II, it picked up again once Japan was defeated. Mao Zedong
and the Communist Peoples Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War,
and China became the Peoples' Republic of China in 1949.Chiang Kai Shek,
leader of the losing Nationalist forces, fled to Taiwan.
For a long time, China wasn't interested in foreign affairs. They kept to
themselves, especially in terms of trade until later 1800s, so they probably
weren't interested at all... China really didn't have a reason to be concerned.
They were far enough from the action, had everything they needed to
support themselves... They could have attacked Allies for some sort of
revenge of the grievances with Britain, who treated them badly in the past.
Example, Opium Wars when Britain forced China to open trade.
Chine played part of the roll that brought America into conflict with Japan,
it was Japan's marauding in China and their expansionism in general that
caused the Americans to embargo Japan. This embargo in turn would make
the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbour. The Chinese had no active roll in WW2
other than Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-Shek's combined guerilla warfare,
against the Japanese in China. Chinas were at war against Japan in WW2.
The US sent CHINA war supplies by air from India. The pilots flew over
the Humps or Himalayas , the planes the flew that route called "The Flying
Tigers". An attempt was made to build a 2000 KM road from India to China
through jungles of Rurm. It was called Still Well’s road after General Still
Well. Today CHINA is paving that road and calling it Silk Road.
China In Cold War:
China was the first nation to fall to the Communists after the end of WW
II. For many years its policies were closely tied to the Soviet policies in
the ongoing conflict of the Cold War against the West. They supplied
hundreds of thousands of troops to fight in the Korean War. They were
major suppliers, and provided troops to North Vietnam (mostly in
country to free up NVA troops to deploy south) during the Vietnam War.
After Stalin’s death in 1953 the USSR and PRC started drifting apart.
The Chinese felt the Russians were using them, and they wanted to
pursue their own interests. By the late 60s there were open military
clashes along the Sino/Soviet boarder. After Nixon “opened” China the
old Communist allies drew further apart. The PRC and the US were (and
still are) rivals, but it is more economic then political/ideological today.
All power within the government of the People's Republic of China is divided
among several bodies:
the legislative branch, the National People's Congress.
the executive branch, the State Council
the judicial branch, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's
the military branch, People's Liberation Army (PLA) via the Central Military
Chief: President Xi Jinping
Head: Premier Li Keqiang
Unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui
(2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's
congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)
Structure of Government:
The Party in Power
The Head of the State
The Organ of State Power
The State Administrative Organ
The State Trial Organ
The State Prosecution Organ
The Political Consultative Organ
Political Parties in China:
there are eight political parties.
• Communist Party of China
Other 8 registered parties:
• China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang
• China Democratic League
• China Democratic National Construction Association
• China Association for the Promotion of Democracy
• Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party
• China Zhi Gong Dang
• Jiusan Society
• The Taiwan Democratic Self-government League. Most of them were
founded during the anti-Japanese war and the national liberation war
Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of the PRC is an
executive agency responsible for foreign relations with other countries in the
world. The agency is led by the Foreign Minister. The current minister is
Wang Yi. The agency has its headquarters in Beijing.
It is one of several ministries under the State Council of the PRC. The
agency is responsible for formulating foreign policies, decisions, foreign
affairs documents, and statements in regards to the PRC. It also negotiates
and signs bilateral and multilateral foreign treaties and agreements. The
agency also dispatches foreign affairs representatives to other countries. It
represents P.R.China's interest in United Nations conferences, inter-
governmental meetings, and the activities of international organizations.
MFA advises the central government in formulating diplomatic strategies,
guidelines, and policies.
The China Foreign Affairs University (CFAU) in Beijing,
People's Republic of China is a competitive university for
diplomats. China Foreign Affairs University was founded in
1955, and is affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(the university is not to be confused with the University of
International Relations, also in Beijing). The courses of study
offered include foreign languages (English, French and
Japanese), foreign affairs, international politics and relations
and diplomacy, international law and economics.
After the founding of New China, the basic objectives of its diplomacy included to
secure national independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, maintain world
peace, and strive for an international environment favorable to the country's
development. At that time the socialist countries headed by the Soviet Union and the
imperialist countries headed by the United States were in relentless confrontation. The
US refused to recognize the Government of the People's Republic of China, and it
even went further to impose political containment, economic blockade and military
threat against China. In face of such a situation, China openly declared that it sided
with the socialist camp, strived to enhance the alliance with the Soviet Union and
other socialist countries, and firmly opposed the US policy of aggression and war.
The Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference,
which served as the interim Constitution in the early days of the People's Republic,
stipulates, "The principle of the foreign policy of the PRC is the protection of the
independence, freedom, integrity of territory and sovereignty of the country,
upholding of lasting international peace and friendly cooperation between the peoples
of all countries, and opposition to the imperialist policy of aggression and war."
Policy of reform and
Accession to WTO
Status quo politics in
policy of peace” (2003)
Independence in foreign
-:General principles of China’s Foreign Policy:-
Foreign Policy in 1980s :
In conformity with new changes, the new Constitution enacted in 1982 summarizes the
basic principles of China's foreign policy as the following: "China adheres to an
independent foreign policy
China often characterizes its foreign policy and national security goals in terms
of a series of principles and slogans. Since the 1980s under Deng Xiaoping, Beijing
has said it pursues an “independent foreign policy of peace” under which China’s
“fundamental” foreign policy goals are:
“To preserve China’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity,”
“To create a favorable international environment for China’s reform and
opening up and modernization.”
equality and mutual benefit,
peaceful coexistence in developing diplomatic relations
economic and cultural exchanges with other countries
China consistently opposes imperialism, hegemonism and colonialism, works
to strengthen unity with the people of other countries, supports the oppressed
nations and the developing countries in their just struggle to win and preserve
national independence and develop their national economies, and strives to
safeguard world peace and promote the cause of human progress." China has also
formally introduced the concept of a “harmonious world” into its official lexicon
to compliment its commitment to “peaceful development,” and a “harmonious
society” at home.
China’s concern over its “territorial integrity” is most associated with
(re)assumption of sovereign control over Taiwan and continued control over the
restive western autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Tibet.
As communism declined as a credible ideology, the measure of the Chinese
Communist Party’s fitness to lead – and arguably its survival – became based on
its ability to enhance national prosperity, restore China’s prestige and stature as a
great power, and unify the nation. non-interference in each other's internal affairs.
In the past two decades and more, great changes have taken
place in China and the world, and the Chinese Government has
accordingly adjusted and developed the basic principles of its
foreign policy. In short, China pursues an independent foreign
policy of peace. The basic objectives of this policy are to
safeguard China's independence, sovereignty and territorial
integrity, promote friendly exchanges and cooperation with
other countries, work for a better international and peripheral
environment for the country's reform, opening up and
modernization drive, maintain world peace, and promote
Recent foreign policy:
In recent years, China's leaders have been regular travelers to all parts of the globe, and
it has sought a higher profile in the UN through its permanent seat on the United
Nations Security Council and other multilateral organizations. Now China followed
Deng Xiaoping’s dictum about promoting prosperity while avoiding conflict.
Closer to home, China has made efforts to reduce tensions in Asia; its relations with its
Asian neighbors have become stable during the last decades of the 20th century. It has
contributed to stability on the Korean Peninsula, cultivated a more cooperative
relationship with members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
and participated in the ASEAN Regional Forum. Relations have improved with
Vietnam since a border war was fought with the one-time close ally in 1979. A
territorial dispute with its Southeast Asian neighbors over islands in the South China
Sea remains unresolved, as does another dispute in the East China Sea with Japan.
These conflicts have had a negative impact on China's reputation in many parts of the
It began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to end official
diplomatic relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC.
Since then, both countries have placed considerable importance on the maintenance
of an extremely close and supportive relationship. Since then, the two countries have
regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. The PRC
has provided economic, military and technical assistance to Pakistan and each
considers the other a close strategic ally.
Diplomatic relations were established in 1950, military assistance began in 1966, a
strategic alliance was formed in 1972 and economic co-operation began in 1979.
China has become Pakistan’s largest supplier of arms and its third-largest trading
partner.Recently, both nations have decided to cooperate in improving Pakistan's
civil nuclear power sector. China supports Pakistan's stance on Kashmir while
Pakistan supports China on the issues of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Taiwan. China
supported Pakistan's opposition to the Soviet Union's intervention in Afghanistan and
is perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to NATO and the United States.
Recently China’s is working on Pakistan’s Gawadar port.
Relations with India have also improved considerably. After years of
competition, general distrust between the two and a border war, relations in the
21st century between the world's two most populous states have never been
more harmonious, as they have started to collaborate in several economic and
strategic areas. Both countries have doubled their economic trade in the past
few years, and China became India's largest trading partner in 2010. The are
also planning to host joint naval exercises. In 2003, China and India held
negotiations for the first time since the Sino-Indian War of 1962 on a major
border dispute: however, the dispute over Aksai Chin (formerly a part of the
Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir) and South Tibet (China) or Arunachal
Pradesh (India) is not settled and plagues Sino-Indian relations. While New
Delhi has raised objections to Chinese military-aid to arch-rival Pakistan and
neighboring Bangladesh, Beijing similarly objects to India's growing military
collaboration with Japan, Australia and the United States.
China has border and maritime disputes, including with Vietnam in the Gulf
of Tonkin and with Japan. Beijing has resolved many of these disputes. On
July 21, 2008, Russia finally resolved the last remaining border dispute along
the 4300 km border between the two countries by ceding a small amount of
territory to China. China also reached a 2000 agreement with Vietnam to
resolve some differences over their maritime borders, though disagreements
remain over some islands in the South China Sea. However, China's
opposition to the bid of two of its important neighbors India and Japan to
become permanent members of the UN Security Council has proved to be an
irritant in their respective relationships. Japan, with its large economic and
cultural influences in Asia, is seen by China as its most formidable opponent
and partner in regional diplomacy. Both sides established diplomatic relations
in 1972, and Japanese investment in China was important in the early years of
China's economic reforms and ever since.
At a national meeting on diplomatic work in August 2004, China's President
Hu Jintao reiterated that China will continue its "independent foreign policy
of peaceful development," stressing the need for a peaceful and stable
international environment, especially among China's neighbors, that will
foster "mutually beneficial cooperation" and "common development." This
policy line has varied little in intent since the People's Republic was
established in 1949, In 2011, Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi outlined plans for
an "integrated approach" that would serve China's economic development.
The international relations between China and South Korea were formally
established on August 24, 1992. Throughout the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s
the PRC recognized only North Korea while South Korea in turn recognized
only the Republic of China (Taiwan). In recent years China and South
Korea have endeavoured to boost their strategic and cooperative
Republic of China (Taiwan)
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether
Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu should remain effectively independent as
territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories
now governed by the People's Republic of China (PRC), or formally declare
independence and become the Republic of Taiwan; as well as whether its
existence and status as a state is legitimate and recognized by the international
The current situation is the result of the victory of Mao Zedong’s communists
on the nationalists in 1949, which then relocated to Formosa (later Taiwan).
Constitutionally, Taiwan claims sovereignty over the entire mainland China,
while the People’s Republic of China sees Taiwan as one of its provinces. In
July 1987, 38 years of martial law in Taiwan came an end. A new turning point
in the relations took place in 1996. In Taiwan, democratic elections were held
that year. These elections were to the chagrin of the Chinese Communist Party,
as it considers itself the sole true authority of Taiwan.
Four years later, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) led by Chen Shui-
bian won Taiwan's elections. He made a case for an independent Taiwan and
was re-elected in 2004. China wants to reunite Taiwan with the mainland. In
recent years, closer economic ties between Mainland China and Taiwan, as
well as changing public feeling towards China in Taiwan have led to an easing
of tensions between the countries. However, China will still see any unilateral
declaration of independence from Taiwan as an act of war.
China has improved ties with Russia. President Putin and President Jiang, in
large part to serve as a counterbalance to the United States, signed a Treaty of
Friendship and Cooperation in July 2001. The two also joined with the Central
Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to found
the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in June 2001. The SCO is
designed to promote regional stability and cooperate to combat terrorism in the
region. In 2007 – “Peace Mission 2007” was also signed.
Most analysts characterize present Chinese-American relations as being
complex and multifaceted. The United States and China are usually neither
allies nor enemies; the U.S. government does not regard China as an
adversary but as a competitor in some areas and a partner in others. During
the World War II, China was a close ally of the USA. At the founding of the
communist-ruled PRC in 1949, the USA did not immediately recognize the
newly established government of China. Until January 1979, the United States
recognized the Republic of China on Taiwan as the legitimate government of
China, and did not maintain diplomatic relations with the PRC on the
mainland. In the mid of the Cold War, the Sino-Soviet split provided an
opening for the US to establish ties with mainland China and use it as a
counter to the Soviet Union and its influence. It was after January 1979 that
the USA government switched recognition from Taipei to Beijing, as well as
the diplomatic relations. Relations between China and the United States have
been generally stable with some periods of tension, most notably after the
dissolution of the Soviet Union, which removed a common enemy in a world
characterized by American dominance. There are also concerns relating to human
rights in the People's Republic of China and the political status of Taiwan. There
are constant tides and strides in the Sino-U.S. relations, and diplomatic efforts
were taken to maintain the positive direction in this international relationship,
such as James R. Lilley around the 1990s. These foreign policy efforts have been
part of a general foreign policy initiative known as China's peaceful rise. On
November 15, 2005, Hu Jintao visited Seoul and spoke of the importance of both
countries' contributions for regional peace and cooperation in economic
development. The U.S Department of Defense in a 2011 report stated that China
continues to use nationalism in order to increase support for the Communist party
and to avoid internal criticism. However, this may also make it more difficult for
Chinese foreign policy moderates to calm down tensions and avoid inflexibility
during international conflicts. U.S. trade with China, which grew from $124
billion in 2003 to $162 billion in 2004.
China has placed particular emphasis on the development of “good-neighborly”
relations and “partnership” with border countries in order to prevent external
threats from exacerbating internal frictions. China has emphasized non-military
aspects of its comprehensive national power, adopting a three-pronged approach of:
• Setting aside areas of disagreement with neighboring states
• Focusing on confidence-building measures to promote ties
• Engaging in economic integration and multilateral cooperation to address shared
China has sought to isolate Taiwan in the international community, including
withdrawing official recognition from the dwindling number of African, Latin
American, and Oceanic nations that have official diplomatic relations with the
“Republic of China on Taiwan.”
China’s urgent need to acquire natural resources for its economic development,
including but not limited to energy (oil and natural gas), has led Beijing to reach
out increasingly to nations with resources avail.
Anti Americanism In China:
The term anti-Americanism, refers to opposition or hostility to the
policies, culture, society, economics, international, or superpower role of
the United States. When Mao Zedong and the Communists came to power
in 1948, he launched an anti-American campaign that intensified as China
and the U.S. fought a major undeclared war in Korea, 1950–53. One of
Mao's goals was to identify and destroy factions inside China that might
be favorable to capitalism.
Mao never intended on friendly relations with the U.S., Sheng argues.
Mao ridiculed the U.S. as a "paper tiger," occupiers of Taiwan, "the enemy
of the people of the world and has increasingly isolated itself" and
"monopoly capitalist groups."
After Mao's death and the Chinese economic reforms of the 1980s
hostility diminished sharply, and large-scale trade and
investments, as well as cultural exchanges became major factors.
The Taiwanese Strait Crisis has led China to blame the U.S. for
any issues that arise in the bilateral relationship between China
and Taiwan, as they believe that American support of Taiwan is
an effort to weaken their country. Relations became severely
strained by the NATO Bombing of the Chinese embassy in
Belgrade in May 1999, which was blamed on an intelligence error
but which some Chinese believed to be deliberate.
While the Chinese government officially condemned the
September 11 attacks, privately many Chinese citizens celebrated
news of the terrorist attacks on U.S. targets.
Between 2000 and 2009, China experienced strong economic growth,
averaging 10% a year. China’s economy now accounted for 10% of the
After China joined the WTO in 2001, exports grew rapidly. Growth of
FDI inflows stimulated China’s economic growth and China’s share in
world trade increased. Jiang Zemin changed the style of diplomacy from
careful observation to outgoing actions.
Hu Jintao, about a "harmonious world" - an expression he began
emphasizing in 2005 - was also as least partly intended to counter the notion
of China as a threat.
China is on track to overtake the United States as the world's number one
economy by 2027. At the start of 2011, China reports a total GDP of $5.88
trillion for 2010, compared to Japan's $5.47 trillion.
The String of Pearls:
String of Pearls refers to the network of
Chinese military and commercial
facilities and relationships along its sea
lines of communication, which extend
from the Chinese mainland to Port
Sudan. The sea lines run through
several major maritime choke points
such as the Strait of Mandeb, the Strait
of Malacca, the Strait of Hormuz and
the Lombok Strait, as well as other
strategic maritime centers in Pakistan,
Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Maldives
Trade War (THE EAGLE AND THE DRAGON):
Americans are increasingly disturbed by the growing economic clout of China. With
Chinese growth rates consistently above 9%, they accuse it of stealing U.S. jobs, of
keeping the Yuan undervalued by pegging it to the dollar, of exporting deflation by
selling its products abroad at unfair prices, of violating the rights of its workers to
keep labor costs low, and of failing to meet its commitments to the WTO. Most of
these charges have little merit. But the misunderstandings behind them have opened
the way to a trade war between the United States and China one that, if it escalates,
could do considerable damage to both sides. China is not stealing U.S. jobs or
engaging in unfair trade practices to undercut U.S. economic might and export its
way to global power. In fact, almost 60% of Chinese exports to the United States are
produced by firms owned by foreign companies, many of them American. U.S.
importers with dominant positions in China, such as Wal-Mart and Hallmark, have
the power to compel Chinese suppliers to keep their costs as low as possible. Wal-
Mart alone purchased $18 billion worth of Chinese goods in 2004, making it China's
eighth-largest trading partner ahead of Australia, Canada, and Russia.
Analyzing Foreign Policy:
China’s political influence over other nations or events is
generally still limited. China can therefore be seen as a global actor
but not (yet) as a true global power, as argued by David Shambaugh
as well. There is no single defined foreign policy in China. Rather,
foreign policies are closely linked to domestic policies, are reactive
to certain events and are resource driven.
Nationalism is also a key enduring driving force that has shaped
China’s foreign policy. The over-arching driving factor behind
foreign policy in China, and the common denominator to most of
China’s global activities, is China’s own domestic economic
development. China does not view itself as a superpower or a
The Chinese government’s interests remain strongly inward
looking and focused on the development of China becoming a strong,
independent and wealthy country. Its diplomacy remains risk-averse
and guided by national interests. Although China is a regional
superpower and global economic powerhouse, it is not (yet) a
diplomatic global superpower. China’s diplomacy is usually adopting
the safest and least controversial position. Exceptions here are
Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang, human rights and its maritime territorial
claims. Other than protecting these narrow national interests, Chinese
diplomacy remains extremely passive for a nation of its size and
China’s essentially defensive posture and keen desire for a peaceful
international environment to allow focus on its domestic challenges
provide hope for cooperation with the United States (and others) to
sustain regional stability and common development.
Questions remain about future Chinese foreign policy, however,
particularly as China becomes stronger; for instance, how will
overlapping territorial claims in the South China Sea, East China Sea,
and along its western border (with India) be resolved? How will China
apply its growing political and economic power should its domestic
China’s “energy diplomacy” has led to close relationships with
unsavory regimes, which has raised questions about China’s role as a
responsible international actor.